The hoard is often known as the Bactrian gold. The ornaments include necklaces set with stones, medallions. After its discovery, the hoard went missing during the wars in Afghanistan, until it was rediscovered, a new museum in Kabul is being planned where the Bactrian gold will eventually be kept. The heavily fortified town of Yemshi-tepe, just five kilometres to the northeast of modern Sheberghan on the road to Akcha, is half a kilometre from the now-famous necropolis of Tillia-tepe. Several coins dated up to the early 1st century CE, with none dated later, a silver coin was found in one of the tombs from the reigns of the Parthian king Mithridates II, who ruled c. The coin was found in tomb III, and was held in the hand of the defunct woman. An imitation gold coin of Parthian King Gotarzes I was found in the hand of the defunct woman in tomb 6. The fact that this coin is in gold, and not silver or bronze as is usually the case for Parthian coinage, the coin is counterstamped with the frontal depiction of what might have been a local chieftain.
The counterstamp was added so as to not damage the portrait of the Parthian king, a gold coin was found in tomb III showing the bust in profile of the wreath-crowned Roman Emperor Tiberius. On the reverse is an enthroned, sumptuously draped female figure holding a spray, coins of this type were minted in the city of Lugdunum in Gaul, between 16 and 21 CE. A Buddhist gold coin from India was found in tomb IV, on the reverse, it depicts a lion with a nandipada, with the Kharoshthi legend Sih vigatabhay. On the obverse, an almost naked man wearing an Hellenistic chlamys. The legend in Kharoshthi reads Dharmacakrapravata and it has been suggested that this may be an early representation of the Buddha. Finally, a worn coin has been identified as belonging to the Yuezhi chieftain Heraios. It is thought that the site belonged to Sakas, although some suggest the Yuezhi or eastern Parthians as an alternative, several of the artifacts are highly consistent with a Scythian origin, such as the royal crown or the polylobed decorated daggers discovered in the tombs.
Several of the defuncts exhibited ritual deformation of the skull, a practice which is documented among Central Asian nomads of the period. These pieces have much in common with the famous Scythian gold artifacts recovered thousands of kilometers west on the banks of the Bosphorus, a high cultural syncretism pervades the findings, however. The artifacts were intermixed with items coming from much farther and this seems to be a testimony to the richness of cultural influences in the area of Bactria at that time
Tomb of Genghis Khan
The location of the tomb of Genghis Khan has been the object of much speculation and research. Genghis Khan asked to be buried without markings or any sign and he asked to be buried with his six cats while they were alive so their purrs can guide him to the afterlife to the land under the big blue sky. After he died, his body was returned to Mongolia and presumably to his birthplace in the Khentii Aimag, according to one legend, the funeral escort killed anyone and anything that crossed their path, in order to conceal where he was finally buried. After the tomb was completed, the slaves who built it were massacred, the Genghis Khan Mausoleum is his memorial, but not his burial site. Folklore says that a river was diverted over his grave to make it impossible to find. Other tales state that his grave was stampeded over by many horses, that trees were planted over the site. The Erdeni Tobchi claims that Genghis Khans coffin may have been empty when it arrived in Mongolia, the Altan Tobchi maintains that only his shirt and boots were buried in the Ordos.
Turnbull tells another legend in which the grave was re-discovered 30 years after Genghis Khans death, according to this tale, a young camel was buried with the Khan, and the camels mother was found weeping at the grave of its young. Marco Polo wrote that, even by the late 13th century, the Secret History of the Mongols has the year of Genghis Khans death but no information concerning his burial. Marco Polo writes of Genghis Khans death, But at the end of six years he went against a certain castle that was called CAAJU. A great pity it was, for he was a valiant man, other sources name the area of the Burkhan Khaldun mountain as his burial site. The area near the Burkhan Khaldun was called the Ikh Khorig and this 240 square-kilometre area was sealed off by the Mongols, with trespassing being punishable by death. Only within the last 20 years has the area open to western archaeologists. On October 6,2004, Genghis Khans palace was discovered, amateur archaeologist Maury Kravitz dedicated 40 years to his search for the tomb.
