Pages in category "Basque dialects"
The following 10 pages are in this category, out of 10 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 10 pages are in this category, out of 10 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Basque dialects – Basque dialects are linguistic varieties of the Basque language which differ in pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar from each other and from Standard Basque. The boundaries of all these dialects do not coincide directly with current political or administrative boundaries and it was believed that the dialect boundaries between Bizkaian, Gipuzkoan and Upper Navarrese showed some relation to some pre-Roman tribal boundaries between the Caristii, Varduli and Vascones. However, main Basque dialectologists now deny any relation between those tribes and Basque dialects. One of the first scientific studies of Basque dialects, regarding the auxiliary verb forms, was made by Louis-Lucien Bonaparte and he collected his data in fieldwork between 1856 and 1869 in five visits to the Basque Country. By then, the Basque language was in throughout the territory in which it had been commonly spoken. In 1998, Koldo Zuazo, Professor of Basque Philology at the University of the Basque Country, for example, he changed the name of Biscayan to Western, Gipuzkoan to Central, Upper Navarrese to Navarrese. In 1997, Zuazo released research carried out on the based on dispersed recorded evidence. The pundit outlines three main linguistic areas running north to south, where features related to Western and Navarrese dialects mix up to different degrees according to their geographical position. The names for the language in the dialects of Basque for example exemplify to some degree the dialectal fragmentation of the Basque speaking area, the most divergent forms are generally found in the Eastern dialects. The following map shows the areas where each word is used. Key to verb forms, Basque dialects all diverge from this standard inventory to a larger or lesser extent, the grapheme j displays by far the most noticeable divergence, followed by the fricatives and affricates. Ondarroa, a Biscayan dialect, merger of /s̻/ with /s̺/, there have been various attempts throughout history to promote standardised forms of Basque dialects to the level of a common standard Basque. A standardised form of Lower Navarrese was the used by influential 16th-century author Joanes Leizarraga. Azkues Gipuzkera Osotua, dating to 1935, attempted, though unsuccessfully, to create a standardized Basque based on Gipuzkoan. However, they did not receive support from other Basque language scholars, in 1944, Pierre Lafitte published his Navarro-Labourdin Littéraire, based on Classical Lapurdian, which has become the de facto standard form of Lapurdian. It is taught in schools of Lapurdi and used on radio, in church. Since 1968, Euskaltzaindia has promulgated a Unified Basque based on the dialects that has successfully spread as the formal dialect of the language. More recently, the dialects of Bizkaian and Zuberoan have also been standardised
2. Biscayan dialect – Biscayan, sometimes Bizkaian is a dialect of the Basque language spoken mainly in Biscay, one of the provinces of the Basque Country of Spain. The dialects territory bears great similarity to that of the Caristii tribe, Biscayan was used by Sabino Arana and his early Basque nationalist followers as one of the signs of Basqueness. In the words of Georges Lacombe, because of the features of this dialect. Since 1997 and according to the new dialectical classification realized by Koldo Zuazo, according to study by Yrizar, this dialect was spoken in the seventies by around 200,000 people, with the number of estimated speakers approaching 300,000 by the eighties. In 1991 16% of the population if this province could speak Basque, uribe-Kosta Mungialdea Txorierri Nerbion Valley Zeberio Arratia Orozko Dialectal variation around the border between the Western and Eastern subdialects. The territory includes, Busturialdea, Otxandio and Villarreal, Dialectal variation happens the border between the Western dialect and the Central dialect. The territory includes, Elgoibar, Deba, Mendaro and Mutriku, lea-Artibai Durangaldea Aramaio Debagoiena Debabarrena Ermua Eibar Soraluze The borders of Biscayan match those of the pre-roman tribe of the Caristii, which is probably not a coincidence. This does not mean Alavan dialect would have had the features as the Biscayan. Some features of Biscayan as perceived by other dialect speakers may be summed up as follows, The verb root eutsi used for the auxiliary verb. Auxiliary verb forms dot - dok - dozu most of the times, convergence of sibilants, z /s̻/, x /ʃ/ and s /s̺/ > x/ʃ/, tz /ts̻/, tx /tʃ/ and ts /ts̺/ > tz /ts̻/. Clusters -itz generally turned into -tx, e. g. gaitza > gatxa, the conspicuous absence of past tense 3rd person mark z- at the beginning of auxiliary verbs, e. g. eban vs. zuen. Assimilation in vowel clusters at the end of the phrase, notably -ea > -ie/i. V-Ñ-v ending words, as opposed to the Beterri Gipuzkoan v-Y-v, konstituziño vs konstituziyo, in spelling, it has no h and it has -iñ- and -ill- where standard Basque has -in- and -il-. Biscayan dialect has a rich lexicon, with vocabulary varying from region to region. For example while gura and txarto are two widely used in Biscayan, some Biscayan speaker might use nahi and gaizki, which are generally used in other dialects. One of the current main experts in local vocabulary is Iñaki Gaminde, bizkaia Irratia, FM96.7 Arrakala Irratia, FM106
