Pages in category "Baroque writers"
The following 18 pages are in this category, out of 18 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 18 pages are in this category, out of 18 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Miguel de Cervantes – Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, was a Spanish writer who is highly regarded as perhaps the greatest writer in the Spanish language and one of the worlds pre-eminent novelists. His major work, Don Quixote, considered to be the first modern novel, is a classic of Western literature and his influence on the Spanish language has been so great that the language is often called la lengua de Cervantes. He has also been dubbed El príncipe de los ingenios, in 1569, in forced exile from Castile, Cervantes moved to Rome, where he worked as chamber assistant of a cardinal. He then enlisted as a soldier in a Spanish Navy infantry regiment and continued his life until 1575. In 1585, Cervantes published a novel named La Galatea. He worked as a agent for the Spanish Armada. In 1597, discrepancies in his accounts for three years previous landed him in the Crown Jail of Seville, in 1605, Cervantes was in Valladolid when the immediate success of the first part of his Don Quixote, published in Madrid, signaled his return to the literary world. In 1607, he settled in Madrid, where he lived and worked until his death and his last work, Los trabajos de Persiles y Sigismunda, was published posthumously in 1617. It is assumed that Cervantes was born in Alcalá de Henares, the probable date of his birth was determined from records in the church register, given the tradition of naming a child after the feast day of his birth. He was baptized in Alcalá de Henares on 9 October 1547 at the church of Santa María la Mayor. Witnesses, Baltasar Vázquez, Sexton, and I, who baptised him, Miguel at birth was not surnamed Cervantes Saavedra. He adopted the Saavedra name as an adult, by Spanish naming conventions his second surname was that of his mother, Cortinas. His paternal grandfather, Juan de Cervantes, was a lawyer who held several administrative positions. His uncle was mayor of Cabra for many years and his mother, Leonor de Cortinas, was a native of Arganda del Rey and the third daughter of a nobleman, who lost his fortune and had to sell his daughter into matrimony in 1543. This led to an awkward marriage and several affairs by Rodrigo. Leonor died on 19 October 1593, little is known of Cervantes early years. It seems he spent much of his moving from town to town with his family, eventually enrolling in The Imperial School. During this time, he met a young barmaid named Josefina Catalina de Parez, the couple fell madly in love and plotted to run away together
2. Francisco de Quevedo – Francisco Gómez de Quevedo y Santibáñez Villegas was a Spanish nobleman, politician and writer of the Baroque era. Along with his rival, Luis de Góngora, Quevedo was one of the most prominent Spanish poets of the age. His style is characterized by what was called conceptismo and this style existed in stark contrast to Góngoras culteranismo. Quevedo was born in Madrid into a family of hidalgos from the village of Vejorís and his family was descended from the Castilian nobility. Quevedo matured surrounded by dignitaries and nobility at the royal court, intellectually gifted, Quevedo was physically handicapped with a club foot, and myopia. Since he always wore pince-nez, his name in the plural, quevedos, orphaned by the age of six, he was able to attend the Imperial School run by the Jesuits in Madrid. He then attended university at Alcalá de Henares from 1596 to 1600, by his own account, he made independent studies in philosophy, classical languages, Arabic, Hebrew, French and Italian. In 1601, Quevedo, as a member of the Court, moved to Valladolid, where the Court had been transferred by the Kings minister, the Duke of Lerma. There he studied theology, a subject that would become a lifelong interest, by this time, he was becoming noted as both a poet and a prose writer. Some of his poetry was collected in a 1605 generational anthology by Pedro Espinosa entitled Flores de Poetas Ilustres, around this time, he began a very erudite exchange of letters with the humanist Justus Lipsius, in which Quevedo deplored the wars that were ravaging Europe. The Court returned to Madrid in 1606, and Quevedo followed, by then, he was a well-known and accomplished man-of-letters. He befriended and was praised by Miguel de Cervantes and Lope de Vega, Quevedos enemies included, among others, the dramatist Juan Ruiz de Alarcón for, despite his own physical handicaps, Quevedo found Alarcóns redheaded and hunchbacked physique a source of amusement. Quevedo also attacked Juan Pérez de Montalbán, the son of a bookseller with whom he had quarrelled, satirizing him in La Perinola, in 1608, Quevedo dueled with the author and fencing master Luis Pacheco de Narváez as a result of Quevedo criticizing one of Pachecos works. Quevedo took off Pachecos hat in the first encounter and they remained enemies all their lives. In Quevedos Buscón, this duel was parodied with a fencer relying on mathematical calculations having to run away from a duel with an experienced soldier. He was present at the church of San Martín in Madrid when a woman praying there was slapped on the cheek by another man who had rushed up to her, Quevedo seized the man, dragging him outside the church. The two men drew swords, and Quevedo ran his opponent through, the man, who died of his wounds some time later, was someone of importance. Quevedo thus retired temporarily to the palace of his friend and patron, Pedro Téllez-Girón, 3rd Duke of Osuna
