Sinan Reis, Ciphut Sinan, mor Sinan the Chief, and Portuguese, Sinao o Judeo, Sinan the Jew, was a Barbary corsair and Jewish pirate who sailed under famed Ottoman admiral Hayreddin Barbarossa. Born to a Sephardic Jewish family which fled Spain and possibly relocated to the Ottoman ruled Smyrna, Sinan sailed as a Barbary corsair, a type of privateer or pirate, under the Ottoman flag. There are several cases of Jews who upon fleeing Iberia turned to attacking the Empires shipping, a profitable strategy of revenge for the Inquisitions religious persecution. He was based out of Mediterranean points including Santorini, and fought in several key battles against the Spanish, Sinan sailed under famed Barbary corsair and Ottoman admiral Hayreddin Barbarossa at the 1538 Battle of Preveza against Charles Imperial fleet and its commander, Andrea Doria. Sinan suggested landing troops at Actium on the Gulf of Arta near Preveza, an idea which Barbarossa initially opposed, around 1540, Sinans son was travelling by sea to meet him after one of Sinans victories.
The boy was taken captive by Emperor Charles forces and was handed over to the Lord of Elba. Barbarossa made several attempts to ransom Sinans son. While sailing nearby in 1544, Barbarossa sent an envoy to Elba to again attempt to free the boy, the islands Lord replied that his religious scruples forbade him to surrender a baptized Christian to an infidel. Infuriated, Barbarossa landed men at Piombino, sacked the town, the news from Barbarossa reached Sinan at Suez on the Red Sea, where the Great Jew was constructing a fleet to aid an Indian ruler expel the Portuguese. Sinan is not buried in a Jewish cemetery in Albania, because that fact refers to the grave of Kapudan Sinan Pasha who lies buried near his mosque in Üsküdar. Note that the Turkish word for Scutari is Üsküdar), samuel Pallache Barbary pirates Jewish pirates Reference by the Vatican Legate
Miguel de Cervantes
Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, was a Spanish writer who is highly regarded as perhaps the greatest writer in the Spanish language and one of the worlds pre-eminent novelists. His major work, Don Quixote, considered to be the first modern novel, is a classic of Western literature and his influence on the Spanish language has been so great that the language is often called la lengua de Cervantes. He has been dubbed El príncipe de los ingenios, in 1569, in forced exile from Castile, Cervantes moved to Rome, where he worked as chamber assistant of a cardinal. He enlisted as a soldier in a Spanish Navy infantry regiment and continued his life until 1575. In 1585, Cervantes published a novel named La Galatea. He worked as a agent for the Spanish Armada. In 1597, discrepancies in his accounts for three years previous landed him in the Crown Jail of Seville, in 1605, Cervantes was in Valladolid when the immediate success of the first part of his Don Quixote, published in Madrid, signaled his return to the literary world.
In 1607, he settled in Madrid, where he lived and worked until his death and his last work, Los trabajos de Persiles y Sigismunda, was published posthumously in 1617. It is assumed that Cervantes was born in Alcalá de Henares, the probable date of his birth was determined from records in the church register, given the tradition of naming a child after the feast day of his birth. He was baptized in Alcalá de Henares on 9 October 1547 at the church of Santa María la Mayor. Witnesses, Baltasar Vázquez, and I, who baptised him, Miguel at birth was not surnamed Cervantes Saavedra. He adopted the Saavedra name as an adult, by Spanish naming conventions his second surname was that of his mother, Cortinas. His paternal grandfather, Juan de Cervantes, was a lawyer who held several administrative positions. His uncle was mayor of Cabra for many years and his mother, Leonor de Cortinas, was a native of Arganda del Rey and the third daughter of a nobleman, who lost his fortune and had to sell his daughter into matrimony in 1543.
