Grammy Award for Best Jazz Fusion Performance
In 1988, the category name changed to Best Jazz Fusion Performance and was moved to a newly created Fusion field. The category name was retired before the 33rd Grammy Awards with the addition of the award for Best Contemporary Jazz Performance, pat Metheny holds the record for the most wins in this category, with a total of five. David Sanborn is the other musician to win the award more than once. The composition Birdland earned two musicians the award—The Manhattan Transfer won in 1981 and Quincy Jones won in 1991 for the version appears on the compilation album Back on the Block. The award went to artists or groups originating from the United States each year it was presented, Metheny also holds the record for the most nominations, with seven. The group Spyro Gyra holds the record for the most nominations without a win, in 1990, Terri Lyne Carrington became the first solo female artist to be nominated for the award. No female artists were nominated in 1991, the year the award was presented. ^ Each year is linked to the article about the Grammy Awards held that year, List of Grammy Award categories List of jazz fusion musicians List of jazz fusion recordings Official site of the Grammy Awards Grammy. com, 23rd Annual Grammy Awards – Best Jazz Fusion Performance
Hero of the Soviet Union
The title Hero of the Soviet Union was the highest distinction in the Soviet Union, awarded personally or collectively for heroic feats in service to the Soviet state and society. The award was established on May 5,1934, by the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Union, earlier heroes were retroactively eligible for these items. A hero could be awarded the title again for a subsequent heroic feat with an additional Gold Star medal, an additional Order of Lenin was not given until 1973. The practice of awarding the title multiple times was abolished by the Supreme Soviet of the USSR in 1988 during perestroika,44 foreign citizens were awarded the title. The title was given posthumously, though often without the actual Gold Star medal given. The title could be revoked only by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, the total number of people who were awarded this title is 12,755. The great majority of them received it during World War II, sixty-five people were awarded the title for actions related to the Soviet-Afghan War, which lasted from 1979 until 1989. Valentina Grizodubova, a pilot, was the first woman to become a Hero of the Soviet Union for her international womens record for a straight-line distance flight. Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya, a Soviet partisan, was the first woman to become a Hero of the Soviet Union during World War II, in addition,101 people received the award twice. A second award entitled the recipient to have a bronze bust of his or her likeness with an inscription erected in his or her hometown. Two famous Soviet fighter pilots, Aleksandr Pokryshkin and Ivan Kozhedub were three times Heroes of the Soviet Union. A third award entitled the recipient to have his/her bronze bust erected on a pedestal in Moscow, near the Palace of the Soviets. The only individuals to receive the four times were Marshal Georgy Zhukov. The original statute of the Hero of the Soviet Union, however, did not provide for a fourth title, both Zhukov and Brezhnev received their fourth titles under controversial circumstances contrary to the statute, which remained largely unchanged until the award was abolished in 1991. Zhukov was awarded a time for his large accomplishments on the occasion of his 60th birthday on December 1,1956. There is some speculation that Zhukovs fourth Hero medal was for his participation in the arrest of Beria in 1953, brezhnevs four awards further eroded the prestige of the award because they were birthday gifts, on the occasions of his 60th, 70th, 72nd and 75th birthdays. Such practices halted in 1988 due to a decision of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, by the 1970s, the award had been somewhat devalued. Important political and military persons had been awarded on the occasions of their anniversaries rather than for any immediate heroic activity, all Soviet cosmonauts, starting from Yuri Gagarin, as well as foreign citizens who participated in Soviet cosmic program as cosmonauts, received Hero award for each flight
Order of the Red Banner of Labour
It is the labour counterpart of the military Order of the Red Banner. A few institutions and factories, being the pride of Soviet Union, the Order of the Red Banner of Labour began solely as an award of the Russian SFSR on December 28,1920. The all-Union equivalent was established by Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet on September 7,1928, the Order of the Red Banner of Labour could be awarded multiple times to the same recipient for successive deeds and long time merit. The Order of the Red Banner of Labour was worn on the side of the chest. If worn in the presence of Orders or medals of the Russian Federation, the design of the Order of the Red Banner of Labour evolved over the years. Its original design, called type 1 was amended in 1936, the type 1 Order consisted of a 38 mm wide by 43 mm high silver badge in the shape of a cogwheel, at center, a disc