3. Lope de Vega – Félix Lope de Vega y Carpio was a Spanish playwright, poet, novelist and marine. He was one of the key figures in the Spanish Golden Century of Baroque literature, nicknamed The Phoenix of Wits and Prodigy of Nature by Miguel de Cervantes, Lope de Vega renewed the Spanish theatre at a time when it was starting to become a mass cultural phenomenon. He defined its key characteristics, and along with Calderón de la Barca and Tirso de Molina, because of the insight, depth and ease of his plays, he is regarded as one of the greatest dramatists in Western literature, his plays still being produced worldwide. He was also one of the best lyric poets in the Spanish language, some 3,000 sonnets,3 novels,4 novellas,9 epic poems, and about 500 plays are attributed to him. Although he has criticised for putting quantity ahead of quality. Félix Lope de Vega y Carpio was born in Madrid to a family of undistinguished origins and his father, Félix de Vega, was an embroiderer. Little is known of his mother, Francisca Fernández Flórez and he later added the distinguished name of Carpio from one of his in-laws. After a brief stay in Valladolid, his father moved to Madrid in 1561, however, Lope de Vega would later affirm that his father arrived in Madrid through a love affair from which his future mother was to rescue him. Thus the writer became the fruit of reconciliation and owed his existence to the same jealousies he would later analyze so much in his dramatic works. The first indications of young Lopes genius became apparent in his earliest years and his friend and biographer Pérez de Montalbán stated that at the age of five he was already reading Spanish and Latin, and by his tenth birthday he was translating Latin verse. His great talent bore him to the school of poet and musician Vicente Espinel in Madrid, in his fourteenth year he continued his studies in the Colegio Imperial, a Jesuit school in Madrid, from which he absconded to take part in a military expedition in Portugal. Following that escapade, he had the fortune of being taken into the protection of the Bishop of Ávila. Following graduation Lope had planned to follow in his patrons footsteps and join the priesthood, thus he failed to attain a bachelors degree and made what living he could as a secretary to aristocrats or by writing plays. Following this he returned to Madrid and began his career as a playwright in earnest and he also began a love affair with Elena Osorio, who was separated from her husband, actor Cristóbal Calderón, and was the daughter of a leading theater director. He went into exile undaunted, taking him the 16-year-old Isabel de Alderete y Urbina, known in his poems by the anagram Belisa. The two married under pressure from her family on 10 May 1588. Just a few later, on the 29th of May, Lope signed up for another tour of duty with the Spanish Navy, this was the summer of 1588. It is likely that his enlistment was the condition required by Isabels family, eager to be rid of such an ill presentable son-in-law
4. Bentvueghels – The Bentvueghels were a society of mostly Dutch and Flemish artists active in Rome from about 1620 to 1720. They are also known as the Schildersbent, the members, which included painters, etchers, sculptors and poets, all lived in different parts of the city and came together for social and intellectual reasons. The group was known for its drunken, Bacchic initiation rituals. These celebrations, sometimes lasting up to 24 hours, concluded with group marching to the church of Santa Costanza, there they made libations to Bacchus before the porphyry sarcophagus of Constantina, which was considered to be his tomb because of its Bacchic motifs. A list of its members may still be seen in one of this churchs side chapels and this practice was finally banned by Pope Clement XI in 1720. Although predominantly made up of Flemish and Dutch artists, a few members were admitted, including Joachim von Sandrart. Despite the rowdy nature of these initiations, a quality was maintained. Also Cornelis de Bruijn wrote about the rituals he had to undergo in 1674 and made some engravings, the Bentvueghels were frequently at odds with Romes Accademia di San Luca, which had the purpose of elevating the work of artists above that of craftsman. For this reason, before setting off for Italy, artists would first try to become members in their local Guild of St. Luke so they would have papers to show on arrival. Travel to Italy became a rite of passage for young Dutch, often encompassing a difficult and in many cases dangerous journey, artists would spend years getting to Italy, using their artistic talents to pay their way. Many never made it all the way to Italy, and many never attempted the trip back once they got there, on arrival, many artists were therefore fairly established thanks to their work experience done along the way. However, equally many were still young and unknown, traditionally, the low-brow qualities of the Bentvueghels activities have been emphasized over their intellectual and artistic pursuits. Artists such as Pieter van Laer, however, belonged to both organisations, whenever possible, he gives the nickname or bent of the painter in his biographical sketches. The original members of the group were depicted in a series of drawings made around 1620. Among those appearing in the drawings are Cornelis van Poelenburch, Bartholomeus Breenbergh, Dirck van Baburen, Paulus Bor, Cornelis Schut and Simon Ardé. Upon initiation, members were given aliases that were often classical gods and heroes, such as Bacchus, Cupid, Hector, Meleager, Cephalus, Pyramus, Orpheus, sometimes, however, the aliases were witty or semi-obscene in keeping with the general activities of the society. Some of the information here is taken from the corresponding Dutch article about the Bentvueghels, haskell, Francis, Patrons and Painters, Art and Society in Baroque Italy, Yale University Press,1980. ISBN 0-300-02537-8 Kilian, Jennifer M. Jan Baptist Weenix, Grove Art Online, the Bentvueghels, Bande Académique, in IL60, Essays Honoring Irving Lavin on his Sixtieth Birthday, ed. Marilyn Aronberg Lavin
