21 demands of MKS
The 21 demands of MKS was a list of demands issued on 17 August 1980 by the Interfactory Strike Committee in Poland. The first demand was the right to independent trade unions. The demands eventually led to the Gdańsk Agreement and creation of Solidarity, the charter was written up on two wooden boards and hung on the gates of the shipyard on 18 August 1980. To mark the first anniversary of the August unrest, the demands were put on display in Gdańsk’s Maritime Museum, the day after Martial Law was declared one museum worker hid them in his loft, where they remained forgotten until 1996. Now added to the UNESCO Memory of the World Register, they can be housed in Gdańsk’s Roads to Freedom exhibition. A guarantee of the right to strike and of the security of strikers, a return of former rights to, 1) People dismissed from work after the 1970 and 1976 strikes. 2) Students expelled because of their views, the release of all political prisoners, among them Edmund Zadrozynski, Jan Kozlowski, and Marek Kozlowski.
A halt in repression of the individual because of personal conviction, availability to the mass media of information about the formation of the Inter-factory Strike Committee and publication of its demands. Bringing the country out of its crisis situation by the following means, b) enabling all social classes to take part in discussion of the reform programme. Compensation of all workers taking part in the strike for the period of the strike, an increase in the pay of each worker by 2,000 złoty a month. Guaranteed automatic increases in pay on the basis of increases in prices, a full supply of food products for the domestic market, with exports limited to surpluses. The introduction of food coupons for meat and meat products, the abolition of commercial prices and sales for Western currencies in the so-called internal export companies. Reduction in the age for retirement for women to 50 and for men to 55, conformity of old-age pensions and annuities with what has actually been paid in. Improvements in the conditions of the health service.
Assurances of a number of places in day-care centers and kindergartens for the children of working mothers. Paid maternity leave for three years, a decrease in the waiting period for apartments. An increase in the allowance to 100 złoty. A day of rest on Saturday, workers in the brigade system or round-the-clock jobs are to be compensated for the loss of free Saturdays with increased leave or other paid time off
1909 in art
February 20 – Filippo Tommaso Marinettis Futurist Manifesto is first published, in the French newspaper Le Figaro. May–June – Claude Monets Water Lilies series of paintings are first exhibited, july 22 – Widowed Irish-born painter John Lavery marries Irish American painter Hazel Martyn. Guillaume Apollinaires first book of poetry is illustrated with woodcuts by André Derain, léon Bakst begins painting scenery for Sergei Diaghilevs Ballets Russes, beginning with Cleopatra. Robert Delaunay begins painting his Saint-Sévrin and Eiffel Tower series, lithuanian Jewish sculptor Jacques Lipchitz moves to Paris to study and work. Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque create the first works of analytical cubism, sonderbund westdeutscher Kunstfreunde und Künstler established in Düsseldorf. Kunsthalle Mannheim established as a permanent art gallery, reformation Wall created in Geneva by Swiss architects Charles Dubois, Alphonse Laverrière, Eugène Monod and Jean Taillens with figures by French sculptors Paul Landowski and Henri Bouchard.
Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky is commissioned by Nicholas II of Russia to begin a record in color photography of his empire, Henri Gaudier meets Sophie Brzeska at the Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève in Paris. W. W. Waterhouse – Gather Ye Rosebuds While Ye May January 16 – Clement Greenberg, January 25 – Joseph Solman, American painter. February 7 – Wilhelm Freddie, Danish painter and sculptor, february 12 – Zoran Mušič, Slovenian- born painter. February 17 – Gertrude Abercrombie, American painter, february 19 – Enrico Donati, Italian- born American Surrealist painter and sculptor. February 26 – Michel Tapié, French artist, curator, march 13 – Reynolds Stone, English wood engraver. March 22 – Milt Kahl, American animator, april 3 – Graham Stuart Thomas, English horticultural artist and garden designer. April 30 – F. E. McWilliam, Irish sculptor, may 17 – Giulio Carlo Argan, Italian art historian and politician. June 14 – Ettore DeGrazia, American impressionist, sculptor, june 26 – Wolfgang Reitherman, German-American animator.