This led to an awkward marriage and several affairs by Rodrigo. Leonor died on 19 October 1593, little is known of Cervantes early years. It seems he spent much of his moving from town to town with his family, eventually enrolling in The Imperial School. During this time, he met a young barmaid named Josefina Catalina de Parez, the couple fell madly in love and plotted to run away together
Action of 28 November 1751
Captain Pedro Fitz-James Stuarts ships pursued one of the Algerian privateers and managed to force it to surrender it after a fierce exchange of fire. The ship, badly damaged, had to be scuttled, but its crew and 50 Christian slaves were rescued. Both divisions were dispatched to patrol the Barbary coast, where galliots and other vessels were frequently captured. They were the 60-gun Danzik, flagship of the Algerian fleet, stuart approached to inspect them at 5 p. m. Then the Danzik raised the Algerian colors and opened fire against his flagship, the Dragón, the Castillo Nuevo took the opportunity to flee. The Danzik was pursued for a day, succeeding Chirif in avoid combat taking advantage of the windward. However, she suffered damage to her rigging and sails, just as the Dragón, the next day the Spanish attacked again, inflicting heavy losses to the Danzik and causing irreparable damage to the ship. Nuevos y viejos problemas en la Sucesión de la Corona Española, derechos a la Corona de los hijos naturales.
Necesidad de una Ley de Sucesión, armada Española desde la unión de los reinos de Castilla y Aragón. Madrid, Est. tipográfico Sucesores de Rivadeneyra, don Agustin de Montiano Y Luyando
Usta Murad was a corsair captain and Dey of Tunis from 1637 until his death. Born in Liguria, he was the son of Francesco Di Rio, the chroniclers do not record whether he was captured by the Barbary pirates and sold to Uthman Dey or if he voluntarily joined the galleys of the Tunisian Beylik. After converting to Islam, he took the name Murad and began to build a position in Tunis by becoming a corsair of the beylik. An act delivered by the French consulate on 1 November 1594 indicates in effect that the patron of a ship from Salerno had declared himself to owe Mourad 90 gold crowns, from 1600 he increasingly entered into the esteem of Uthman Dey, becoming a sort of personal secretary. In 1615, Yusuf Dey appointed him to the command of the galleys of Bizerte, a role he occupied until 1637. In 1628 he was named commander of the Tunisian army during a short war against the Eyalet of Algeria and, although defeated. He became wealthy enough to become the owner of a corsair fleet himself and he linked himself with several people who were important in Tunisian public life in order to improve his own affairs.
As he consolidated his position he did not forget his origins or try to renounce his biological family, in addition to his father, he was reunited with his brothers, who maintained his business relations Genoa and Marseilles. Their enormous wealth reinforced Murads position in the years of the seventeenth century. His vast house was located on the street of judges in the quarter of Tourbet el Bey and he built his mausoleum on the current Bab Menara road. His reign was cut short by his death in June 1640 and his descendants remain among the foremost families of Tunis down to the present day. His great grandson, Hammuda Stamrad was the brother-in-law and supporter of Hussayn I Bey after his deposition by Ali I Pasha in 1735 and he shared the fate of his ally, being executed in the heart of the Bardo palace in 1740. Marco Biagioni, Pirati nel golfo, éd
Bombardment of Algiers (1784)
The 2nd Bombardment of Algiers took place between 12 and 21 July 1784. Massive damage and casualties were inflicted to the Algerians, while the loss aboard the fleet was low. In August 1783, as punishment for the acts of piracy undertaken by the city, the success of the attack, achieved at the cost of less than 50 casualties, caused joy in Spain and encouraged the Regency of Tripoli to make peace with Spain. Despite the heavy damage suffered, the Algerians did not surrender, five Algerian privateers captured two Spanish merchant vessels near Palamós in September 1783 as a gesture of defiance. In addition, at least 70 vessels were prepared to repel the Spanish, meanwhile, in Cartagena, Barceló had finished preparations for a new expedition. These last joined the fleet and arrived in the middle of the bombardment. On 28 June, having entrusted itself to the Virgen del Carmen, two days at 8,30 AM, the bombardment began with the Spanish ships opening fire. It was kept up until 4,20 PM, during which time about 600 bombs,1,440 cannon balls and 260 shells were fired over the city, major damage to the city and its fortifications and a large fire were observed.
