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Pages in category "Astrobiologists"
The following 71 pages are in this category, out of 71 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Astrobiologists.|
The following 71 pages are in this category, out of 71 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Carl Sagan – Carl Edward Sagan was an American astronomer, cosmologist, astrophysicist, astrobiologist, author, science popularizer, and science communicator in astronomy and other natural sciences. He is best known for his work as a science popularizer and his best known scientific contribution is research on extraterrestrial life, including experimental demonstration of the production of amino acids from basic chemicals by radiation. Sagan argued the now accepted hypothesis that the surface temperatures of Venus can be attributed to. Sagan published more than 600 scientific papers and articles and was author, co-author or editor of more than 20 books. He wrote many science books, such as The Dragons of Eden, Brocas Brain and Pale Blue Dot. The most widely watched series in the history of American public television, the book Cosmos was published to accompany the series. He also wrote the science fiction novel Contact, the basis for a 1997 film of the same name and his papers, containing 595,000 items, are archived at The Library of Congress. Sagan always advocated scientific skeptical inquiry and the method, pioneered exobiology. He spent most of his career as a professor of astronomy at Cornell University and he married three times and had five children. After suffering from myelodysplasia, Sagan died of pneumonia at the age of 62, Carl Sagan was born in Brooklyn, New York. His father, Samuel Sagan, was an immigrant garment worker from Kamianets-Podilskyi, then Russian Empire and his mother, Rachel Molly Gruber, was a housewife from New York. Carl was named in honor of Rachels biological mother, Chaiya Clara, in Sagans words and he had a sister, Carol, and the family lived in a modest apartment near the Atlantic Ocean, in Bensonhurst, a Brooklyn neighborhood. According to Sagan, they were Reform Jews, the most liberal of North American Judaisms four main groups, both Sagan and his sister agreed that their father was not especially religious, but that their mother definitely believed in God, and was active in the temple. During the depths of the Depression, his father worked as a theater usher, according to biographer Keay Davidson, Sagans inner war was a result of his close relationship with both of his parents, who were in many ways opposites. Sagan traced his later analytical urges to his mother, a woman who had extremely poor as a child in New York City during World War I. As a young woman she had held her own ambitions, but they were frustrated by social restrictions, her poverty, her status as a woman and a wife. Davidson notes that she therefore worshipped her only son, Carl and he would fulfill her unfulfilled dreams. However, he claimed that his sense of wonder came from his father, in his free time he gave apples to the poor or helped soothe labor-management tensions within New Yorks garment industry
2. Joshua Lederberg – Joshua Lederberg, ForMemRS was an American molecular biologist known for his work in microbial genetics, artificial intelligence, and the United States space program. He was 33 years old when he won the 1958 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for discovering that bacteria can mate and he shared the prize with Edward Tatum and George Beadle, who won for their work with genetics. In addition to his contributions to biology, Lederberg did extensive research in artificial intelligence and this included work in the NASA experimental programs seeking life on Mars and the chemistry expert system Dendral. Lederberg graduated from Stuyvesant High School in New York City at the age of 15 in 1941, after graduation, he was allowed lab space as part of the American Institute Science Laboratory, a forerunner of the Westinghouse Science Talent Search. He enrolled in Columbia University in 1941, majoring in zoology, under the mentorship of Francis J. Ryan, he conducted biochemical and genetic studies on the bread mold Neurospora crassa. He went on to receive his degree in 1944. Joshua Lederberg began medical studies at Columbias College of Physicians and Surgeons while continuing to perform experiments, after making little progress at Columbia, Lederberg wrote to Edward Tatum, Ryans post-doctoral mentor, proposing a collaboration. In 1946 and 1947, Lederberg took a leave of absence to study under the mentorship of Tatum at Yale University, Lederberg and Tatum showed that the bacterium Escherichia coli