24 cm Kanone M. 16
The 24 cm Kanone M.16 was a super-heavy siege gun used by Austria-Hungary during World War I and by Nazi Germany during World War II. During World War I, one gun served on the Western Front, during World War II, they saw action in the Battle of France, Operation Barbarossa and the Siege of Leningrad. The Austro-Hungarian Army was very pleased with its large siege howitzers like the 42 cm Haubitze M. 14/16, the Army asked Škoda to design a gun able to destroy important targets deep in the enemys rear in 1916. To save time and resources, it was designed in concert with the 38 cm Belagerungshaubitze M16 and used the same carriage, the gun used the forward trunnion mounts on the carriage, while the howitzer used the rear ones. Some sources claim that the gun was adapted from Škodas 1901 naval gun of the calibre and length. The 40-caliber barrel was constructed of twelve parts, notably the inner tube, the hydro-pneumatic recoil system was mounted on the cradle above the gun. It used the horizontal sliding block breech as the 38 cm Belagerungshaubitze M16.
The gun carriage rested on a box or bedding platform which measured 6.5 metres long,5.2 metres wide and 1.4 metres high. The base box incorporated a turntable resting on a ball race capable of 360° traverse. At the rear of the turntable was a 2 tonnes tilting crane used to move ammunition from the cart to the roller race and to help assemble the roller race. The roller race was mounted directly behind the gun on four tilting arms and it was followed by a cartridge case containing the propellant. While the gun was being elevated to its firing angles between +10° and +41°30 the roller race was lowered out of the path of the gun. The gun was transported in four loads, the barrel, each load was carried by an eight-wheeled electric-powered trailer with the electricity provided by a Daimler Artillery Generator truck M.16, designed by Ferdinand Porsche. The 6-cylinder,20.32 litres gasoline engine powered two electric generators which fed electric motors in each wheel of the trailer and the wheels of the truck.
Top speed was 14 kilometres per hour, the solid rubber tires could be removed and the trucks could tow their trailers on the rails. For longer distances they could be towed by ordinary locomotives, one additional truck towed the ammunition trailer, which carried 28 rounds with their cartridge case as well as the loading crane. It took eight to twenty hours in soft soil or gravel to excavate the large firing pit required to hold the halves of the base box, six to eight hours were required to actually assemble the gun itself. Each half of the box was maneuvered into position on rails that ran along each side of the pit and it was jacked up off the wagon
15 kV AC railway electrification
The 15 kV,16.7 Hz AC railway electrification system is used in Germany, Switzerland and Norway. The high voltage enables high power transmission with the lower frequency reducing the losses of the motors that were available at the beginning of the 20th century. In particular, the Gotthard Base Tunnel still uses 15 kV,16.7 Hz electrification, the first electrified railways used series-wound DC motors, first at 600 V and 1,500 V. Areas with 3 kV DC catenaries used two 1,500 V DC motors in series, but even at 3 kV, the current needed to power a heavy train can be excessive. Although increasing the voltage decreases the current and associated resistive losses for a given power. Transformers on each locomotive are thus required to step high transmission voltages down to practical motor operating voltages, because transformers require alternating current, high voltage electrified railways adopted AC along with the electric power distribution system. The 50 Hz AC grid was established at the beginning of the 20th century.
Although series-wound motors can in principle run on AC as well as DC large series-wound traction motors had problems with high frequencies. High inductive reactance of the motor windings caused commutator flashover problems, using a lower AC frequency alleviated both problems. In the German-speaking countries, high-voltage electrification began at 16 2⁄3 hertz, for example, a generator turning at 1,000 rpm would be wound with two poles rather than six. Norway has two power plants dedicated for railway power with 16 2⁄3 hertz output. This was solved by shifting the frequency slightly away from exactly ⅓ the grid frequency,16.7 hertz was arbitrarily chosen to remain within the tolerance of existing traction motors. Austria and Southern Germany switched their power plants to 16.7 Hz on 16 October 1995 at 12,00 CET. Note that regional electrified sections run by synchronous generators keep their frequency of 16 2⁄3 Hz just as Sweden, low frequency transformers need to have heavier magnetic cores and larger windings for the same level of power conversion.
The heavier transformers lead to higher loads than for those of a higher frequency. This, in turn, leads to increased wear and increases the need for more frequent track maintenance. The Czech Railways encountered the problem of the power handling of lower frequency transformers when they rebuilt some 25 kV AC,50 Hz locomotives to operate on 15 kV AC,16.7 Hz lines. Most other countries electrified their railways at the utility frequency of 50/60 Hz, newer European electrification is mostly 25 kV AC at 50 Hz
'Tis Pity She's a Whore
Tis Pity Shes a Whore is a tragedy written by John Ford. It was likely first performed between 1629 and 1633, by Queen Henriettas Men at the Cockpit Theatre, the play was first published in 1633, in a quarto printed by Nicholas Okes for the bookseller Richard Collins. Ford dedicated the play to John Mordaunt, 1st Earl of Peterborough, the plays treatment of the subject of incest made it one of the most controversial works in English literature. The play was omitted from an 1831 collection of Fords plays, its title has often been changed to something euphemistic such as Giovanni. Until well into the century, critics were usually harsh in their condemnations. The subject matter offended them, as did Fords failure to condemn his protagonist, instead of stressing the villainy, Ford portrays Giovanni as a talented and noble man who is overcome by a tumultuous passion that brings about his destruction. Since the mid-twentieth century and critics have shown more tolerance, Bonaventura tries to convince Giovanni that his desires are evil despite Giovannis passionate reasoning, and eventually persuades him to try to rid himself of his feelings through repentance.
Annabella, meanwhile, is being approached by a number of suitors, including Bergetto and she is not interested in any of them and when Giovanni finally tells her how he feels, she requites his love immediately. Annabellas tutoress Putana encourages the relationship, Soranzo leaves and his servant Vasques promises to help Hippolita get revenge on Soranzo, and the pair agree to marry after they murder him. However, Richardetto is not dead but in Parma with niece Philotis and he convinces Grimaldi that to win Annabella, he should stab Soranzo with a poisoned sword. Annabella resigns herself to marrying Soranzo, knowing she has to choose someone and she subsequently falls ill and it is revealed that she is pregnant. Friar Bonaventura convinces her to marry Soranzo before her pregnancy becomes apparent, meanwhile and Florio go to the cardinals house, where Grimaldi has been in hiding, to beg for justice. The cardinal refuses due to Grimaldis high status and instead sends him back to Rome, Florio tells Donado to wait for God to bring them justice.
Annabella and Soranzo are married soon after, and their ceremony includes masque dancers and she claims to be willing to drink a toast with Soranzo, and the two raise their glasses and drink, on which note she explains that her plan was to poison his wine. Vasques comes forward and reveals that he was loyal to his master. She dies spouting insults and damning prophecies to the newlyweds, seeing the effects of anger and revenge, Richardetto abandons his plans and sends Philotis off to a convent to save her soul. When Soranzo discovers Annabellas pregnancy, the two argue until Annabella realises that Soranzo truly did love her, and finds herself consumed with guilt and she is confined to her room by her husband, who plots with Vasques to avenge him against his cheating wife and her unknown lover. On Soranzos exit, Putana comes onto the stage and Vasques pretends to befriend her to gain the name of Annabellas babys father
2raumwohnung are a German electro-pop duo that was formed in 2000 in Berlin. Its two members are singer, Inga Humpe, and her partner, Tommi Eckart. They reached the point of their career to date with the album 36 Grad. Their most successful single has been the eponymous title song. 2raumwohnung have appeared internationally, e. g. at Expo 2010, the band releases its music on their own record label it-sounds. 2raumwohnung first met in East Berlin where they both settled shortly after German reunification in 1990, the bands first appearance was in Sternradio in 2001, a legendary club at Alexanderplatz. Before their formation as a band, the duo had been collaborating as a studio project, recordings from that period were used in advertisements, such as for Imperial Tobaccos Cabinet brand and for HypoVereinsbank. The group released its debut album under the title Kommt zusammen on July 2,2001 and it included a total of 13 songs and was ultimately released by Goldrush on the record label BMG. The reviews were positive and ranged from a new feeling of lightness to esoteric childrens disco.
Due to successful sales, a version of Kommt zusammen. In wirklich appeared in September of the year and ruthered the bands success that had been established with the debut album. Although some critics felt it was lacking the charm of their previous album. 2raumwohnung had the following to say during the release of In wirklich, in wirklich earned 2raumwohnung the German Dance Award for Best Album. Their next album, Es wird Morgen, soon followed in August 2004, reviewers felt the songs echoed the musical stylings of the 80s. Reviewers felt that 2raumwohnung exhibited an impressive musical maturity, even though a lack of relevance was simultaneously mentioned. The record was performed live on tour throughout Germany and various neighboring European countries, with Jansen, the summer album, Melancholisch schön, followed in 2005 and featured twelve of the bands most well-known songs, which were re-recorded and remixed in Bossa Nova style. The album included Sexy Girl, a single that had previously released on Kommt zusammen.
In 2005, 2raumwohnung received the Goldene Stimmgabel for Best Duo, in February 2007, following after a short break, 2raumwohnung composed two singles with Peter Plate from Rosenstolz and producer Ulf Leo Sommer for the album 36 Grad
The Ndràngheta is organized crime centered in Calabria, Italy. A US diplomat estimated that the narcotics trafficking, extortion. Since the 1950s, the organization has spread towards Northern Italy, according to a 2013 Threat Assessment on Italian Organised Crime of Europol, the Ndrangheta is among the richest and most powerful organised crime groups at a global level. In 1861 the prefect of Reggio Calabria already noticed the presence of so-called camorristi, since the 1880s, there is ample evidence of Ndrangheta-type groups in police reports and sentences by local courts. At the time they were often being referred to as the picciotteria, onorata società or camorra, an 1897 sentence from the court in Palmi mentioned a written code of rules found in the village of Seminara based on honour, violence and mutual assistance. In the folk culture surrounding Ndrangheta in Calabria, references to the Spanish Garduña often appear, aside from these references, there is nothing to substantiate a link between the two organizations.
In many areas of Calabria the verb ndranghitiari, from the Greek verb andragathízesthai, the first time the word Ndrangheta was mentioned before a wider audience was by the Calabrian writer Corrado Alvaro in the Corriere della Sera in September 1955. Until 1975, the Ndrangheta restricted their Italian operations to Calabria, mainly involved in extortion and their involvement in cigarette contraband expanded their scope and contacts with the Sicilian Mafia and the neapolitan Camorra. With the arrival of public works in Calabria, skimming off public contracts became an important source of income. Disagreements over how to distribute the spoils led to the First Ndrangheta war killing 233 people, the prevailing factions began to kidnap rich people from northern Italy for ransom. It is believed that John Paul Getty III, kidnapped for ransom in 1973, was one of their victims, the Second Ndrangheta war raged from 1985 to 1991. The bloody six-year war between the Condello-Imerti-Serraino-Rosmini clans and the De Stefano-Tegano-Libri-Latella clans led to more than 600 deaths, the Sicilian Mafia contributed to the end of the conflict and probably suggested the subsequent set up of a superordinate body, called La Provincia, to avoid further infighting.
In the 1990s, the organization started to invest in the international drug trade. Deputy President of the parliament of Calabria Francesco Fortugno was killed by the Ndrangheta on 16 October 2005 in Locri. Demonstrations against the organization ensued, with young protesters carrying banderoles reading Ammazzateci tutti, the national government started a large-scale enforcement operation in Calabria and arrested numerous ndranghetisti including the murderers of Fortugno. The Ndrangheta has recently expanded its activities to Northern Italy, mainly to sell drugs, in May 2007 twenty members of Ndrangheta were arrested in Milan. On 30 August 2007, hundreds of police raided the town of San Luca, over 30 men and women, linked to the killing of six Italian men in Germany, were arrested. On 9 October 2012, following a long investigation by the central government the City Council of Reggio Calabria headed by Mayor Demetrio Arena was dissolved for alleged ties to the group
17th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)
The 17th Panzer Division was a formation of the Wehrmacht in World War II. It was formed in November 1940 from the 27th Infantry Division and it took part in Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, and in the winter of 1941–42 participated in the Battle of Moscow. In November 1942, the division was sent to the sector of the Eastern Front where it participated in Operation Winter Storm. The division was held in reserve during the Battle of Kursk in 1943, the 27th Infantry Division was formed in October 1936 in Augsburg, Bavaria, as a peace-time division of the new German Wehrmacht. The division was mobilised on 26 August 1939 and took part in the Invasion of Poland, in 1943, a Nazi propaganda book was published about the divisions actions in France 1940, titled Über Somme, Loire. The 17th Panzer Division was formed in late 1940, when the 27th Infantry Division was converted to an armored division, in part, the 2nd Panzer Division provided personnel for the new division.
The divisions commander, Hans-Jürgen von Arnim, was wounded within the first few days of the campaign, on 24 June, but returned to his unit. His temporary replacement, Karl Ritter von Weber, was mortally wounded south of Smolensk on 17 July, the division crossed the Bug River and advanced south of Minsk, where it made contact with the 3rd Panzer Group. It took part in the Battle of Białystok–Minsk, where it recorded up to 100 Soviet tanks destroyed in a day,9 July. It crossed the river Dnjepr south of Orsha and took part in defensive operations south of Smolensk in August, in October, it took part in the run up to the Battle of Moscow, taking Bryansk on 15 October. The division was concentrated at Orel and advanced towards Tula. With the Soviet counterattack on 5 December, the division started retreating on the 8th, the division took defensive positions northeast of Orel, where it remained until the Summer of 1942. After the winter battles, the division was reconstituted near its front line positions in the summer of 1942.
It received approximately 50 tanks of the type Panzer III and Panzer IV and it was engaged in minor attacks north of Orel in September but went into defensive positions again. The division was held in Army Group Centre reserve near Bolkhov. At this stage, it only fielded 45 to 50 tanks of varying types, in October 1942, when Fridolin von Senger und Etterlin took command of the division, it had only 30 operational tanks, and one-third of its trucks were unserviceable. After Operation Uranus, the Soviet counterattack at Stalingrad, the division was transferred to Army Group B in the area of Millerovo. The operation failed however, and the division retreated at the end of December, losses were so heavy that the command of the 63rd Panzer Grenadier Regiment laid in the hands of a lieutenant, its original commander having been killed in action
10.5 cm leFH 18
The 10.5 cm leFH18 was a German light howitzer used in World War II and the standard artillery piece of the Wehrmacht, adopted for service in 1935 and used by all divisions and artillery battalions. A major advance on its predecessor the 10, the leFH18 was further developed as the leFH 18M and leFH 18/40. Beginning in 1942, self-propelled versions were created by fitting the howitzer on a Panzer II and it was used to equip German allies and neutral countries in Europe prior to and during the war. During the 1920s, the Reichswehr carried out analyses that indicated the 105mm projectile was more effective than a 75mm equivalent, on 1 June 1927, the Army Ordnance Office issued Secret Command Matter No. 59/27, calling for the development of a new field howitzer. The project was assigned Priority Level II, most important work, rheinmetall-Borsig of Düsseldorf drew up the blueprints and made the initial calculations in 1928. Design work was complete in 1930, with production commencing in the early 1930s, at the outbreak of World War II, the Wehrmacht had 4,862 leFH18 howitzers.
Deliveries from September 1939–February 1945 totaled 6,933 leFH18 on wheeled carriages, in 1943, the howitzer cost on average 16,400 RM,6 months and 3,200 man hours to make. The leFH18 improved in most areas on its predecessor, the 10.5 cm leFH16, a completely new three-point split trail gun carriage provided more stability and increased the traverse to 56 degrees. The sighting mechanism made it easier to fire at moving targets, the new gun carriage resulted in a major weight increase to over two tons. A barrel brake containing a water jacket and an equalizer in the upper carriage checked the recoil. The protective shield was a reinforced, tapered shield with flattened sides that could be folded down, the barrel was good for 10,000 to 12,000 shots. The howitzer could fire 28 different shell types, the main high explosive shell was nearly a kilogram lighter and contained a heavier explosive charge. The leFH proved an adaptable design, with a total of 28 different variants manufactured, the pre-production wooden-spoke wheels were replaced beginning in 1936 with more durable light-metal cast wheel discs and removable tires that made the howitzer easier to tow.
The motorized version was fitted with wider solid-rubber tires, a combination of wooden wheels and rubber tires was a frequent occurrence. Towards the end of the war, even older wooden wheels from the leFH16 were used, the howitzer was designed from the start to be transported either by horse or motor vehicle. The heavy weight made horse-drawn transport difficult, especially in the mud, the motorized version was attached directly without a limber to either a SdKfz 6 or Sd. Kfz. 11 prime mover and could achieve a march speed of 40 km/h
27th G8 summit
The 27th G8 summit was held in Genoa, Italy, on July 21–22,2001 and is remembered as the peak of the worldwide antiglobalization movement as well as for human crimes against demonstrators. The G8, meeting for the first time in 1997, was formed with the addition of Russia, in addition, the President of the European Commission has been formally included in summits since 1981. The G8 is an annual forum for the leaders of Canada, the European Commission, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom. The 27th G8 summit was the first summit for Japanese Prime Minister Junichirō Koizumi and these summit participants are the current core members of the international forum, Other non-G8 leaders were invited to attend and participate in the summit talks. Leaders of the major international organizations were invited to attend the summit. The summit was intended as a venue for resolving differences among its members, as a practical matter, the summit was conceived as an opportunity for its members to give each other mutual encouragement in the face of difficult economic decisions.
The overall theme of the summit was ways to reduce poverty, although the main summit was from July 20 to the 22nd, the summit was preceded by a meeting of the G8 foreign ministers on the 18th and 19th. Before the summit, significant controversies and ridicule among local people and media focused on the security plans, the Genoa Group of Eight Summit protest, from July 18 to July 22,2001, was a dramatic protest, drawing an estimated 200,000 demonstrators. Dozens were hospitalized following clashes with police and night raids by security forces on two schools housing activists and independent journalists, people taken into custody after the raids have alleged severe abuse at the hands of police. Demonstrators accused the police of brutality and denying them their right to non-violent protest and they believe that G8 summits are non-legitimate attempts by eight of the worlds most powerful governments to set the rules for the planet at large. Police and many argued that attempting to blockade a meeting is in itself a violent event.
Fears of a terrorist attack at the time had led to an air exclusion zone around the city. Only one activist, Valérie Vie, secretary of a French branch of ATTAC, managed to breach the Red Zone barrier. There were several border riots ahead of the summit, as attempted to prevent suspected activists from entering Italy. Many demonstrators were injured and dozens more arrested over the course of the event, most of those 329 arrested were charged with criminal conspiracy to commit destruction, but they were in most part released shortly thereafter because judges declared the charges invalid. Police continued to raid social centers, media centers, union buildings, over 400 protesters and about 100 among security forces were injured during the clashes. On July 20, a 23-year-old activist Carlo Giuliani of Genoa, was dead by Mario Placanica. Images show Giuliani throwing a fire extinguisher at the vehicle before he was shot
'Amr ibn al-'As
‘Amr ibn al-‘As was an Arab military commander who is most noted for leading the Muslim conquest of Egypt in 640. A contemporary of Muhammad, and one of the Sahaba, who rose quickly through the Muslim hierarchy following his conversion to Islam in the year 8 AH and he founded the Egyptian capital of Fustat and built the Mosque of Amr ibn al-As at its center. ʻAmr belonged to the Banu Sahm clan of the Quraysh, assuming he was over eighty years old when he died, he was born before 592. Amr ibn al-As was born in Arabia in the city of Mecca, al-As ibn Wail was the father of Amr ibn al-As and Hisham ibn al-Aas. He was a part of Hilf al-Fudul, before his military career, ʻAmr was a trader, who had accompanied caravans along the commercial trading routes through Asia and the Middle East, including Egypt. Amr was a shrewd, highly intelligent man who belonged to the nobility of the Quraysh and he fought with the Quraysh against Islam in several battles. As he went to fight the Muslims, he saw them praying and he was determinedly hostile to Islam.
In fact he was Quraysh’s envoy to the Negus, the ruler of Abyssinia, once he converted to Islam with Khalid ibn al-Walid, he became a great commander fighting for the Islamic cause. The first mosque to be built in Africa was erected under his patronage and is known as The Mosque of Amr ibn al-As. He came to Egypt as the commander in chief of the Muslim Arab troops in 640 AD, like the other Quraysh chiefs, he opposed Islam in the early days. ʻAmr headed the delegation that the Quraysh sent to Abyssinia to prevail upon the ruler, Aṣḥama ibn Abjar, the mission failed and the ruler of Abyssinia refused to oblige the Quraysh. After the migration of Muhammad to Medina ʻAmr took part in all the battles that the Quraysh fought against the Muslims and he commanded a Quraish contingent at the battle of Uhud. He took with him his wife, Rayta bint Munabbih ibn al-Hajjaj, ʻAmr ibn al-ʻĀs was married to Umm Kulthum bint Uqba but he divorced her when she embraced Islam. In the company of Khalid ibn al-Walid, he rode from Mecca to Medina where both of them converted to Islam in 629-30.
Abu Bakr and Abu Ubaidah ibn al Jarrah served under ʻAmr ibn al-ʻĀs in the campaign of Dhat as-Salasil and had offered their prayers behind him for many weeks. At that time, ʻAmr ibn al-ʻĀs was their chief not only in the army, ʻAmr was dispatched by Muhammad to Oman and played a key role in the conversion of the leaders of that nation and Abbād ibn Al-Juland. He was governor of the region until shortly after Muhammads death. There are some hadith regarding him and his fathers will, ʻAmr was sent by the Caliph Abu Bakr with the Muslim Arab armies into Palestine following Muhammads death