Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
Aberdeen Football Club are a Scottish professional football club based in Aberdeen, Scotland. They compete in the Scottish Premiership and have never relegated from the top division of the Scottish football league system since they were promoted in 1905. Aberdeen have won four Scottish league titles, seven Scottish Cups and they are also the only Scottish team to have won two European trophies, having won the European Cup Winners Cup and the European Super Cup in 1983. Aberdeen were the last club outside of the Old Firm to win a title, in 1984–85. The team has enjoyed success since this golden era, though a 19-year wait for a major trophy was ended by winning the 2013–14 Scottish League Cup. Aberdeen have played at Pittodrie Stadium since their inception, the ground currently has a capacity of 20,866 and was the first all-seated and all-covered stadium in the United Kingdom. Pittodrie was also the first football stadium to feature a dug-out, the clubs colours have been primarily red and white since 1939, before this, they played in black and gold vertical stripes. Aberdeen attract support from the city and surrounding areas, as they are the senior team within a wide area. Aberdeen have no close rivals, their nearest neighbours at the same level are in the city of Dundee. The current Aberdeen F. C. was formed following the merger of three based in the city—Aberdeen, Victoria United and Orion—in 1903. The new club played its first match on 15 August 1903 and that first season produced a win in the Aberdeenshire Cup, but only a third-place finish in the Northern League. The club applied for membership of the Scottish League for the following season, in 1904, the club were managed by Jimmy Philip. At the end of its first season, despite having finished seventh out of teams, Aberdeen were elected to the new. They have remained in the top tier of Scottish football ever since, from 1906, the club made steady progress, with a Scottish Cup semi-final appearance in 1908 and another in 1911. In that season of 1910–11, Aberdeen recorded their first victories over the Old Firm of Celtic and Rangers, and led the league for a time, wartime affected the club as much as any other, despite spending cuts and other economies, by 1917 the situation became untenable. Aberdeen dropped out of football, along with Dundee and Raith Rovers. Senior football returned on 16 August 1919, and Aberdeen resumed with a fixture against Albion Rovers, Philip was still in charge, and continued to oversee a team capable of isolated good results, but never quite able to sustain a challenge long enough to win a trophy. In 1923, Aberdeen were drawn against Peterhead in the Scottish Cup, Philip retired a year later, and was replaced as manager by Paddy Travers
Bradford City A.F.C.
Bradford City Association Football Club is a professional association football club based in Bradford, West Yorkshire, England. The team play in League One, the tier of English football. The club was founded in 1903 and immediately elected into the Football League Second Division, promotion to the top tier followed in 1908 and the club won the FA Cup in 1911, its only major honour. After relegation in 1922 from Division One, the club spent 77 years outside the top flight until promotion to the Premier League in 1999. Relegation followed in 2000–01 and since then a series of financial crises have pushed the club to the brink of closure, in the 2012–13 season, they became the first team from the fourth tier of English football to reach the League Cup Final, losing 5–0 to Swansea City. In the same season, they returned to Wembley for the playoff final, the clubs colours are claret and amber and they play home games at Valley Parade. The ground was the site of the Bradford City stadium fire on 11 May 1985 which took the lives of 56 supporters, stuart McCall, the current manager, was appointed in June 2016. C. The Football League saw the invitation as a chance to promote football in the rugby league-dominated county of the West Riding of Yorkshire. It duly elected the new club into Division Two of the league, four days later, at the 23rd annual meeting of Manningham FC, the committee decided to change code from rugby league to association football. Bradford City Association Football Club were formed without having played a game, taking over Manninghams colours of claret and amber, robert Campbell was appointed the clubs first manager and with the help of the new committee, he assembled a playing squad at the cost of £917 10s 0d. Citys first game was a 2–0 defeat at Grimsby Town on 1 September 1903, the club finished 10th in their first season. Peter ORourke took over as manager in November 1905, and he led City to the Division Two title in 1907–08, having narrowly avoided relegation in their first season in the top flight, City recorded their highest finish of 5th in 1910–11. The same season won the FA Cup, when a goal from captain Jimmy Speirs won the final replay against Newcastle United. Citys defence of the cup, which included the first Bradford derby against Bradford Park Avenue, was stopped by Barnsley after a run of 12 consecutive clean sheets. City remained in the top flight in the period up to the First World War, back in Division Two, attendances dropped and City struggled for form, with five consecutive finishes in the bottom half of the table. They suffered a relegation to Division Three in 1926–27. Two seasons later, ORourke, who had retired in 1921 following the death of his son. ORourke left for a time after one more season, and although City spent a total of eight seasons back in Division Two