bordered along its entire outer diameter by panicles of wheat. Protruding from under the half of the central disc, a red enamelled triangle pointing downwards. On the central disc in the background, an electric dam, at center, a gilded hammer and sickle, at the top. At the very bottom of the cogwheel, the relief inscription USSR on a stylised horizontal shield bisected by a smaller cogwheel meshing into the larger one, the Order was secured to clothing with a threaded screw and nut arrangement. The earlier nuts were 28 mm in diameter, later ones measured 32 mm, the type 2 Order also consisted of a silver badge in the shape of a cogwheel, it measured 38 mm wide by 44 mm high. On the lower circumference of the cogwheel, the relief inscription Proletarians of the World, below the cogwheel, a red enamelled relief five pointed star superimposed on a shield from which four short panicles of wheat protrude left and right. Along the outer circumference of the central wreath, white enamelled slots spaced equally on the cogwheel. The individuals listed below were recipients of the Order of the Red Banner of Labour, the first recipient of the Order of the Red Banner of Labour of the RSFSR was Nikita Menchukov for saving an important bridge from being destroyed by flowing ice. Order of the Red Banner of Labour of the USSR number 1 was presented to the Putilov Works in Leningrad, the first individual awardees were V. Fedetov, A. Shelagin and M. Kyatkovsky for the rescue of a polar expedition. Mikhail Gorbachev received the Order of the Red Banner of Labour for harvesting a crop on his familys collective farm in 1949 at age 17. He is one of the Orders youngest recipients
Medal "For Courage in a Fire"
The medals statute was amended on July 18,1980 by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR № 2523-X. For military recipients, the award was made by the chain of command. If worn in the presence or awards of the Russian Federation, posthumous awards of the Medal For Courage in a fire, or medals awarded to recipients since dead, were to be retained, along with the attestation of award booklet, by the family as a souvenir. The Medal For Courage in a Fire was a 32 mm in diameter circular medal struck from silver, later examples were struck from silver-plated nickel. It had a rim on both sides. On the obverse in the center, the image of crossed fire ax. At the bottom, the image of the hammer and sickle over laurel and oak branches, along the side and upper circumference. The medal was secured to a standard Soviet pentagonal mount by a ring through the suspension loop. The mount was covered by a 24 mm wide red silk ribbon with 3 mm wide blue edge stripes bordered on both sides by 1 mm white stripes. The individuals listed below were recipients of the Medal For Courage in a Fire
Medal "For Distinguished Labour"
In just over fifty years of existence, it was bestowed to over two million deserving citizens. It was established on December 27,1938 by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, the medal ceased to be awarded following the December 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union. The Medal For Distinguished Labour was worn on the side of the chest and in the presence of other medals of the USSR. If worn in the presence of awards of the Russian Federation, the Medal For Distinguished Labour was a 32 mm in diameter circular medal struck from.925 silver with a raised rim on both sides. In the upper 3/4 of the obverse, a 21 mm high by 20 mm wide ruby-red enamelled image of the hammer and sickle over the relief inscription USSR in 3.5 mm high letters. In the lower quarter of the obverse below the hammer and sickle, on the otherwise plain reverse, the relief inscription on two rows of 2.5 mm high letters LABOUR IN THE USSR - A MATTER OF HONOUR. The medal was numbered until 1945, early awards hung from a small triangular mount covered with a red ribbon with a threaded stub and screw for attachment to clothing. The individuals below were all recipients of the Medal For Distinguished Labour
Medal "For Labour Valour"
It was established on December 27,1938 by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. During its existence of just over fifty years, it was bestowed to almost two million deserving citizens, the medal ceased to be awarded following the December 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union. The Medal For Labour Valour was worn on the side of the chest and in the presence of other medals of the USSR. If worn in the presence of awards of the Russian Federation, the Medal For Labour Valour was a 34 mm in diameter circular medal struck from.925 silver with a raised rim on both sides. In the upper obverse, a ruby-red enamelled 19.2 mm wide five pointed star with a silver hammer and sickle at its center. Below the star, the inscription in two rows of sunken and red enamelled 2.8 mm high letters FOR VALOUR LABOUR, at the very bottom, the relief inscription in 3.3 mm high letters USSR. On the otherwise plain reverse, the inscription on two rows of 2.5 mm high letters LABOUR IN THE USSR - A MATTER OF HONOUR. Early awards hung from a small triangular mount covered with a red ribbon with a threaded stub, the individuals below were recipients of the Medal For Labour Valour
Medal "Veteran of Labour"