entered a sexual phase during which it could share genetic information through bacterial conjugation. With this discovery and some mapping of the E. coli chromosome, Joshua married Esther Miriam Zimmer on December 13,1946. Instead of returning to Columbia to finish his degree, Lederberg chose to accept an offer of an assistant professorship in genetics at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. His wife Esther Lederberg went with him to Wisconsin and she received her doctorate there in 1950. In 1956, M. Laurance Morse, Esther Lederberg and Joshua Lederberg also discovered specialized transduction, the research in specialized transduction focused upon lambda phage infection of E. coli. Transduction and specialized transduction explained how bacteria of different species could gain resistance to the same antibiotic very quickly, during her time in Joshua Lederbergs laboratory, Esther Lederberg also discovered fertility factor F, later publishing with Joshua Lederberg and Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza. In 1957, Joshua Lederberg founded the Department of Medical Genetics at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, in 1958, Joshua Lederberg received the Nobel Prize and moved to Stanford University, where he was the founder and chairman of the Department of Genetics. He collaborated with Frank Macfarlane Burnet to study viral antibodies, with the launching of Sputnik in 1957, Lederberg became concerned about the biological impact of space exploration. In a letter to the National Academies of Sciences, he outlined his concerns that extraterrestrial microbes might gain entry to Earth onboard spacecraft and he also argued that, conversely, microbial contamination of manmade satellites and probes may obscure the search for extraterrestrial life. He advised quarantine for returning astronauts and equipment and sterilization of equipment prior to launch, teaming up with Carl Sagan, his public advocacy for what he termed exobiology helped expand the role of biology in NASA. In the 1960s, he collaborated with Edward Feigenbaum in Stanfords computer science department to develop DENDRAL, throughout his career, Lederberg was active as a scientific advisor to the U. S. government
3. Baruch Samuel Blumberg – He was President of the American Philosophical Society from 2005 until his death. Blumberg received the Nobel Prize for discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin, Blumberg identified the hepatitis B virus, and later developed its diagnostic test and vaccine. Blumberg was born in Brooklyn, New York, the son of Ida and Meyer Blumberg and he first attended the Orthodox Yeshivah of Flatbush for elementary school, where he learned to read and write in Hebrew, and to study the Bible and Jewish texts in their original language. Blumberg then attended Brooklyns James Madison High School, a school that Blumberg described as having high academic standards, including many teachers with Ph. Ds. After moving to Far Rockaway, Queens, he transferred to Far Rockaway High School in the early 1940s, Blumberg served as a U. S. Navy deck officer during World War II. He then attended Union College in Schenectady, New York and graduated there with honors in 1946. D. in 1951. He remained at Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center for the four years, first as an intern. He then began work in biochemistry at Balliol College, Oxford and earned his Ph. D there in 1957. In 1964, while studying yellow jaundice, he discovered a surface antigen for hepatitis B in the blood of an Australian aborigine and his work later demonstrated that the virus could cause liver cancer. Blumberg and his team were able to develop a screening test for the hepatitis B virus, to prevent its spread in blood donations, Blumberg later freely distributed his vaccine patent in order to promote its distribution by drug companies. Deployment of the reduced the infection rate of hepatitis B in children in China from 15% to 1% in 10 years. Concurrently, he was Master of Balliol College from 1989 to 1994 and he was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1994. From 1999 to 2002, he was director of the NASA Astrobiology Institute at the Ames Research Center in Moffett Field. In 2001, Blumberg was named to the Library of Congress Scholars Council, Blumberg served on the Council until his death. In November 2004, Blumberg was named Chairman of the Scientific Advisory Board of United Therapeutics Corporation, as Chairman, he convened three Conference on Nanomedical and Telemedical Technology, as well as guiding the biotechnology company in the development of a broad-spectrum anti-viral medicine. Beginning in 2005, Blumberg also served as the President of the American Philosophical Society and he had first been elected to membership in the society in 1986. In October 2010, Blumberg participated in the USA Science and Engineering Festivals Lunch with a Laureate program, in which middle, northern Virginia and Maryland area got to engage in an informal conversation with a Nobel Prize–winning scientist over a brown-bag lunch. In an interview with the New York Times in 2002 he stated that is what drew me to medicine, there is, in Jewish thought, this idea that if you save a single life, you save the whole world
