Category:Astoria Reserve Fleet
Pages in category "Astoria Reserve Fleet"
The following 14 pages are in this category, out of 14 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 14 pages are in this category, out of 14 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Astoria, Oregon – Astoria is the seat of Clatsop County, Oregon, United States. Situated near the mouth of the Columbia River, the city was named after the American investor John Jacob Astor and his American Fur Company founded Fort Astoria at the site in 1811,206 years ago. Astoria was incorporated by the Oregon Legislative Assembly on October 20,1876 and it holds the distinction of being the first permanent United States settlement on the Pacific coast and for having the first U. S. post office west of the Rocky Mountains. Located on the shore of the Columbia River, the city is served by the deepwater Port of Astoria. The population was 9,477 at the 2010 census, the Lewis and Clark Expedition spent the winter of 1805–06 at Fort Clatsop, a small log structure south and west of modern-day Astoria. The expedition had hoped a ship would come by to take them back east, today the fort has been recreated and is now a historical park. In 1811, British explorer David Thompson, the first person known to have navigated the length of the Columbia River. He arrived just two months after the Pacific Fur Companys ship, the Tonquin, the fort constructed by the Tonquin party established Astoria as a U. S. rather than a British, settlement. It became a vital post for American exploration of the continent and was used as an American claim in the Oregon boundary dispute with European nations. The Pacific Fur Company, a subsidiary of John Jacob Astors American Fur Company, was created to begin fur trading in the Oregon Country, during the War of 1812, in 1813, the companys officers sold its assets to their Canadian rivals, the North West Company. The fur trade would remain under British control until U. S. pioneers following the Oregon Trail began filtering into the town in the mid-1840s, the Treaty of 1818 established joint U. S. – British occupancy of the Oregon Country, in 1846, the Oregon Treaty divided the mainland at the 49th parallel north, and the southern portion of Vancouver Island south of this line was awarded to the British. Washington Irving, a prominent American writer with a European reputation, was approached by John Jacob Astor to mythologize the three-year reign of his Pacific Fur Company, Astoria, written while Irving was Astors guest, cemented the importance of the region in the American psyche. The first U. S. post office west of the Rocky Mountains was established in Astoria in 1847, Astoria attracted a host of immigrants beginning in the late 19th century, Nordic settlers, primarily Finns, and Chinese soon became larger parts of the population. By the late 1800s, 22% of Astorias population was Chinese, in 1883, and again in 1922, downtown Astoria was devastated by fire, partly because it was mostly wood and entirely raised off the marshy ground on pilings. Even after the first fire, the format was used. Frantic citizens resorted to dynamite, blowing up entire buildings to stop the fire from going further, Astorias economy centered on fishing, fish processing, and lumber. The lumber industry declined, Astoria Plywood Mill, the citys largest employer, closed in 1989
2. National Defense Reserve Fleet – The NDRF is managed by the U. S. Department of Transportations Maritime Administration. It is a different entity from the United States Navy reserve fleets, NDRF vessels are at the fleet sites at James River, Virginia–the James River Reserve Fleet, Beaumont, Texas–the Beaumont Reserve Fleet, and Suisun Bay, California, and at designated outported berths. Former anchorage sites included Stony Point, New York - the Hudson River Reserve Fleet, Wilmington, North Carolina, Mobile, Alabama, Astoria, Oregon, and Olympia, Washington. Through the 2010s, the oldest, most decrepit hulls at Suisun Bay will be stripped of materials, then broken up in Texas. Twenty of the most polluting mothball ships are slated for recycling by 2012, at its peak in 1950, the NDRF had 2,277 ships in lay-up. In July 2007, it held 230 ships, primarily dry cargo ships with some tankers, military auxiliaries, by the end of August,2015, it held 100. The NDRF was established under Section 11 of the Merchant Ship Sales Act of 1946 to serve as a reserve of ships for national defense, NDRF vessels were used in seven wars and crises. During the Korean War,540 vessels were out to move military forces. During a worldwide tonnage shortfall in 1951–53, more than 600 ships were reactivated to carry coal to Northern Europe, from 1955 through 1964, another 600 ships were used to store grain for the Department of Agriculture. Another 223 cargo ships and 29 tankers were activated during a tonnage shortfall after the Suez Canal was closed in 1956, during the Berlin crisis of 1961,18 vessels were activated and remained in service until 1970. Another 172 vessels were activated for the Vietnam War and these are crewed with a reduced crew but kept available for activation within four, five, ten or twenty days. An additional 28 ships are held under United States Maritime Administration custody for other Government agencies on a cost-reimbursable basis. Vessels with military utility or logistic value are held in status and are in a preservation program that is designed to keep them in the same condition as when they enter the fleet. The internal spaces are dehumidified to slow the corrosion of metal, DC power is distributed through anodes to the exterior underwater portions of the hull, creating an electric field that suppresses corrosion and preserves the surface of the hull. External painting and other work is generally deferred since it does not affect the ability to activate and operate the vessel. MARAD is authorized as the government’s disposal agent through the NDRF program for merchant type vessels equal to or greater than 1,500 gross tons. A state agency can file an application to request title to a vessel as-is where-is from the NDRF for the purpose of creating an artificial reef, of the 132 non-retention vessels in the NDRF, there are 117 that are being prepared for disposal. The NDRF program can give and lend historic artifacts to maritime-heritage organizations, battleships, cruisers, and aircraft carriers which have been stricken or those awaiting final disposition may be transferred to MARAD locations for berthing
3. SS Red Oak Victory – SS Red Oak Victory is a U. S. military Victory ship of the Boulder Victory-class cargo ship used in the Second World War. She was preserved to serve as a ship in Richmond, California. She was one of 534 Victories built during World War II and she was named after Red Oak, Iowa, which suffered a disproportionate number of casualties in early World War II battles. The ship was active during World War II, the Korean War, Red Oak Victory was built by the Permanente Metals Corporations Richmond Number 1 Yard in Richmond, California and launched on 9 November 1944. Victory ships were not intended to be lasting, but the welds of the Red Oak Victory are still intact after 60 years. The ship is 455 feet in length, and armed with one five-inch/38 caliber gun, one three-inch/50 caliber gun, the ship was acquired by the United States Navy on 5 December 1944 and commissioned the same day as USS Red Oak Victory. Following a fitting-out period, Red Oak Victory was loaded with cargo, Red Oak Victory departed Hawaii on 10 February loaded with munitions needed in the Marshall and Caroline islands. Sent onward from Enewetak, she arrived in Ulithi on 28 February, operating out of the Philippines, she issued cargo and ammunition to various ships in the fleet through the end of the war in August 1945. During a hazardous tour of duty in the Pacific, Red Oak Victory handled many tons of ammunition, Red Oak Victory was decommissioned in 1946 and returned to the U. S. Maritime Commission. Red Oak Victory was used by the Luckenbach Steamship Company from 1947 through the 1950s, during which time the vessel went to Japan, Korea, Cuba, Pakistan, India, Singapore and Japan again. From 1968 until 1998, she was laid up in the National Defense Reserve Fleet in Suisun Bay, doomed to be scrapped, Red Oak Victory came to the attention of the Richmond Museum Association in 1993. In 1996 Congress passed legislation authorizing the conveyance of the ship to the Museum Association, Red Oak Victory was turned over to the Richmond Museum of History and returned to a new home in Richmond on 20 September 1998. She is being restored and operated by the Richmond Museum of History, National Register of Historic Places listings in Contra Costa County, California This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here, National Register of Historic Places Registration Form / S. S. SS Red Oak Victory website Red Oak Victory Historic Naval Ships Association Historic American Engineering Record No, cA-326-F, Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, SS RED OAK VICTORY, Moored at end of Dornan Drive, Pt. Richmond, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA
4. USS Bucyrus Victory (AK-234) – USS Bucyrus Victory was a Boulder Victory-class cargo ship acquired by the U. S. Navy during World War II. She served in the Pacific Ocean theatre of operations through the end of the war, earning one battle star and that exigency also precluded conversion work and limited her fitting out and shakedown periods to the absolute minimum. She completed shakedown training during the week in December, loaded cargo at Port Hueneme, California. The cargo ship arrived in Pearl Harbor on 3 January 1945, while at Pearl Harbor, Bucyrus Victory put to sea on the 9th in company with USS Texas to test the feasibility of transferring ammunition to large warships while at sea. Soon after the conclusion of that experiment, the cargo carrier headed back to the U. S. West Coast, arriving in San Francisco, California, on 20 January, after about a month, she moved to Port Chicago, California, to load ammunition bound for the western Pacific. Bucyrus Victory departed Port Chicago on 18 February, steaming independently by way of Eniwetok Atoll in the Marshall Islands, she arrived in the lagoon at Ulithi Atoll in the Eastern Caroline Islands on 8 March. There, she reported for duty to the Commander, Service Squadron 10. In company with other ships, Bucyrus Victory put to sea on 24 March to join Task Group 50.8. She steamed in company with that organization until ordered to Kerama Retto on 1 April. The ship entered the two days later and spent the next week distributing ammunition to various units of the fleet. Though enemy air attacks interrupted her work and sometimes stopped it altogether, Bucyrus Victory suffered no damage and she returned to sea on 11 April and rejoined Task Group 50.8 briefly before parting company with the replenishment group in accordance with orders directing her to Ulithi. There, the took on Okinawa-bound supplies—primarily ammunition for units of the U. S. 5th Fleet—before leaving Ulithi at the end of April. She pulled into Kerama Retto again on 3 May and resumed the work of distributing ammunition among the assembled ships. Bucyrus Victorys second tour of duty at Kerama Retto lasted a fortnight and those nuisances, however, did not prevent Bucyrus Victory from accomplishing her mission. On 17 May, she emerged unscathed from the anchorage and rejoined Task Group 50.8 in the holding area 24 hours steaming time to the east of Okinawa, a few days thereafter, the ersatz ammunition ship headed back to Ulithi. She remained at Ulithi until 4 June at which time she got underway for the Philippine Islands, from mid-June to late September, Bucyrus Victory lay at anchor in San Pedro Bay off Leyte receiving and storing ammunition. After the Japanese capitulation, her mission changed to one of providing support for the forces in the Far East
5. USS General R. L. Howze (AP-134) – USS General R. L. Howze was a General G. O. Squier-class transport ship for the U. S. Navy in World War II. The ship was crewed by the U. S. Coast Guard throughout the war and she was named in honor of U. S. Army general Robert Lee Howze. She was transferred to the U. S. Army as USAT General R. L. Howze in 1946, on 1 March 1950 she was transferred to the Military Sea Transportation Service as USNS General R. L. Howze. She was later sold for commercial operation under the name SS Austral Glen, General R. L. Howze was laid down under Maritime Commission contract 22 July 1942 by Kaiser Co. Inc. Yard 3, Richmond, California, launched 23 May 1943, gardenshire, acquired by the Navy 31 December 1943, converted to a transport by Matson Navigation Co. San Francisco, and commissioned at San Francisco 7 February 1944, Captain L. H. Baker, USCG, after shakedown off San Diego, the transport loaded supplies, embarked troops at San Francisco, and sailed 20 March 1944 for New Guinea. General R. L. Howze carried troops to Milne Bay and Lae to support the American buildup of pressure in the southwest Pacific, returning to San Francisco 2 May 1944. Subsequently, the ship steamed to Guadalcanal, Manus, Eniwetok, in November, General R. L. Howze steamed to the Philippines to bring home veterans, and sailed 10 January 1946 for England with 3,400 German prisoners. After touching at Liverpool 31 January, she brought American troops from Le Havre to New York 16 February, General R. L. Howze decommissioned at New York 1 April 1946 and was returned to WSA for transfer to the War Department. She was placed in reserve in the James River 6 August 1947, on 20 November 1949 USAT General R. L. Howze left Naples with 1,105 displaced persons from Europe and arrived in Melbourne on 17 December 1949. This voyage was one of almost 150 voyages by some 40 ships taking refugees of World War II to Australia, General R. L. Howze made one more such trip herself, arriving in Melbourne, again, with 1,316 refugees on 26 March 1950. The veteran transport was reacquired by the Navy 1 March 1950, for the next year General R. L. Howze sailed to and from Europe for the International Refugee Organization, bringing displaced persons from Eastern Europe to the United States. In mid-1951, she was transferred to the Pacific, and steamed between San Francisco or Seattle and the Far East with troop replacements for U. N. troops fighting in Korea and she continued this role during the active fighting and after the armistice. However, in September 1954, General R. L. Howze was diverted from her normal pattern of sailings to take part in Operation Passage to Freedom. For 5 months she and other Navy ships brought tens of thousands of refugees from North to South Vietnam as that country was partitioned, according to one source, General R. L. Howze held the record for the Passage to Freedom ships with 38 births on board. General R. L. Howze made two voyages to the Far East supporting Americas important readiness forces before returning to Seattle 31 December 1955. She remained inactive until entering the fleet at Astoria, Oregon,15 July 1957. The ship was returned to the Maritime Administration 17 July 1958
6. USNS Marine Adder (T-AP-193) – USNS Marine Adder was a troop ship for the United States Navy in the 1950s. She was built in 1945 for the United States Maritime Commission as SS Marine Adder, in 1950, the ship was transferred to the Military Sea Transport Service of the U. S. Navy as a United States Naval Ship staffed by a civilian crew. After ending her service in 1957, she entered the National Defense Reserve Fleet. Renamed SS Transcolorado, she was chartered by the Military Sealift Command as a cargo ship designated T-AK-2005. Marine Adder was laid down under a United States Maritime Commission contract by the Kaiser Company of Richmond, California on 7 March 1945, the ship was delivered to the War Shipping Administration for operation by its agent American President Lines on 5 October 1945. Marine Adder operated as a transport allocated to Army requirements. Marine Adder departed San Francisco early in November and sailed to Saipan where she embarked returning servicemen and she arrived at San Pedro, California in early December, then sailed on a second trooplift on 29 December. She steamed to the Marianas, the Philippines, Korea, between April and June she completed a Pacific run to Calcutta, India, and to Shanghai, China. On 13 February 1948 San Francisco Marine Adder was placed in the Maritime Commission Reserve Fleet at Suisun Bay, staffed by a civilian crew, she carried combat troops to the Far East and arrived in Korean waters on 14 December 1950. After returning to the west coast in mid-January 1951, she resumed her support of the United Nations Command in Korea less than 2 months later and continued Far Eastern runs during the Korean War. Between 6 March 1951 and 5 September 1953, she made 17 voyages out of Seattle to ports in Japan and South Korea, including Yokosuka, Sasebo, Pusan, and Inchon. After reaching San Francisco on 5 September 1953 with homeward-bound veterans of the war, Marine Adder resumed MSTS service on 4 June 1954. Steaming via Yokosuka, she arrived Haiphong on 9 September and embarked Vietnamese headed from the north to the south. Departing on 14 September, she made six runs to Vietnamese ports including Saigon and Tourane and she departed Vietnamese waters on 14 November, touched at Yokosuka the 21st, and reached Seattle on 6 December. She resumed reduced operational status on 14 December, on 24 December 1955 Marine Adder sailed again for the Far East. She reached Inchon on 11 January 1956, operated between Korean and Japanese ports until 21 January, thence returned to Seattle via San Francisco on 6 February. Placed in reduced operational status on 10 February, she remained at Seattle until 3 June 1957 when she steamed to Astoria and she entered the National Defense Reserve Fleet on 8 June 1957 and was transferred permanently to custody of the Maritime Administration on 6 June 1958. Her name was struck from the Naval Vessel Register on 6 June 1958, Marine Adder received eight battle stars for Korean service