In a 15th-century account of a French Jesuit, he found a reference to a battle where Genghis Khan, at the time still known as Temüjin. Kravitz, convinced that Temüjins grave would be near that battlefield, attempted to find the Bruchi river, which turned out to be unknown to cartographers. He did, discover a toponym Baruun Bruch in the area in question, Maury Kravitz died in 2012, without finding the tomb. Dr. Albert Yu-Min Lin leads an international crowdsourcing effort, The Valley of the Khan Project attempts to discover the tomb of Genghis Khan allegedly using non-invasive technology on this area and his team uses technology platforms for ground and satellite-based remote sensing
About 25000 inscriptions found in Karnataka belongs to Kannada rulers like Kadambas, Western Ganga Dynasty, Chalukya and Vijayanagara Empire. Many inscriptions related to Buddhism and Jainism are unearthed, the inscriptions generally found are on stone or copper plates. The Kannada inscriptions found on historical Hero Stone and temple wall, tablet, the inscriptions found are in Proto Kannada, Pre Old Kannada, Old Kannada, Middle Kannada and New Kannada. 5th century Tamatekallu inscription of Chitradurga and 500 CE Chikkamagaluru inscription, there are few Kannada words found in the edicts and inscriptions those are prior to the Christian era in places as far as Egypt. Brahmagiri rock inscription of Ashoka Ashoka rock edict at Brahmagiri in Chitradurga district is the ancient site of Ishila, an inscription there contains this most ancient Kannada word. The earliest recorded word of Kannada is Isila occurring in the Brahmagiri rock inscription of 252 BC, Tagarthi inscription A Dr. S. Shettar completed a detailed palaeographic study over 10 years, finding five to six inscriptions that are older than Halmidi inscription.
The inscription is a mix of Brahmi and Nagari scripts, one of those found at Tagarthi dates to 350 AD, during the Ganga dynasty. This study pushed the push back by at least a century. The historian Suryanath Kamath agree with the findings of Dr S. Shettar and it is mentioned in the Epigraphia Karnataka. There are Prakrit and Purvada Halegannada (Old Kannada words, the four lined inscription has six words. The inscription is in Shatavahana Brahmi and Aadi Ganga script, M. Chidananda Murthy agree that Gunabhushitana Nishadi Shasana was a Kannada inscription. Halmidi inscription The 450 AD Halmidi inscription 16-line earliest Kannada inscription found at Halmidi in Belur taluk of Hassan district on rectangular sandstone has a Vishnu Chakra on its top, the language of the inscription is in Poorvada Halegannada. Archaeologist M. H. Krishna found the Brahmi script in the inscription, shifted the inscription to Archaeological Museum, Mysore and to Government Museum in Bangalore. Epigraphia Karnataka has dedicated a chapter to study of the inscription, the linguists and writers Govinda Pai, M.