July 13 – Marie-Thérèse Walter, mistress of Pablo Picasso, september 14 – Peter Scott, English ornithologist, painter. September 28 – Al Capp, october 13 – Herblock, political cartoonist. October 28 – Francis Bacon, Irish-born British figurative painter, november 5 – Milena Pavlović-Barili, Serbian painter and poet. November 6 – Herman Rose painter, december 25 – Philip Zec, British political cartoonist
The 4-6-2 locomotive became almost globally known as a Pacific type. The introduction of the 4-6-2 design in 1901 has been described as a milestone in locomotive progress. Nevertheless, new Pacific designs continued to be built until the mid-1950s, the type is well-suited to high speed running. The world speed record for steam traction of 126 miles per hour has been held by a British Pacific locomotive, the two earliest 4-6-2 locomotives, both created in the United States of America, were experimental designs which were not perpetuated. In 1889, the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway rebuilt a conventional 4-6-0 with trailing wheels as a means of reducing its axle load, in 1896, six Q class 4-6-2 tank locomotives were introduced on the Western Australian Government Railways. Even before Baldwin had completed the order from New Zealand, their engineers realised the advantages of the new type, the design was soon widely adopted by designers throughout the world. There are different opinions concerning the origin of the name Pacific, the design was a natural enlargement of the existing Baldwin 4-4-2 Atlantic type, but the type name may be in recognition of the fact that a New Zealand designer had first proposed it.
Usually, new arrangements were named for, or named by. In the case of the Pacific, that was the Missouri Pacific Railroad in 1902, the Pacific type was used on mainline railways around the world. During the first half of the 20th century, the Pacific rapidly became the predominant passenger steam power in North America, between 1902 and 1930, about 6,800 locomotives of the type were built by North American manufacturers for service in the United States and Canada. With exported locomotives included, about 7,300 were built in total, about 45% of these were built by the American Locomotive Company which became the main builder of the type, and 28% by Baldwin. Large numbers were used in South America, most of which were supplied by manufacturers in the United Kingdom. Africa was the continent upon which the Pacific was regularly used. The earliest African examples were built in the United Kingdom by Kitson, within a few weeks, these were followed by a German Pacific type that, although already designed in 1905, only entered service in late 1907.
The next was a British type, introduced in January 1908, by the outbreak of the First World War, the type was being widely used on the railways of Continental Europe. The Pacific type was introduced into Asia in 1907, the year that it was first used in Europe. By the 1920s, Pacifics were being used by many throughout the Asian continent. In 1923, the Pacific gave its name to Arthur Honeggers orchestral work, Pacific 231, during the first two decades of the 20th century, the Pacific wheel arrangement enjoyed limited popularity on tank locomotives
The 7TP was a Polish light tank of the Second World War. A development of the British Vickers 6-ton, it was better armed than its most common opponents. A standard tank of the Polish Army during the 1939 Invasion of Poland and its chassis was used as the base for C7P artillery tractor. The 7TP was the Polish development of the British Vickers 6-ton Mark E tank licence, about 132 tanks were produced between 1935 and the outbreak of the war, plus four iron prototypes. The designation 7TP meant 7 Tonne, although 7TP is often claimed to be the worlds first diesel-powered tank, this distinction actually goes to Japanese Type 89B I-Go Otsu, produced with a diesel engine from 1934 onwards. Barring that, the claim of a first purpose-designed diesel-powered tank is tied with Type 95 Ha-Go, whose series production commenced in 1935. Like its British predecessor, the 7TP was initially produced in two variants, twin turret version armed with 2 Ckm wz.30 machine guns, and a single turret version, armed with 37 mm Bofors wz.37 gun.