Dundalk Football Club is an Irish professional association football club based in Dundalk, County Louth. The club currently plays in the League of Ireland Premier Division and are the current reigning champions, founded in 1903, it is the second most successful team, in terms of trophies won, in the history of the League of Ireland. The traditional colours of the club are white jerseys with black shorts, because of the white jerseys, the team has been nicknamed The Lilywhites. Home games are played in Oriel Park, a local rivalry is shared with Drogheda United, their Louth neighbours, who entered the League in 1963 as Drogheda FC and later became Drogheda United in 1975. In 2002, the won the FAI Cup for a ninth time. Dundalk celebrated its 2000th league game against Finn Harps on Thursday 8 March 2007 in Oriel Park to a crowd of 3,000 spectators. In 2016, the became the first Irish side to reach the play-off round of the UEFA Champions League after their shock 3–1 aggregate win over FC BATE Borisov. They were beaten by Legia Warsaw in the final play-off round and they became the first Irish side to win a group stage game in European competition when they beat Maccabi Tel Aviv 1–0 at home. The Dundalk team had beaten Institution 2nd XI 1–0, the club continued to exist until the outbreak of the First World War in 1914. However, other clubs began to make their presence felt in the locality. One in particular, the Great Northern Railway Association Club, otherwise known as the Dundalk GNR, founded in September 1903, the Dundalk GNR were located at the Athletic Grounds and competed in the Dundalk and District League from 1905 until 1914, although media coverage remained patchy. Sports coverage was re-instated in the media in 1919, with the Dundalk. Included among the teams was a representing the Dundalk GNR. The club were also partaking in the Newry League at the time, the Dundalk GNR was not involved in the fledgling League of Ireland, which began at the start of the 1921–22 season. It involved only Dublin-based clubs, all of which had stepped up from the Leinster Senior League Senior Division and this ultimately opened the way for the Dundalk GNR to move up to the Leinster Senior League. It was the club from outside the capital to compete in the 1922–23 season. The first game in the League of Ireland ended in a 2–1 loss to Fordsons on 21 August. The club, still known as the Dundalk GNR, and continuing in the black and amber kit from their pre-First World War origins, the match ended in a 2–1 defeat
Boavista Futebol Clube, commonly known as Boavista, is a Portuguese sports club from the city of Porto. Founded on 1 August 1903, by British entrepreneurs and Portuguese textile workers, it is one of the oldest clubs in the country and plays in the Primeira Liga. The club is the most eclectic in the North region of Portugal and its stadium, Estádio do Bessa, was built in 1973, although football has been played there at the former Campo do Bessa since the 1910s, and was revamped for use in Euro 2004. The club was founded on 1 August 1903, in the Boavista area, the club was founded by two English brothers, Harry and Dick Lowe, that have received an imported football from their father in England. They started to organize football matches against other teams, including another English club in the city, the club faced a great setback in 1909, after a religious dispute between the English Anglican and the Portuguese Catholic faction. While the English favoured Saturdays to play football and refused to play on Sundays, the Portuguese faction won the vote for matches on Sundays. As a result, many English members left the club, the board of the club became mainly Portuguese. Subsequently, in 1910, the name of the club was changed to its current form, Boavista Futebol Clube, the grounds were property of the Mascarenhas family, with António da Costa Mascarenhas being the first president of the club after the cision with the English members. The inauguration tooke place on 11 April 1910, in a match against Leixões S. C. with an audience of two thousand, a record for a football match in Portugal. The final result was a 3-3 draw, in 1914, Boavista won the first edition of the Porto Championship. The situation worsened after Portugal entered the war in 1916, in the following decade the club increase the number of sport practiced, and its football team played against other team that visited the city of Porto, including