Chidananda Murthy, T. V. Venkatachala Sastry, Ram Sri Mugali, R. S. Narasimhachar, and M. M. Kalburgi studied the inscription and published papers. Writers including G. S. Gai, T. A. Gopinatha Rao, T. N. Srikantaiah, Shivarama Aithala, S. Nagaraju, S. Srikanta Sastri, M. Mariyappa Bhatta, M. B. Neginahal, K. V. Ramesh, Devarakondareddy and K. M. Hanumantha Rao have discussed the important issues raised by Halmidi inscription in their books, tamatakallu inscriptions Chitradurga district is home for most ancient inscriptions written in archaic Kannada script. As per epigraphist Dr. B. he was a favourite among women, in 1903 by the historian late B. L. Rice discovered the inscriptions, Dr. Rajashekharappa found new aspects
Annaicoddai Seal is a steatite seal that was found in Annaicoddai, Sri Lanka during archeological excavations of a megalithic burial site by a team of researchers from the Jaffna University. The seal contains some of the oldest inscriptions in Tamil-Brahmi mixed with Megalithic Graffiti symbols found on the island, read from right to left, the legend is read as ‘Koveta’. Linguists read it as in South Dravidian or early Tamil indicating a chieftain or king, similar inscriptions have been found throughout ancient Tamilakam, in modern day South India. The purpose of usage remains unclear, the evolution of an ethnic identity, The Tamils in Sri Lanka C.300 BCE to C.1200 CE. Early settlements in Jaffna, an archaeological survey
Several cities have existed on this site, which is significant for the interchange of culture and politics at a site of major strategic value. It is claimed that Merv was briefly the largest city in the world in the 12th century, the site of ancient Merv has been listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The geography of the Zend-Avesta mentions Merv along with Balkh, in Zoroastrianism, the god Ahura Mazda created Mouru as one of sixteen perfect lands. The first city of Merv was founded in the 6th century BC as part of the Achaemenid expansion into the region of Cyrus the Great, Alexander the Greats visit to Merv is merely legendary, but the city was named Alexandria for a time. After Alexanders death in 323 BC, Merv became the capital of the Province of Margiana of the Seleucid, Parthian, the Seleucid ruler Antiochus Soter renamed Merv as Antiochia Margiana, he rebuilt and expanded the city at the site presently known as Gyaur Gala. After the fall of the Seleucid dynasty, Parthia, Merv was a major city of Buddhist learning, with Buddhist monastery temples for many centuries until its Islamicization.
At the site of Gyaur Kala and Bairam Ali Buddhism was followed and practised often at the Buddhist stupa, during this period Merv was home to practitioners of various religions beside the official Sassanid Zoroastrianism, including Buddhists and Christians of the Church of the East. Between the 6th and 11th centuries AD, Merv served as the seat of an East Syrian metropolitan province, the Hephthalite occupation from the end of the 5th century to 565 a. d briefly interrupted Sassanid rule. Sassanian rule came to an end when the last Sassanian ruler, Yazdegerd III was killed not far from the city, representatives of the caliph Umar occupied the city, which became the capital of the Umayyad province of Khorasan. In 671 Ziyad ibn Abi Sufyan sent 50,000 Arab troops to Merv as a colony and this colony retained its native Kufan sympathies and became the nucleus of Khurasan. Using the city as their base, the Arabs, led by Qutayba ibn Muslim from 705 to 715, brought under subjection large parts of Central Asia, including Balkh and Fergana.
Merv, and Khorasan in general, became one of the first parts of the Persian-speaking world to become majority-Muslim, Arab immigration to the area was substantial. A Chinese captured at Talas, Du Huan, was brought to Baghdad and he observed that in Merv, Khurasan and Persians lived in mixed concentrations. After the Abbasids became established in Baghdad, Abu Muslim continued to rule Merv as a semi-independent prince until his eventual assassination, the influential Barmakid family, based in Merv, played an important part in transferring Greek knowledge into the Arab world. Throughout the Abbasid era, Merv remained the capital and most important city of Khurasan, during this time, the Arab historian Al-Muqaddasi called Merv delightful, elegant, brilliant and pleasant. Mervs architecture perhaps provided the inspiration for the Abbasid re-planning of Baghdad, the city was notable as a home for immigrants from the Arab lands as well as for those from Sogdia and elsewhere in Central Asia. In the period from 813 to 818, the residency of the caliph al-Mamun effectively made Merv the capital of the Muslim world.