An attack by light vessels of the Algerian fleet, composed of 67 ships, was repulsed, the Allied casualties were minimal,6 killed and 9 wounded, most of them due to accidents with the fuses of the bombs. 27, commanded by the Neapolitan ensign José Rodríguez, exploded accidentally, in the following eight days, seven additional attacks were ordered. The Algerians had placed a line of barges armed with artillery that largely prevented the Allied gunboats getting close to their objectives, a shot fired from the fortifications hit the felucca from which Barceló were directing the bombing, sinking it. José Lorenzo de Goicoechea came to the aid of the admiral, passing immediately to another boat, Barceló continued leading the attack, downplaying the importance of the incident. Finally, on 21 July, it was decided to end the attack, contrary winds forced Barceló to give the order to return to Cartagena. More than 20,000 cannonballs and grenades had been fired on the enemy, causing damage to the fortifications and the city.
The Allied casualties were 53 men killed and 64 wounded, most of them due to accidents. These culminated in a treaty which was signed on 14 June 1786 by the Dey himself and José de Mazarredo, tunisia preferred to reach an agreement with Spain. As far as these nations were concerned, Barbary piracy and the Barbary Slave Trade in the Mediterranean was ended, some years the problem returned due to the turmoil caused by the Napoleonic Wars
Angelo Emo was a Venetian noble and admiral, mostly known for being the last Grand Admiral of the Republic of Venice. Emo, who was born in Venice, was assigned to hunt down the Barbary pirates in the Mediterranean sea, in 1784 he sailed on board the ship Fama in command of twenty-four vessels. The siege of Tunis happened in 1785, and although Emo did not succeed in capturing Tunis, he reduced the Bey to terms, Admiral Angelo Emo died at Malta in 1792. The Ionian Islands under Venetian Rule, Venetian bombardments of the Beylik of Tunis
Hayreddin Barbarossa, or Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha, born Khizr or Khidr, was an Ottoman admiral of the fleet who was born in the island of Lesbos and died in Constantinople, the Ottoman capital. Barbarossas naval victories secured Ottoman dominance over the Mediterranean during the mid 16th century, Hayreddin was an honorary name given to him by Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. He became known as Barbarossa in Europe, a name he inherited from his elder brother Oruç Reis after Oruç was killed in a battle with the Spanish in Algeria. Oruç was known as Baba Oruç, which sounded like Barbarossa to the Europeans, and since Oruç did have a red beard, in a process of linguistic reborrowing, the nickname stuck back to Hayreddins native Turkish name, in the form Barbaros. His mother was a widow of a Greek Orthodox priest and his parents were married and had two daughters and four sons, Oruç, Khizr and Ilyas. Yakup took part in the Ottoman conquest of Lesbos in 1462 from the Genoese Gattilusio dynasty and he became an established potter and purchased a boat to trade his products.
The four sons helped their father with his business, but not much is known about the daughters, at first Oruç helped with the boat, while Khizr helped with pottery. All four brothers became seamen, engaged in affairs and international sea trade. The first brother to become involved in seamanship was Oruç, who was joined by his brother Ilyas, obtaining his own ship, Khizr began his career at sea. The brothers initially worked as sailors, but turned privateers in the Mediterranean to counteract the privateering of the Knights Hospitaller who were based in the island of Rhodes, Oruç and Ilyas operated in the Levant, between Anatolia and Egypt. Khizr operated in the Aegean Sea and based his operations mostly in Thessaloniki, the eldest, remained on Mytilene and was involved with the financial affairs of the family business. Oruç was a very successful seaman and he learned to speak Italian, French and Arabic in the early years of his career. While returning from an expedition in Tripoli, with his younger brother Ilyas.