Although it only had a relatively short eighteen years of existence, it was awarded nearly forty million times. Its regulations were detailed and approved by decree number 5999-VIII of May 20,1974. Its statute was amended by multiple successive decrees of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, first on June 8,1977, then on August 12,1983, the medal ceased to be awarded following the December 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union. The Medal Veteran of Labour was awarded to workers for many years of work in the national economy, sciences, culture, education, healthcare, government agencies. The medal was awarded to workers, farmers and employees in recognition of their labour on reaching the seniority required for a long-service pension or retirement age. The list of recipients was then forwarded to municipal, district, or Party. In the case of members of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, if worn in the presence of awards of the Russian Federation, the latter have precedence. The Medal Veteran of Labour was designed by artist SA Pomansky and it was a 34 mm in diameter circular medal struck from tombac and then silver-plated and oxidised. The otherwise plain reverse bears the inscription on four lines FOR LONG DILIGENT WORK.5 mm wide white stripes, apparently, there is a variation of the medal, being stuck in silver as opposed to tombac, but this has not yet been verified. The individuals below were all recipients of the Medal Veteran of Labour
Medal "Veteran of the Armed Forces of the USSR"
Its statute was twice amended by further decrees of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, first on July 18,1980 and lastly on January 10,1984. If worn in the presence of awards of the Russian Federation, the Medal Veteran of the Armed Forces of the USSR was a 32mm in diameter silver-plated tombac circular medal with a raised rim. The reverse was plain with a matte finish, the medal was secured to a standard Soviet pentagonal mount by a ring through the medal suspension loop. The mount was covered by a 24mm wide grey silk moiré ribbon with four orange, the width of the orange and black stripes was 1mm except for the outermost orange stripe which was 2mm, the red stripes were respectively of 3mm and 1mm with a spacing of 2mm. The individuals below were all recipients of the Medal Veteran of the Armed Forces of the USSR
Order of Glory
The Order of Glory was a military decoration of the Soviet Union established by Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet on November 8,1943. It was awarded to non-commissioned officers of the Red Army as well as to junior lieutenants of the air force and it became defunct with the dissolution of the Soviet Union. In 1992, the Cross of St. George was revived to serve the purpose of rewarding bravery in NCOs. The Order of Glory, which was modelled closely after the Tsarist Cross of St. George was divided into three classes, approximately 2600 individuals, including four women, attained the Full Cavalier status. The Order of Glory was worn on the side of the chest and in the presence of other medals of the USSR. If worn in the presence of awards of the Russian Federation, below are the specific award criteria for both ground troops and aviators. The central medallion featured the Spasskaya Tower of the Kremlin, with a red enamelled five-pointed star at its top, laurel branches on each side along the medal circumference stopped just short of the red star. The reverse had the Cyrillic inscription for USSR within a ring with a raised rim, the award serial number was etched above the ring on the reverse of the upper arm of the star. The Order is suspended by a ring through the suspension loop to a standard Russian pentagonal mount covered by a 24mm wide silk moiré ribbon of St George. The individuals below were recipients of the Order of Glory
Sportske novosti awards
Sportske novosti awards refer to annual sports awards given by Sportske novosti, a Zagreb-based Croatian daily sports newspaper. The awards originated in the 1950s and went on to one of the most prestigious Croatian awards in sports. The winners are decided by polling sports journalists, Sportske novosti was founded in 1945 and it first began awarding the Yugoslav Sportsman of the Year and Yugoslav Sportswoman of the Year awards in 1950 for greatest achievements in Yugoslav sports. The award, one of several Yugoslav national-level sporting awards, was every year between 1950 and 1990, when it was discontinued due to the breakup of Yugoslavia. In 1952, the newspaper had launched an award for Croatian athletes which honored best sporting achievements by sportsmen and sportswomen hailing from SR Croatia. Award winners in both categories are referred to as the Golden Roll. The current award is considered one of the most prestigious Croatian national sporting awards, in 1990 the categories for Mens Sports Team of the Year and Womens Sports Team of the Year for notable achievements in team sports were introduced. Athlete also won the Croatian Sportsperson of the Year award, by sport This table lists the total number of awards for individual sportsmen and sportswomen by recipients sporting profession. Golden Badge - Award for Yugoslav Athlete of the Year, awarded by the Belgrade-based sports daily Sport since 1957