4. Steven J. Dick – Steven J. Dick is an American astronomer, author, and historian of science most noted for his work in the field of astrobiology. Before that, he was an astronomer and historian of science at the United States Naval Observatory in Washington, DC, steven J. Dick received a Bachelor of Science in astrophysics from Indiana University in 1971. In 1977, he earned a Master of Arts and a Ph. D. in the history, there he was part of a team using transit telescopes and astrographs to chart the northern and southern skies. During this time, he wrote the history of the Observatory. In 2003, he was named the Chief Historian for the National Aeronautics and these works are among the first scholarly volumes to take the history of the extraterrestrial life debate seriously. They argue that since the ancient Greeks, extraterrestrial life has been a theme tied to scientific cosmologies, including the ancient atomist, Copernican, Cartesian, and Newtonian worldviews. Dick argues that from a point of view the methods of astrobiology in the twentieth century are as empirical as in any historical science such as astronomy or geology. Dick has also surveyed the field of astrobiology in Critical Issues in the History, Philosophy, aside from his work in astrobiology, Dick is known for advancing the ideas of cosmotheology and the postbiological universe. Cosmotheology holds that theology should be based on what we know about the universe, namely that we are not in a physical position. The idea of a postbiological universe emerges from taking seriously cultural evolution as an part of cosmic evolution. This finding, which redefines the nature of scientific discovery, is contrary to common expectations, the book also defines 82 classes of astronomical objects, and orders them into “Astronomy’s Three Kingdoms, ” astronomy’s first comprehensive classification system. He is on the board for the Journal for the History of Astronomy. From 2011-2012 he held the Charles A. Lindbergh Chair in Aerospace History at the National Air & Space Museum, in 2013 Dick was named the Baruch S. Blumberg NASA/Library of Congress Chair in Astrobiology. Dick is the recipient of the NASA Exceptional Service Medal and the Navy Meritorious Civilian Service Medal, in 2006, Dick received the LeRoy E. Doggett Prize from the American Astronomical Society for a career that has significantly influenced the field of the history of astronomy. Also in 2006, Dick was selected to deliver the first Billingham Cutting Edge Lecture, at the International Astronautical Congress in Valencia, in 2009, minor planet 6544 Stevendick was named in his honor. In 2012, he was elected a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. S, Naval Observatory 1830-2000 ISBN 0-521-81599-1 Editor, Critical Issues in the History of Spaceflight Editor, Societal Impact of Spaceflight Editor, America in Space, NASA’s First Fifty Years. Steven J. Dicks web site U. S. House Science Committee testimony U. S
5. Gerald Soffen – He earned his A. B. S. from the University of California, Los Angeles, his M. S. from University of Southern California, and his Ph. D. in Biology from Princeton University. He pursued his work at New York University. In that role, he oversaw all scientific investigations conducted by the landers, in 1977 he appeared on an episode of the popular television series In Search Of entitled Martians and he spoke about the Vikings findings up to that time. We have started what will become an adventure of mankind in searching for not only the forms of life. This is one of the milestones in the course of destiny to find cousins. Soffen also predicted that mankind would eventually colonize Mars by using Planetary Engineering, later, he would become NASA Langleys Chief Environmental Scientist, leading work on remote sensing by satellite as well as laboratory experiments, ground-based measurements, and theoretical models. After concluding his work with Viking, Soffen became the Director of Life Sciences at NASA Headquarters in 1978, in 1983, Soffen transferred from NASA Headquarters to NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. Initially, his