Ilyas was killed in the fight, and Oruç was wounded and their fathers boat was captured, and Oruç was taken as a prisoner and detained in the Knights castle at Bodrum for nearly three years. Upon learning the location of his brother, Khizr went to Bodrum, on his way back to Lesbos, he stopped at Euboea and captured three galleons and another ship. After passing the winter in Cairo, he set sail from Alexandria and frequently operated along the coasts of Liguria, in 1503, Oruç managed to seize three more ships and made the island of Djerba his new base, thus moving his operations to the Western Mediterranean. They were granted this right with the condition of leaving one-third of their gains to the sultan, Oruç, in command of small galliots, captured two much larger Papal galleys near the island of Elba. Later, near Lipari, the two brothers captured a Sicilian warship, the Cavalleria, with 380 Spanish soldiers and 60 Spanish knights from Aragon on board, in 1505, they raided the coasts of Calabria
Spanish conquest of Oran (1732)
The Spanish conquest of Oran and Mers el-Kebir took place from 15 June to 2 July 1732, between the Kingdom of Spain against the Ottoman protectorate of Algiers. With the war having ended, and with the resurgence of the new Spain as one of the major European powers, the Genovese finally accepted all the terms of the Spanish Admiral. Of the 2 million pesos, a million and a half was to be destined for the new expedition. The rumour that Spain was preparing for another expedition, was cause for alarm for the Emperor Charles VI, thinking that Spain, wanted to occupy the Italian territories held by the Austrians again. When all the preparations had been concluded, with the aim of calming the other European powers, the expedition began to organise itself on 16 March 1732, in the port of Alicante. The person responsible for the preparation of the expedition was the Prince of Campo Florido, Captain-General, the city was overcome with the challenge of containing such a large number of troops and noblemen.
The authorities estimated more than 30,000 present, at the time, the city received most of its merchandise via the port, with some help from nearby towns and cities, but finally the supply to the city was a success. Everything had been planned, down to the last detail, the fleet caused great astonishment in all Europe, and as a writer of that time, The army was led by the Duke of Montemar. The contingent consisted of 23 generals,19 brigadiers and 129 officers, the cavalry was composed by the regiments Queen and Prince and Santiago and Granada, and another 4 regiments of Spanish Dragoons. At dawn, the troops began to disembarked with barely any resistance, before midday, all the infantry had disembarked, and the cavalry followed soon after. The Duke of Montemar ordered a fort to be built to ensure communication with the fleet. This retreat gave the heart and they cautiosly advanced. Montemar, noticing this, sent 16 companies of infantry under the command of Don Alejandro de la Motte, counting Janissaries and Turks, they came to about 20,000 to 22,000 men in total.
Terrified by the firepower of the grenadiers, the troops of the Castle of Mers el-Kebir capitulated. Immediately after, De la Motte´s army besieged Mers el-Kebir, the quality and discipline of the Spanish army, without a doubt terrified Bey Hassans troops. The next day,1 July, through a message from the French consul in Oran, found out about this news and immediately sent ot a detachment to confirm this. The news was in true, and the French consul himself, came out to receive the Spanish troops. The Spanish captured 80 bronze pieces of artillery,50 iron pieces and 12 bells, and innumerable artifacts of war, the next day,2 July, the city of Mers el-Kebir capitulated to De la Mottes troops
Barbary slave trade
The Ottoman provinces in North Africa were nominally under Ottoman suzerainty, but in reality they were mostly autonomous. The North African slave markets were part of the Arab slave trade, European slaves were acquired by Barbary pirates in slave raids on ships and by raids on coastal towns from Italy to the Netherlands, as far north as Iceland and east into the Mediterranean. The Ottoman eastern Mediterranean was the scene of intense piracy, as late as the 18th century, piracy continued to be a consistent threat to maritime traffic in the Aegean. For centuries, large vessels on the Mediterranean relied on galley slaves supplied by North African and Ottoman slave traders, Davis estimates that 1 million to 1. Sixteenth- and 17th-century customs statistics suggest that Istanbuls additional slave import from the Black Sea may have totaled around 2.5 million from 1450 to 1700, the Kingdom of Morocco had already suppressed piracy and recognized the United States as an independent country in 1776.
The slave trade had existed in North Africa since antiquity, with a supply of African slaves arriving through trans-Saharan trade routes, the towns on the North African coast were recorded in Roman times for their slave markets, and this trend continued into the medieval age. The Barbary Coast increased in influence in the 15th century, when the Ottoman Empire took over as rulers of the area, coupled with this was an influx of Sephardi Jews and Moorish refugees, newly expelled from Spain after the Reconquista. With Ottoman protection and a host of immigrants, the coastline soon became reputed for piracy. Crews from the ships were either enslaved or ransomed. Between 1580 and 1680, there were in Barbary around 15,000 renegades, Christian Europeans who converted to Islam, some of them were slaves that converted to Islam but most had probably never been slaves and had come to North Africa looking for opportunity. Without a large central authority and its laws, the pirates themselves started to gain much influence.