During this period Merv, like Samarkand and Bukhara, functioned as one of the cities of Muslim scholarship
Ghaznī or Ghaznai, historically known as Ghaznīn or Ghazna, is a city in Afghanistan with a population of nearly 150,000 people. It is located in the central-east part of the country, situated on a plateau at 7,280 feet above sea level, the city serves as the capital of Ghazni Province. It is linked by a highway with Kandahar to the southwest, Kabul to the northeast, the foundation stone of Ghazni Airport was laid in April 2012 which now serves Ghazni and other nearby eastern Afghan provinces. Similar to many other Afghanistani cities, Ghazni as ancient city has withstood numerous military invasions, during the pre-Islamic period, the area was inhabited by various tribes who practiced different religions including Buddhism and Hinduism. Arab Muslims introduced Islam to Ghazni in the 7th century, they were followed by the 9th century Islamic conquest of the Saffarids from Zarang in the west, sabuktigin made Ghazni the capital of the Ghaznavid Empire in the 10th century. The city was destroyed by one of the Ghurid rulers, and it fell to a number of regional powers, including the Timurids and the Delhi Sultanate, until it became part of the Hotaki dynasty, which was followed by the Durrani Empire or modern Afghanistan.
During the First Anglo-Afghan War in the 19th century, Ghazni was partially destroyed by British-Indian forces, the city is currently being rebuilt by the Government of Afghanistan in remembrance of the Ghaznavid and Timurid era when it served as a major center of Islamic civilisation. The Afghan National Security Forces have established bases and check-points to deal with the Taliban insurgency, Ghazni is a trading and transit hub in central Afghanistan. Agriculture is the dominant land use at 28%, in terms of built-up land area, vacant plots slightly outweigh residential area. Districts 3 and 4 have large institutional areas, the city of Ghazni has a population of 143,379 with 4 Police districts and total land area of 3,330 Hectares. There are 15,931 total number of dwellings in Ghazni city, Ghazni was founded some time in antiquity as a small market town and is mentioned by Ptolemy. In the 6th century BC, the city was conquered by the Achaemenid king Cyrus II, the city was subsequently incorporated into the empire of Alexander the Great in 329 BC, and called Alexandria in Opiana.
Ghazni was a thriving Buddhist centre up until the 7th century, in 683 AD, Arab armies brought Islam to the region, but many refused to accept the new religion. Yaqub Saffari from Zaranj conquered the city in the late 9th century and it became the dazzling capital of the Ghaznavid Empire, which encompassed much of northern India and Central Asia. Many iconoclastic campaigns were launched from Ghazni into India, resulting in the destruction of ancient temples and palaces, the Ghaznavids took Islam to India and returned with fabulous riches taken from Indian princes and temples. Although the city was sacked in 1151 by the Ghorid Alauddin, it became their secondary capital in 1173. Between 1215 and 1221, Ghazni was ruled by the Khwarezmid Empire, in the first decades of the 11th century, Ghazni was the most important centre of Persian literature. This was the result of the policy of the Sultan Mahmud, who assembled a circle of scholars, philosophers
Tamil copper-plate inscriptions
The study of these inscriptions has been especially important in reconstructing the history of Tamil Nadu. The grants range in date from the 10th century C. E. to the mid-19th century C. E, a large number of them belong to the pandyas, the Cholas. Most of the Tamil country inscriptions were written in Tamil, but beginning in the 6th century, Indian archaeologists have discovered hundreds of inscriptions during the last 120 years. Professor E. Hultzsch began collecting South Indian inscriptions systematically from the part of 1886 when he was appointed Epigraphist to the Government of Madras. The earliest of the extant copperplate inscriptions date from the 10th century C. E, the Thiruvalangadu copperplates discovered in 1905 C. E. comprise one of the largest so far recovered and contains 31 copper sheets. The Thiruvalangadu plates contain text written in Sanskrit and Tamil and these two seem to have been written at least a decade apart. These plates record a grant made to the shrine of the goddess at Tiruvalangadu by Rajendra Chola I, the list of the legendary Chola kings forms the preamble to the Sanskrit portion of these plates.