role at GSFC focused on establishing the Mission to Planet Earth program, in the 1990s, though, Soffens focus would shift to education. In 1990, Soffen lead the formation of the University Programs office at GSFC, three years into that role, Soffen created NASA Academy, NASAs premiere leadership training internship. From 1990-92 he served on the Science Advisory Committee for Biosphere 2, Dr. Soffen has been memorialized in several ways by his peers and former students. The Gerald Soffen Memorial Panel/Lecture is also a feature of the annual Space Studies program conducted by International Space University, additionally, a crater on Mars was recently named Soffen. The crater is centered at 23.73 degrees S,140.86 degrees E on Mars, the Viking 2 lander was also posthumously named after Dr. Soffen. NASA Academy official site Viking Program official site Dr. Gerald A. Soffen Memorial Fund for the Advancement of Space Science Education official site Dr. Gerald A. Soffen Memorial - Photo Collection
6. Jill Tarter – Jill Cornell Tarter is an American astronomer and the former director of the Center for SETI Research, holding the Bernard M. Oliver Chair for SETI at the SETI Institute. Tarter has worked on a number of scientific projects, most relating to the search for extraterrestrial life. She was project scientist for NASAs High Resolution Microwave Survey in 1992 and 1993 and she was co-creator with Margaret Turnbull of the HabCat in 2002, a principal component of Project Phoenix. Tarter has published dozens of papers and lectures extensively both on the search for extraterrestrial intelligence and the need for proper science education. She is credited with coining the term brown dwarf for the classification of stars with insufficient mass to sustain hydrogen fusion and she has spent 35 years in the quest for extraterrestrial life and announced her retirement in 2012. In 2011, Tarter delivered a talk, Intelligent Life in the Universe, at the first Starmus Festival in the Canary Islands. Her 2011 talk was published in the book Starmus,50 Years of Man in Space, jill Tarter is a member of the CuriosityStream Advisory Board. Tarters work in astrobiology and her success as a female scientist have garnered achievement awards from several scientific organizations, awarded a Lifetime Achievement Award by Women in Aerospace in 1989. Received two public service medals from NASA, was elected a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 2002 and a Fellow of the California Academy of Sciences in 2003. Received the Adler Planetarium Women in Space Science Award in 2003, was awarded the Telluride Tech Festival Award of Technology in 2001. Was named one of the 100 most influential people in the world by Time Magazine in 2004, received Wonderfests Carl Sagan Prize for Science Popularization in 2005. Recipient of a 2009 TED Prize, elected a Fellow of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. Tarters astronomical work is illustrated in Carl Sagans novel Contact, in the film version of Contact, the protagonist Ellie Arroway is played by Jodie Foster. Tarter conversed with the actress for months before and during filming and she has also been featured in John Boswells Symphony of Science music video, The Poetry of Reality. On October 20,2006, Tarter appeared on the Point of Inquiry podcast to discuss the question, Tarter stated, Humans will have a different view about being human if and when we know the answer to the Are we alone. In May 2013, the Science Laureates of the United States Act of 2013 was introduced into Congress, jill Tarter was listed by one commentator as a possible nominee for the position of Science Laureate, if the act were to pass. Lecture about long-term SETI strategies presented to the Long Now Foundation, finding intelligent life with telescopes and computers, podcast 2008
7. Paul Davies – Paul Charles William Davies, AM is an English physicist, writer and broadcaster, a professor at Arizona State University as well as the Director of BEYOND, Center for Fundamental Concepts in Science. He is affiliated with the Institute for Quantum Studies at Chapman University in California and he has held previous academic appointments at the University of Cambridge, University College London, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, University of Adelaide and Macquarie University. His research interests are in the fields of cosmology, quantum field theory and he has proposed that a one-way trip to Mars could be a viable option. In 2005, he took up the chair of the SETI, Post-Detection Science and he is also an adviser to the Microbes Mind Forum. Davies was brought up in Finchley, London and he attended