In 1785 when Thomas Jefferson and John Adams went to London to negotiate with Tripolis envoy, Ambassador Sidi Haji Abdrahaman, pirate raids for the acquisition of slaves occurred in towns and villages on the African Atlantic seaboard, as well as in Europe. It is estimated that between 1 million and 1.25 million Europeans were captured by pirates and sold as slaves in Tunis, the slave trade in Europeans in other parts of the Mediterranean is not included in this estimation. The attack was led by a Dutch captain, Jan Janszoon van Haarlem, Janszoon led the 1627 raid on Iceland. Such raids in the Mediterranean were so frequent and devastating that the coastline between Venice to Malaga suffered widespread depopulation, and settlement there was discouraged, in fact, it was said that this was largely because there was no one left to capture any longer. The power and influence of these pirates during this time was such that nations including the United States of America paid tribute in order to stave off their attacks, supplies from the Black Sea appear to have been even larger.
A compilation of statistics and patchy estimates indicates that a little fewer than 2 million Russians, Ukrainians. Additionally, there were slaves from the Caucasus obtained by a mixture of raiding and trading, 16th- and 17th-century customs statistics suggest that Istanbuls slave import from the Black Sea may have totaled around 2.5 million from 1450 to 1700
This area was known in Europe as the Barbary Coast, a term derived from the name of its Berber inhabitants. The main purpose of their attacks was to capture Christian slaves for the Ottoman slave trade as well as the general Muslim slavery market in North Africa and the Middle East. In that period Algiers and Tripoli came under the sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire, similar raids were undertaken from Salé and other ports in Morocco. Corsairs captured thousands of ships and repeatedly raided coastal towns, as a result, residents abandoned their former villages of long stretches of coast in Spain and Italy. The raids were such a problem coastal settlements were seldom undertaken until the 19th century, from the 16th to 19th century, corsairs captured an estimated 800,000 to 1.25 million people as slaves. Some corsairs were European outcasts and converts such as John Ward, Hayreddin Barbarossa and Oruç Reis, Turkish Barbarossa Brothers, who took control of Algiers on behalf of the Ottomans in the early 16th century, were notorious corsairs.
The European pirates brought advanced sailing and shipbuilding techniques to the Barbary Coast around 1600, the effects of the Barbary raids peaked in the early to mid-17th century. However, the ships and coasts of Christian states without such effective protection continued to suffer until the early 19th century. Following the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna in 1814–15, European powers agreed upon the need to suppress the Barbary corsairs entirely and the threat was largely subdued. Occasional incidents occurred, including two Barbary wars between the United States and the Barbary States, until terminated by the French conquest of Algiers in 1830. Piracy by Muslim populations had been known in the Mediterranean since at least the 9th century, in the 14th century Tunisian corsairs became enough of a threat to provoke a Franco-Genoese attack on Mahdia in 1390, known as the Barbary Crusade. The Barbary pirates had long attacked English and other European shipping along the North Coast of Africa and they had been attacking English merchant and passengers ships since the 1600s.
Regular fundraising for ransoms was undertaken generally by families and local church groups, the government did not ransom ordinary persons. The English became familiar with captivity narratives written by Barbary pirates prisoners and ransomed captives, during the American Revolution the pirates attacked American ships. The Moroccan-American Treaty of Friendship stands as the U. S. s oldest non-broken friendship treaty with a foreign power, in 1778 Morocco became the first nation to recognize the new United States. As late as 1798, an islet near Sardinia was attacked by the Tunisians, throughout history, geography was on the pirates side on the Northern coast of Africa. The coast was ideal for their wants and needs, with natural harbours often backed by lagoons, it provided a haven for guerrilla warfare, such as attacks on shipping vessels venturing through their territory. On the coast, mountainous areas provided ample reconnaissance for the corsairs as well, ships were spotted from afar, the pirates had time to prepare their attacks and surprise the ships