5. Wespazjan Kochowski – Wespazjan Kochowski was one of the most noted historians and poets of Polish Baroque, the most typical representative of the philosophy and literature of Sarmatism. Kochowski was associated with Małopolska during all his life and his parents were Jan, a middle rank nobleman, and Zofia, née Janowski. He studied at the Nowodworski College, in Kraków, next, during ten years, he fought as Polish winged hussar with Cossacks, Muscovy and Swedish. In 1660 he came back to paternal Gaj, but he had to move to Goleniowy near Szczekociny in Kraków Land and his first publication was a poem entitled Kamień świadectwa wielkiego w Koronie Polskiej senatora niewinności in the defence of Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski. In 1668 he published his first volume, Różaniec Najświętszej Panny Maryi, during that time, Kochowski was involved in political life, gaining large respect among the nobility. He was even the podżupnik of huge mines in Wieliczka near Kraków. In 1674 he published his first masterpiece — Niepróżnujące próżnowanie and this is a collection of several hundreds verses, divided in four books of lyrics, one book of epodes and two books of epigrams. He showed the variety of topics, feelings, stylistic figures, in 1681 Kochowski also wrote two religious poems, Chrystus cierpiący, which laments the Passion of Salvator, and Ogród panieński, which explains the titles of Our Lady. During the reign of John III Sobieski he turned towards history, in 1683 he wrote Annales Poloniae ab obitu Vladislai IV, commonly called Klimaktery. This is the history of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth under kings John II Casimir, Kochowski had used the information from many witnesses, documents and his own experiences and he had done it so well. This book is one of the sources for the old Polish history. In 1683 Kochowski took part in the battle of Vienna as historiographus privilegiatus, a position granted to him by king Jan III Sobieski, next year he published the official relation from that – Commentarius belli adversus Turcas. He also tried to make the national epos, but he managed to only one canto, edited as Dzieło Boskie albo Pieśni Wiednia wybawionego (The Work of God or Songs of Liberated Vienna. It distinguishes itself, on one hand, by the Bible stylization, there are mixed 14 private and 22 public psalms. It tells about the expiation and the Gods mercy, moderation of greeds and believing in the providence, special role of Poland in the world, psalmodia polska is recognized as one of the main monuments of old Polish literature and the best synthesis of Sarmatism. In 1658 Kochowski married Marianna Misiowska and they had a son, Hieronim Franciszek, as late as 1674. After the death of Marianna in 1677 he married rich widow Magdalena Frezer and he was the best friend of Jan Gawiński, which was also a good poet. His friends were also Stefan Bidziński, Hieronim Komornicki and Pakosław Lanckoroński, Kochowski was very popular in his time
6. Miguel de Molinos – Miguel de Molinos was a Spanish mystic, the chief representative of the religious revival known as Quietism. He was born in 1628 near Muniesa, in Aragon, a village around 60 miles south of Zaragoza and his birthdate is unknown, but church records indicate he was baptised on 29 June 1628. He moved to Valencia in his youth and undertook religious education with the Jesuits there at the College of St Paul and he was ordained in 1652, and seemingly took his doctorate shortly thereafter, though it is unclear when or where. On 4 June 1662, Molinos was admitted to the chapter of the School of Christ. He seems in these years in Valencia to have held a number of secondary roles in the chapter’s leadership. He left Spain in late 1663, he would not return, there is almost no specific evidence of Molinos’s activities in Rome in the years 1663-1675. It is known that Molinos was affiliated with the Roman chapter of the School of Christ. He also became known as a spiritual director – and it was in this role that he gained prominence as the leading advocate of the teaching. He was a correspondent with Princess Borghese, and counted as an admirer, Cardinal Benedetto Odescalchi. He also paid frequent visits to the house of the exiled Christina, Molinos’s royal commission and line of credit were revoked, and he was deprived of his official position in the Valencian delegation in Rome. In the same year,1675, Molinos published his most famous work and this was followed soon after in 1675 by a brief Trattato della cotidiana communione. Again, this work was approved by the censors of several orders, Molinos’s writings was clearly extremely popular. By 1685 seven editions had been printed in Italy and three in Spain, translations of the book would be made into Latin, French, Dutch, English, and German The first attack on Molinos’s Guide appeared in 1678, written by Gottardo Bell’huomo. Instead of publishing the book, Molinos took up his case with the general of the Jesuits. In a series of letters from February 1680 onwards, Molinos sought to assure Oliva that he had nothing but praise and respect for the Jesuits, a second moment of suspicion against Molinos arose in 1681. In March 1680, the Jesuit preacher Paolo Segneri wrote to Oliva, Oliva encouraged him and forwarded copies of the letters he had recently sent to Molinos. Later in 1680, a book was published in Florence, titled Concordia tra la fatica e la quiete nell orazione, the book attacked Molinos’s views, though without mentioning his name. During 1680-1681, a series of responses appeared from both the quietists and the Jesuits, the matter was referred to the Inquisition