These are five copper plates strung in a ring, the ends of which are secured with a Chola seal bearing in relief. These three figures have a bow below, a parasol and two fly-whisks at the top and a lamp on each side, arrangements made for the several services in the temple are described. Uththama Chola was an uncle and predecessor of Rajaraja Chola I, published by Archaeological Survey of India, New Delhi Government Museum, India - http, //www. chennaimuseum. org South Indian Inscriptions
Indian copper plate inscriptions
Indian copper plate inscriptions play an important role in the reconstruction of the history of India. The discovery of Indian copper plate inscriptions provided an abundance of new evidence for use in evolving a chronicle of Indias elusive history. Indian copper plate inscriptions, usually record grants of land or lists of royal lineages carrying the royal seal, plates could be used more than once, as when a canceled grant was over-struck with a new inscription. These records were probably in use from the first millennium, the earliest authenticated plates were issued by the Pallava dynasty kings in the 4th century AD and are in Prakrit and Sanskrit. Rare copper plates from the Gupta period have been found in North India, the use of copper plate inscriptions increased and for several centuries they remained the primary source of legal records. Most copper plate inscriptions record title-deeds of land-grants made to Brahmanas, the inscriptions followed a standard formula of identifying the royal donor and his lineage, followed by lengthy honorifics of his history, heroic deeds, and his extraordinary personal traits.
After this would follow the details of the grant, including the occasion, the recipient, the study of these inscriptions has been especially important in reconstructing the history of Tamil Nadu. The grants range in date from the 10th century C. E. to the mid 19th century C. E, a large number of them belong to the Chalukyas, the Cholas and the Vijayanagar kings. Tamil has the extant literature amongst the Dravidian languages, but dating the language, literary works in India were preserved either in palm leaf manuscripts or through oral transmission, making direct dating impossible. External chronological records and internal evidence, indicate that extant works were probably compiled sometime between the 4th century BCE and the 3rd century CE. Epigraphic attestation of Tamil begins with rock inscriptions from the 3rd century BCE, written in Tamil-Brahmi, between the eighth and tenth centuries, rulers on the Malabar Coast awarded various rights and privileges to Nazranies on copper plates, known as Cheppeds, or Royal Grants or Sasanam.
It is the first important inscription of Kerala, the date of which has been determined with accuracy and it is engraved on copper plates in vatteluttu and signed by 25 witnesses. Names of fifteen of them are in Kufic, ten in Pahlavi, because copper does not rust or decay, they can survive virtually indefinitely. Collections of archaeological texts from the copper-plates and rock-inscriptions have been compiled and published by the Archaeological Survey of India during the past century, approximate dimensions of copper plate is 9 3⁄4 inch long × 3 1⁄4 inch high × 1/10 inch thick. The earliest known copper-plate, known as the Sohgaura copper-plate, is a Maurya record that mentions famine relief efforts and it is one of the very few pre-Ashoka Brahmi inscriptions in India
The ancient town of Takht-i Sangin is located near the confluence of the Vakhsh and Panj rivers, the source of the Amu Darya, in southern Tajikistan. The Greco-Bactrian temple site of Takht-i Sangin is believed by many to be the source of the Oxus Treasure that now resides in the Victoria and Albert Museum and British Museum. Part of greater Transoxiana and built in the 3rd Century BC and this site was added to the UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List on November 9,1999 in the Cultural category. The Site of Ancient Town of Takhti-Sangin - UNESCO World Heritage Centre Retrieved 2009-03-04, alexander the Great and Bactria, The Formation of a Greek Frontier in Central Asia, 2nd Edition, Brill Archive
The Mintab River is a river in Sīstān va Balūchestān, Iran near Harmosia. This river is formed by adjoining of two rivers, the Roudan and Joqeen. These two rivers meet near the village of Borjegan,25 km south east of Minab city, here there is a flourishing Mangrove ecosystem. Minab River The river has a dam 2km from Minab and the valley is known for rich agricultureal produce, in ancient times, the Minab was the site of Alexandria Carmania, a Greek Colony founded by Alexander the Great in January 324B. C. After his army had reunited with Nearchus and his men who had beached their boats near the mouth of the Minab River