After initial tests, it clear that the twin-turret variant was obsolete and lacked firepower. Prior to the outbreak of World War II most of the twin turret tanks were converted to single turret versions and it is to be noted that twin and single turret variants had no specific designations. In some modern books they are unofficially designated 7TP dw. in 1938 Państwowe Zakłady Inżynierii produced 13 prototype models of a better armored version of the 7TP – the 9TP. Although the 9TP never entered production, these prototypes were used in the defense of Warsaw in September 1939, romania sent a military commission in late autumn 1935 to evaluate the 7TP for a future acquisition. All 7TP tanks took part in combat in the defence of Poland during the German Invasion of Poland in 1939, most of them were attached to two light tank battalions. The remaining tanks, that is the used for training as well as tanks that were finished after the outbreak of the war, were used in an improvised tank unit fighting in the defence of Warsaw.
Although technically superior to any of the German light tanks of the era, the 1st Light Tank Battalion fought in the ranks of the Prusy Army as part of the strategic reserve force of the Polish Army. It entered combat on September 4,1939 and fought with distinction in a variety of roles, mostly as a mobile reserve and it fought in a number of battles, most notably in the battles of Przedbórz, Sulejów, Inowłódz, Odrzywół and Drzewica. On September 8 it managed to stop the German advance on the centre of the Polish forces, but the following day it got separated from the main force and had to be withdrawn to the rear. As part of unit, the battalion took part in the Battle of Józefów and formed part of the spearhead of the Polish units trying to break through to Lwów. After the Battle of Tomaszów Lubelski, on September 21,1939, the tanks were destroyed by their crews
1962 LOT Vickers Viscount Warsaw crash
The 1962 LOT Vickers Viscount Warsaw crash occurred on 19 December 1962 when a Vickers Viscount 804, operated by LOT Polish Airlines on a flight from Brussels to Warsaw, crashed on landing. The plane was returning from Brussels, had a landing in Berlin from where it took off at 5,55 pm. While on approach on runway 33 in Warsaw at 7,30 pm the crew received landing clearance,46 seconds the plane crashed and burned 1335 meters from the threshold. It stated there was no explosion mid-air and all damage was a result of the crash. The plane was landing in harsh, Winter weather conditions, with dense fog, 6/8 overcast, fractostratus clouds at 250 meters, 7-km visibility. One of the causes of stalling due to low speed was attributed to turboprop engines features which change the propellers pitch during acceleration. Hence sudden throttle increase is not recommended, such a maneuver was probably executed by the Captain who was accustomed to flying piston engine aircraft in which such maneuvers are allowed.
The Vickers Viscount 804 was recently bought from British United Airways, official accident causes, Crew error Crew training errors There is a possibility that one of the NDB during approach was broken unbeknown to the crew. Aviation Safety Network accident description ICAO Accident Digest No 14 Volume II Circular 71-AN/63, no.27 – report extract
During the second half of the nineteenth and first half of the twentieth centuries, the 4-6-0 was constructed in large numbers for passenger and mixed traffic service. The primary limitation of the type was the size of the firebox. In passenger service, it was superseded by the 4-6-2 Pacific type whose trailing truck allowed it to carry a greatly enlarged firebox. For freight service, the addition of a driving axle created the 4-8-0 Mastodon type, which was rare in North America. The 4-6-0T locomotive version was a far less common type, during the First World War, the type was used on narrow gauge military railways. In 1907, five 6th Class locomotives of the Cape Government Railways were sold to the 3 ft 6 in Benguela Railway and these included one of the Dübs-built locomotives of 1897 and two each of the Neilson and Company and Neilson and Company-built locomotives of 1897 and 1898. In the mid-1930s, in order to ease maintenance, modifications were made to the running boards, the former involved mounting the running boards higher, thereby getting rid of the driving wheel fairings.