Woodhouse Grammar School and then studied physics at University College London, gaining a first class Bachelor of Science degree in 1967. In 1970, he completed his PhD under the supervision of Michael J. Seaton and he then carried out postdoctoral research under Fred Hoyle at the University of Cambridge. Davies inquiries have included theoretical physics, cosmology, and astrobiology, during his time in Australia he helped establish the Australian Centre for Astrobiology. Davies was a co-author of Felisa Wolfe-Simon on the Science article A Bacterium That Can Grow by Using Arsenic Instead of Phosphorus, Davies is Principal Investigator at Arizona State Universitys Center for Convergence of Physical Science and Cancer Biology. Davies received the Templeton Prize in 1995, Davies was made a member of the Order of Australia in the 2007 Queens birthday honours list. The asteroid 6870 Pauldavies is named after him, Davies writes and comments on scientific and philosophical issues. He made a series for BBC Radio 3, and two Australian television series, The Big Questions and More Big Questions. His BBC documentary The Cradle of Life featured the subject of his Faraday Prize lecture and he writes regularly for newspapers and magazines worldwide. He has been guest on radio and television programmes including the children podcast programme Ask A Biologist. An opinion piece published in the New York Times, generated controversy over its exploration of the role of faith in scientific inquiry. Davies argued that the scientists have in the immutability of physical laws has origins in Christian theology. Indeed, their responses bore the hallmarks of a superficial knee-jerk reaction to the sight of the words science, while atheists Richard Dawkins and Victor J. Stenger have criticised Davies public stance on science and religion, others including the John Templeton Foundation, have praised his work. I dropped chemistry at the age of 16, and all I knew about arsenic came from Agatha Christie novels, I think its a window into a whole new world of microbiology. And as a matter of fact, she already has 20 or so candidate other organisms that were very anxious to take a look at, I think were going to see a whole new domain of life here
8. David Field (astrophysicist) – David Field is an astrophysicist and author, living in Århus, Denmark. The son of E. J. and Dereen, Field studied Chemistry at Newcastle University, UK and he was later awarded the degree of Doctor of Science by the University of Cambridge. Previously Reader in Physical Chemistry at the University of Bristol, he now researches astrophysics and he has published over 175 papers in this subject. He is on the board of Astrobiology, and played a key role in the discovery of spontelectrics. Aside from academic work, Field is also known for his writing, being the author of a fiction series that begins with Friends and Enemies. The third and final volume in this trilogy, The Fairest Star, was published in November 2008
9. James L. Green – James Lauer Green is an American physicist who received his Ph. D. in Space Physics from the University of Iowa in 1979 and who worked at NASA since then. He began working in the Magnetospheric Physics Branch at NASAs Marshall Space Flight Center in 1980, at Marshall, Green developed and managed the Space Physics Analysis Network that provided scientists with access to data. From 1985 to 1992 he was the head of the National Space Science Data Center at Goddard Space Flight Center, the NSSDC is NASAs largest space science data archive. He was the Chief of the Space Science Data Operations Office from 1992 until 2005, while at Goddard, Green was a co-investigator and the Deputy Project Scientist on the IMAGE mission. In August 2006, Green became the Director of the Planetary Science Division at NASA Headquarters, in that role he serves as a spokesman for NASA for planetary missions, for instance announcing the likelihood that there was once flowing water on Mars in September 2015. In 1988, he received the Arthur S, in 2016, Green was named an Alumni Fellow of the College of Liberal Arts & Sciences at the University of Iowa. In a 2015 TED presentation, he offered a survey of the places in our system that are most likely to harbor alien life. In 2015 Green was a part of the NASA involvement with the film The Martian, Green, a Civil War Trust member, has written about Civil War ballooning and has spoken at the 150th anniversary of the first tether balloon ascension. This article incorporates public domain material from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration document Dr. Jim Green, Director, Planetary Science Division, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC