Pages in category "Austro-Hungarian journalists"
The following 12 pages are in this category, out of 12 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 12 pages are in this category, out of 12 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Muhammad Asad – Muhammad Asad was a Jewish-born Austro-Hungarian journalist, traveler, writer, linguist, thinker, political theorist, diplomat and Islamic scholar. Asad was one of the most influential European Muslims of the 20th century, by the age of thirteen, young Weiss had acquired a passing fluency in Hebrew and Aramaic, other than his native languages German and Polish. By his mid-twenties, he could read and write in English, French, Persian, in Mandatory Palestine, Weiss engaged in arguments with Zionist leaders like Chaim Weizmann, voicing his reservations about some aspects of the Zionist Movement. After traveling across the Arab World as a journalist, he converted to Islam in 1926, during his stay in Saudi Arabia, he spent time with Bedouins and enjoyed close company of Ibn Saud—the founder of modern Saudi Arabia. He also carried out a mission for Ibn Saud to trace the sources of funding for the Ikhwan Revolt. Due to these activities, he was dubbed in a Haaretz article as Leopold of Arabia—hinting similarity of his activities to those of Lawrence of Arabia and he also spent five years in internment by the British Government at the outbreak of World War II. In the West, Asad rose to prominence as a writer with his best-selling autobiography, later, after seventeen years of scholarly research, he published his magnum opus, The Message of the Quran—an English translation and commentary of the Quran. The book, along with the translations of Pickthall and Yusuf Ali, is regarded as one of the most influential translations of the modern era, an ardent proponent of Ijtihad and rationality in interpreting religious texts, he dedicates his works to People who Think. In 2008, the square to the UN Office in Vienna was named Muhammad Asad Platz in commemoration of his work as a religious bridge-builder. Asad has been described by his biographers as Europes gift to Islam, Leopold Weiss was born on 2 July 1900 to a Jewish family in Lemberg, Galicia, then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Weiss was a descendant of a line of Jewish rabbis, however, his father, Akiva Weiss, broke from tradition. Leopold received an education and was proficient in Hebrew from an early age. He studied the Jewish Bible or Tanakh, the text and commentaries of the Talmud, the Mishna and Gemara, also delving into the intricacies of Biblical exegesis, at the age of fourteen he made an escape from school and joined the Austrian army under a false name. After a week or so, his father traced him with the help of the police, after abandoning university in Vienna, Weiss drifted aimlessly around 1920s Germany, working briefly for the expressionist film director Fritz Lang. By his own account, after selling a jointly written film script, he splurged the windfall on a party at an expensive Berlin restaurant. In 1922 Weiss moved to the British Mandate of Palestine, staying in Jerusalem at the house of his maternal uncle Dorian Feigenbaum at his invitation, Feigenbaum was a psychoanalyst, and a disciple of Freud and later founded the Psychoanalytic Quarterly. He picked up work as a stringer for the German newspaper Frankfurter Zeitung, one of the most prestigious newspapers of Germany and Europe and his pieces were noteworthy for their understanding of Arab fears and grievances against the Zionist project. Weiss made the trip, which lasted two years, Asad spoke of Islam thus, Islam appears to me like a perfect work of architecture
2. Alcide De Gasperi – Alcide Amedeo Francesco De Gasperi was an Italian statesman and politician who founded the Christian Democracy party. From 1945 to 1953 he was the minister of eight successive coalition governments. His eight-year term in office remains a landmark of political longevity for a leader in modern Italian politics, De Gasperi is the fourth longest-serving Prime Minister since the Italian Unification. De Gasperi was born in Pieve Tesino in Tyrol, which at that time belonged to Austria-Hungary and his father was a local police officer of limited financial means. From 1896 De Gasperi was active in the Social Christian movement, in 1900 he joined the Faculty of Literature and Philosophy in Vienna, where he played an important role in the inception of the Christian student movement. He was very inspired by the Rerum novarum encyclical issued by Pope Leo XIII in 1891. In 1904 he took a part in student demonstrations in favour of an Italian-language university. Imprisoned with other protesters during the inauguration of the Italian juridical faculty in Innsbruck, in 1905, De Gasperi obtained a degree in philology. In 1905 he began to work as editor of the newspaper La Voce Cattolica which was replaced in September 1906 by Il Trentino, in 1911 he became a Member of Parliament for the Popular Political Union of Trentino in the Austrian Reichsrat, a post he held for 6 years. He was politically neutral during World War I, which he spent in Vienna, however, he sympathised with the ultimately unsuccessful efforts of Pope Benedict XV and Bl. Karl I of Austria to obtain a peace and stop the war. When his home region was transferred to Italy in the post-war settlement and he however never tried to hide his love for Austria and German culture and often preferred speaking German to his family, many of whom spoke German as their first language. In 1919 he was among of the founders of the Italian Peoples Party and he served as a deputy in the Italian Parliament from 1921 to 1924, a period marked by the rise of Fascism. He initially supported the participation of the PPI in Benito Mussolinis first government in October 1922, the PPI split, and De Gasperi became secretary of the remaining anti-Fascist group in May 1924. In November 1926, in a climate of violence and intimidation by the Fascists. De Gasperi was arrested in March 1927 and sentenced to four years in prison, a year and a half in prison nearly broke De Gasperis health. During World War II, he organised the establishment of the first Christian Democracy party drawing upon the ideology of the Popular Party, in January 1943, he published Ideas for Reconstruction, which amounted to a programme for the party. He became the first general secretary of the new party in 1944, De Gasperi was the undisputed head of the Christian Democrats, the party that dominated Parliament for decades
3. Rodion Markovits – Rodion Markovits was an Austro-Hungarian-born writer, journalist and lawyer, one of the early modernist contributors to Magyar literary culture in Transylvania and Banat regions. He achieved international fame with the extended reportage Szibériai garnizon, which chronicles his own experiences in World War I. Locally, he is known for his lifelong contribution to the political and cultural press of Transylvania. Rodion Markovitz was seen by his contemporaries as an eccentric, and some of his colleagues believed him a minor and he was also noted for his leftist inclinations, cemented during his personal encounter with Bolshevism but toned down during the final decades of his life. Although he continued to publish stories until the 1940s, and wrote the sequel novel Aranyvonat. His final home was the Banat city of Timişoara, where he worked for the Romanian and Hungarian press, culturally and ethnically, Markovits was of Hungarian Jewish extraction, and socially belonged to the lower classes. Historian Attila Gidó nevertheless includes Markovits among the most prominent Jews who helped promote, from within, the writers home village was Kisgérce, in the Transylvanian ethnographic region of Avasság-Oaş. He spent part of his childhood in Szatmárnémeti, the urban center. Upon graduation, he worked as a lawyer. Romanian literary historian Cornel Ungureanu refers to World War I as Markovits first great journalistic adventure, Markovits was mobilized into the Austro-Hungarian Army a few months into the conflict. In early 1915, he was sent with the 12th Royal Hungarian Army infantry regiment to the Eastern Front and his account places this event at the peak of Russias Brusilov Offensive. Also according to Markovits, the column of Hungarian captives was ordered to the camp of Darnytsia, then his contingent was carried by train to Kineshma. Their rest was interrupted by news that they were to be moved into Siberia, Markovits spent the next seven years of his life in Siberia and the Russian Far East—first as a prisoner of war, then as a drifter. He was notably held in Krasnaya Rechka prison camp, where he founded a newspaper for Hungarian captives, Markovits was held an isolated and improvised camp near Krasnoyarsk, where life conditions became brutal and the rank structure collapsed entirely. Markovits survived the outbreak and joined the newly created Red Army, according to his own fictionalized account, he volunteered to help with the coal transports organized by the Red squadrons, and was rewarded with repatriation. By the time Markovits returned to Transylvania, the region had been united with Romania. He decided to settle in Satu Mare, where he opened a law practice and continued work for the local Hungarian press—as editor of Szamos daily and he made his return to literature with short stories, grouped as Ismét találkoztam Balthazárral and published in 1925. And the world awaited for the new Christ, but once the White reaction took over, Ma exiled itself to Vienna A new period, a new foundation, a new language emerge with the adoption of collective Constructivism
4. Eugen Rozvan – Eugen Rozvan was a Hungarian-born Romanian communist activist, lawyer, and Marxist historian, who settled in the Soviet Union late in his life. He was born in Nagyszalonta, Transylvania, in a family of Macedo-Romanian origins and his father, György, was a lawyer and a historian, having fought as an officer during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. Rozvan attended the University of Budapest, where he became a supporter of socialist ideals and he continued his studies in Law at the University of Berlin, and, after receiving his doctorate, returned to his homeland and enrolled in the Social Democratic Party. In the following period he worked towards the organization of the movement in his native city, to this end, he joined the Romanian section of the SZDP and initiated contacts with the Romanian National Party. In 1907, Rozvan was a delegate to the Stuttgart Congress of the Second International, a collaborator of Ady Endre, in the latter year Rozvan became a founding member of the Tomorrow literary society, and was elected a board member of the radical Social Sciences Society. He was also a presence at the cultural conferences taking place in Nagyvárad, on one such occasion he met Nora Lemenyi, an early Romanian feminist and socialist. That same year, the participated in the Extraordinary Congress of the Second International. Rozvan was drafted as a lieutenant in the Austro-Hungarian Army during World War I, interned in southern Serbia, and, beginning with the summer of 1915, in Italy, he quickly learnt Italian and started contacts with the local socialist movement, which eventually led to his arrest. During his internment he also worked towards translating to Hungarian the Communist Manifesto, after the end of the war, the Romanian government pressed him to emigrate to Hungary, while the revolutionary Labour Council proclaimed in Oradea called on him to join their cause. Ultimately deciding on returning to his region, he was unable to do that until August 1919. Moving to Cluj, Rozvan had an important role in the re-establishment of the Hungarian and Romanian language socialist press, the other delegates were Gheorghe Cristescu, David Fabian, Constantin Popovici, and Alexandru Dobrogeanu-Gherea. Later that month, on May 8, he was a delegate from Braşov to the PS Congress that decided in favor of creating a Communist Party around the groups Bolshevik faction, for the latter congress he collaborated with Tiron Albani on preparing the report on nationalities. On this occasion, Rozvan expressed his concerns that Cristescu had maintained a minimalist position, the matter remained unsettled, as, in the middle of the discussion, Rozvan and all the PCdR notable members were arrested, being later implicated in the Dealul Spirii Trial. Most of the indicted were freed on July 4,1922, Rozvan remained active inside the Communist Party, being part of its provisional Executive Committee, entrusted with re-organizing party chapters in Transylvania. Furthermore, he became the editor of the partys Hungarian language organ in Braşov, at the Second Congress he drafted the reports on the national and the agrarian question. The latter reignited the debates of the congress, Rozvans support of the 1921 land reform being condemned by Boris Stefanov. During the same congress, he was elected deputy member of its Central Committee, during the following period helped organize the partys umbrella group, the Peasant Workers Bloc, in the region around Oradea. With Lucrețiu Pătrășcanu, Imre Aladar, and two others, he was elected to the Chamber of Deputies on Bloc lists, however the mandates were nullified on governments request