Real Madrid C. F. R. C. Celta de Vigo and Vasas SC from Budapest, in 1933, the club adopted its now famous chequered black and white shirts, and changed its crest to reflect their new identity. The shirts were first used in a 4-0 win in a match against S. L. Benfica on 29 January 1933. Boavista was promoted to the Primeira Liga for the first time in 1935–36, in the first participation in the league the club finished sixth place. The next year the club won their first national title after defeating União de Lisboa 5-1 in the tier of Portuguese football. Their best classication was a place in the 1951-1952. The following decade was spent on the second diviion except the 1959-1960 season where the club was back on the top flight and their lowest ebb was in 1966, when they were relegated to the Terceira Divisão. The first season promotion was very difficult
Fredrikstad Fotballklubb is a Norwegian football club from the town of Fredrikstad. With nine league championships and eleven Norwegian Cup wins, FFK is one of the most successful clubs in Norwegian football, the club was founded in 1903. After suffering relegation from the then first division in 1984, Fredrikstad spent 18 years outside the top flight, Fredrikstad stadion was FFKs home ground between 1914 and 2006. However, its facilities where outdated and the moved to a new stadium on the other side of river Glomma. Their new ground is located in a shipyard, incorporating parts of the old buildings in the two sidestands. FFK draw great support from their area and the official supporter clubs name is Plankehaugen, more than 100 coaches filled with fans followed FFK to the cup final of 2006. The clubs supporters also includes an Ultras section, Supras Fredrikstad, Fredrikstad Fotballklubb was founded on 7 April 1903. A lack of opposition meant this was in fact the third attempt at establishing a club in Fredrikstad. Finding someone in the vicinity to play against was still a problem when FFK was founded, upon his return to Sarpsborg it was suggested that he arrange for a new club to be established. The idea was received in Sarpsborg, and Sarpsborg F. C. was founded on 8 May 1903. The first match between the teams was played the year in Sarpsborg in front of 600 spectators. FFK won the historical match 4–0, Sarpsborg and Fredrikstad went on to establish the first regional series, and inspired the founding of many new clubs in the region in the years to come. FFK didnt have the red and white colours when the club was founded in 1903, in fact, they changed suits seven times from 1903 to 1927, when they finally found the one they are using now. FFK reached the Norwegian Cup final for the first time in 1932, the semifinal against Mjøndalen was played at home in front of a record 9,000 spectators, and FFK won the match 3–0. Fredrikstad met Ørn Horten in the final, winning 6–1, and were thus Norwegian Champions and this signalled the start of Fredrikstads first successful era, in which the club claimed four more cup titles before the start of World War II. FFK became the first club to win the new league, in 1937–38. During the German occupation no organised football took place, as a result of all athletes going on strike in support of the resistance, after the war football was more popular than ever, and Fredrikstad set another attendance record against Sarpsborg in the semifinal of the 1945 Norwegian Cup. There was, however, little success on the pitch, FFK reached three cup finals in four years, but lost all of them
Unione Sportiva Cremonese is an Italian football club, based in Cremona. The club was founded in 1903, Cremonese played the 2005/2006 season in Serie B, having won and were therefore relegated to Serie C1 for 2006/07. It currently plays in Lega Pro Prima Divisione and their last appearance in Serie A was in 1996. Cremonese won the Anglo-Italian Cup in 1992/93, beating English club Derby County in the final at Wembley Stadium, some of the famous players who played for Cremonese include Gianluca Vialli, Władysław Żmuda, Anders Limpar, Giuseppe Favalli, John Aloisi and Enrico Chiesa. Cremonese was in Serie A in its first season but entered a period of decline. By 1984 they had achieved promotion to Serie A, with spells in 1984–85, 1989–90. Under Luigi Simoni, Cremonese returned to Serie A in 1993, relegation resulted in the decline of the club, plummeting to Serie C2 by 2000 before achieving successive promotions back to Serie B by 2005. Giovanni DallIgna, another defender from the Serie A years, has returned to the club. However, Cremonese were relegated to Serie C1 in the 2005/2006 season, Cremonese have tried to return to Serie B since, their best attempt was in the 2009/10 season, when they were beaten by Varese in the promotion play-off final. The teams colors are red and grey, as of 29 January,2017 Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality, Serie C,3 1935/36, 1941/42, 1976/77 Serie C1,1 2004/05 Serie D,1 1967/68 IV Serie,1 1953/54 Anglo-Italian Cup 1992–93 Primavera TIM Cup,1 1986/87 Official site An unofficial site