This gave the locomotives a much more American rather than British appearance, in April 1951, three Class NG9 locomotives were purchased from the South African Railways for the Caminhos de Ferro de Moçâmedes. They were placed in service on the Ramal da Chibía, a 600 mm gauge line across 116 kilometres from Sá da Bandeira to Chiange. The locomotives were observed dumped at the Sá da Bandeira shops by 1969, the line through Bechuanaland Protectorate was still under construction and was operated by the CGR on behalf of the BR at the time. The locomotives were returned to the CGR. The Finnish State Railways operated the Classes Hk1, Hk2, Hk3, Hk5, Hv1, Hv2, Hv3, Hv4, Hr2, the Class Hk1, numbers 232 to 241, was built by Baldwin Locomotive Works in 1898. The ten Baldwin locomotives were originally designated H1 class, numbers 291 to 300 and 322 to 333 were built by the Richmond Locomotive Works in 1900 and 1901. The 22 Richmond locomotives were originally designated H2 class and were nicknamed Big-Wheel Kaanari, another 100 of these locomotives were manufactured in Finland from 1903 to 1916, numbered in the range from 437 to 574 and initially designated H3 to H8 classes.
The Class Hk5 was numbered from 439 to 515, the Class Hv1 was built from 1915 by Tampella and Lokomo. They were nicknamed Heikki and were numbered 545 to 578 and 648 to 655, the class remained in service until 1967. One, no.555 named Princess, is preserved at the Finnish Railway Museum, the Class Hv2 was built by Berliner Maschinenbau and Lokomo in the years between 1919 and 1926. They were numbered 579 to 593,671 to 684 and 777 to 780, the Class Hv3 was built by Berliner and Lokomo in the years from 1921 to 1941
40th Army (Soviet Union)
The Army became the core for the Soviet occupational force in Afghanistan in 1980s, officially named as the limited contingent of Soviet forces in Afghanistan. By 25 August 1941 the 135th and 293rd Rifle Divisions, 2nd Airborne Corps, 10th Tank Division, and 5th Anti-Tank Brigade had been assembled to form the force. As part of the Southwestern Front, it took part in the Battle of Kiev, where the Army was badly shattered. By the time of the main German offensive against Moscow at the end of September, 40th Army began a slow and steady retreat to the east. By 3 November 40th Army had been driven from Kursk, the advance of 40th Army was less rapid. 40th Army retook Tim and advanced to within 30 kilometres of Kursk before being stopped by determined German resistance in mid-January, thereafter the frontline stabilised west of Tim through the rest of the winter and through the spring. On 3 April 40th Army and its sector of the frontline was assigned to the command of Bryansk Front, on 12 May 1942 Southwestern Front launched a major offensive to retake Kharkov by an encirclement from north and south.
At the same time Bryansk Front was preparing an offensive of its own to retake Orel, this hurriedly prepared offensive by 40th Army in the second half of May made little progress. In June 1942, Operation Blau saw Hoths Fourth Panzer Army thrust in full force against 40th Army, the 40th Army fell back from the Kastornoye area back to Voronezh, alongside the 4th, 17th, and 24th Tank Corps. In response, the STAVKA hastened to establish the new Voronezh Front, during July, 40th Army, subordinated to Voronezh Front, was assigned to defend the river Don along the Liski - Pavlovsk sector, positions that it held throughout the remainder of 1942. On 12 January 1943 40th Army began offensive operations against the flank of the Hungarian Second Army north of Liski. This offensive was coordinated with an attack by a Soviet tank army further south to surround Axis forces on the Liski - Novaya Kalitva sector of the Don front, by 18 January most of the Hungarian army and an Italian corps had been surrounded east of Alekseyevka.
Having barely completed this operation, on 2 February 40th Army was launched into an offensive on the Kharkov axis to the southwest and it took Novy Oskol on 5 February and reached Belgorod four days later. These defensive positions, which were to part of the southern face of the Kursk Salient, remained largely unchanged through April, May. In March 1943 6th Pontoon Bridge Brigade joined the army, on 5 July 1943 Germanys last strategic offensive on the Eastern Front opened with attacks on the northern and southern shoulders of the Kursk Salient. The objective was to envelop and destroy the defending Central and Voronezh Fronts north and south of Kursk, 40th Army transferred a tank brigade to 38th Army at the same time. After the battle, it was involved in the crossing of the Dnepr in September 1943 in conjunction with airborne operations and it fought in the Battle of Debrecen, at which, due to its low priority, it only had five divisions assigned. 40th Army was disbanded in July 1945, the Army was re-created on December 16,1979 in the Turkestan Military District on the directive of the General Staff of the USSR Armed Forces
11th Armoured Cavalry Division
The 11th Armoured Cavalry Division draws its history in a straight line from the formation in March and April 1945, in the region of Łódź of the 11th Infantry Division. In March 1949, on the basis of the 11th Infantry Division, the 6th Tank Regiment, and the 25th Armored Artillery Regiment, the division became a part of the 2nd Armoured Corps. On September 4,1956, the 2nd Armoured Corps headquarters stood down and this iteration was structured and quartered as, In summer 1957 the reorganization of the division was carried out, and in April 1963 it reorganized as the 11th Armoured Division. In August and September 1968, the 11th Armoured Division was one of the Polish units that took part in the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, the 11th Armoured Division was structured and quartered as, In 1990 the division was reorganized as the 11th Mechanised Division. In September 1991 the division lost the distinguished name Dresden, in July 1992, the type-designation armoured cavalry was granted, although the division was eventually restructured as a regular armoured division.
The new type designation recalled the service of pre-war and Second World War Western Front Polish armoured units, zarys dziejów, Wydawnictwo Chroma, Żary 2005, wyd. I, ISBN 83-922412-3-1 Zdzisław Sawicki, Mundur i odznaki Wojska Polskiego, czas przemian, Bellona,199711 Lubuska Armoured Cavalry Division Map locating division units
4th Rifle Division (Poland)
This article is about the Polish 4th Rifle Division. Under the command of General Lucjan Żeligowski, it operated as an ally of the White movement from autumn 1918 to August 1919 in southern Russia and Bessarabia, the 4th Rifle Division could trace its origins to the Polish 2nd Corps in Russia. The Polish 5th Rifle Division found itself fighting in the territories of the former Russian Empire. Nonetheless this meant that the soldiers of the 2nd Corps were fighting the Bolsheviks, in October 1918 General Lucjan Żeligowski assumed command of the Polish forces in the east from General Haller. At the same time, General Alekseev died, and General Anton Ivanovich Denikin assumed the command of the White forces in the region, the local Polish forces were reorganized into the Polish 4th Rifle Division, subordinated to the 2nd Corps of the Blue Army of General Józef Haller. By the end of January 1919 the division numbered over 2800 men, at that time Piłsudski ordered the Polish units in the far East to move close to the core Polish territory.
Denikin, who received this order through French General Ferdinand Foch, ordered Żeligowski to move to Odessa, Żeligowski reorganized and strengthened the units in the area, and in December 1918 he found himself facing the Ukrainian forces of Symon Petlura. Reinforced by French and Greek troops, it helped to secure Odessa as part of the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, in March 1919 the unit numbered about 3000 men, including a sizeable cavalry contingent. By the end of March the division, and the Allied forces, were no longer fighting the Ukrainians, Żeligowski was able to influence the placement of his unit, and until May the division successfully screened the retreat of Allied troops from Odessa towards the Romanian lines in Bessarabia. Near the end of May the division was relieved and finally transported to Poland and it was the only major Polish military formation that took part in the Russian Civil War and managed to return to Poland as a functioning unit. The division took part in the last phase of the ongoing Polish-Ukrainian War, starting from the area near Chernivtsi and this time it was not fighting Petliura, but one of the other Ukrainian factions, the West Ukrainian National Republic.
From 11 to 13 July the division fought its first battle near a town with a sizeable Polish population in the area, on 19 July 1919 the division was reformed into the Polish 10th Infantry Division and took part in the major conflict of that time, the Polish-Soviet War. Inne polskie formacje zbrojne w Rosji 1918-1920 Polskie formacje wojskowe podczas I wojny światowej 4th Infantry Division