3. Eastern Navarrese dialect – Eastern Navarrese is an extinct Basque dialect spoken in Navarre, Spain. It included two subdialects, Salazarese and Roncalais, the name of this dialect was proposed by the foremost living Basque dialectologist, Koldo Zuazo, in a new classification of Basque dialects published in 2004. Later on, when the last speakers died at the beginning of the 21st century, map of Basque dialects by Koldo Zuazo
4. Gipuzkoan dialect – Gipuzkoan is a dialect of the Basque language spoken mainly in the province of Gipuzkoa in Basque Country but also in a small part of Navarre. It is a dialect, spoken in the central and eastern part of Gipuzkoa. Gipuzkoan is not spoken all over Gipuzkoa, roughly comprising the area between the Deba River and the River Oiartzun, however, borders between Gipuzkoan and High Navarrese are gradually disappearing as standard Basque is beginning to blur the differences among traditional dialects, especially among younger Basques. Some features of Gipuzkoan as perceived by other dialect speakers may be summed up as follows, The grapheme j, verb to go pronounced jun, as opposed to general joan. Auxiliary verb forms det - dek - dezu, etc. as opposed to general Basque dut, verb infinitives with ending -tu, frequent in central dialects, as opposed to older -i endings. In nouns, root final -a is often interpreted as an article and dropped in indefinite phrases, sibilant allophone tx at the beginning of words, as opposed to general fricative z, e. g. txulo vs zulo, txuri vs zuri, etc. Within Gipuzkoan, there are four main sub-dialects, The Beterri variant, Gipuzkoan is one of the four dialects known as the literary dialects of Basque. It was used in Basque literature from the 17th century onwards but, as with Souletin and Biscayan and this was due to the fact that the centre of Basque literary production was in Labourd during the 16th, 17th and most of the 18th century. Gipuzkoan vocabulary was used as the source for in Standard Basque, a standardised dialect of the Basque language used in teaching. Basque dialects Batua Euskaltzaindia, the Royal Academy of the Basque Language
5. Navarro-Lapurdian dialect – Navarro-Labourdin or Navarro-Lapurdian is a Basque dialect spoken in the Lower Navarre and Labourd former provinces of the French Basque Country. It consists of two dialects in older classifications, Lower Navarrese and Labourdin and it differs somewhat from Upper Navarrese spoken in the Spanish Basque Country. Lower Navarrese or Low Navarrese is actually two subdialects, eastern and western, the western dialect continues into eastern Labourd, Labourdin is spoken in western Lapurdi. Classic Labourdin was a language of the 17th century, used by authors such as Axular. The type of stress in Hondarribian Basque is considered to be a remainder of the one that may have been used in Classic Lapurdian. Salazarese, spoken in Spain, was thought to be a subdialect of Navarro-Lapurdian
6. Roncalese dialect – Roncalese is an extinct Basque dialect once spoken in the comarca of Roncal-Salazar in Navarre, Spain. It is a subdialect of Eastern Navarrese in the classification of Koldo Zuazo, the last speaker of the Roncalese, Fidela Bernat, died in 1991. Roncalese preserves historical nasals which have been lost from other dialects, Basque dialects Roncalese recordings, Nafarroako Euskararen Mediateka, Euskarabidea, Government of Navarre
7. Salazarese dialect – Salazarese is the Basque dialect of the Salazar Valley of Navarre, Spain. In English it is known as Zaraitzu Basque, the Zaraitzu dialect or Salazar dialect, in Spanish as salacenco. Basque was spoken in the Salazar valley until the first half of the 20th century, ever since, at the time of the 2002 linguistic census, there were only two native speakers, both with ages over 85, and within a few years Salazarese became extinct. However, its features had been documented over the 19th and 20th centuries, from the 1980s there has been a revival of the Basque language in Spain. As a result, roughly a quarter of the inhabitants now speak Standard Basque. It would be possible to revive the Salazarese dialect to some degree by teaching its features to Batua speakers, some religious texts were written, the Christian doctrines of Itzalle and Orontze and texts published by Satrustegi. Apart from more religious texts, there is a wealth of significant research work by Louis-Lucien Bonaparte, pedro Jose Sanper translated the Gospel of Matthew. and Jose Urrutia undertook the translation of Arturo Campions “Orreaga”. Azkue collected several proverbs and tales in Zaraitzu Basque in his works of Basque folklore, also he collected a significant amount of local words in his dictionary. Koldo Mitxelena studied thoroughly the dialect from 1958 onwards, Jose Estornes Lasa collected the stories and passages of Zoilo Moso in 1969. Koldo Artola has published the audio recordings that he taped between 1975 and 2003 in Zaraitzu, aitor Arana has collected the testimonies of Basque-speakers of Zaraitzu, published a dictionary of the dialect in 2001, and next year a book of grammar. In 2004 he published a collection of texts and he gave some curses of the local Basque in the Valley, the work of the researcher Inaki Camino should be mentioned as well
8. Souletin dialect – Souletin or Zuberoan is the Basque dialect spoken in Soule, France. In English sources, the Basque-based term Zuberoan is sometimes encountered, in Standard Basque, the dialect is known as Zuberera, locally variously as Üskara, Xiberera or Xiberotarra. In Spanish, Souletino or Suletino are used, sometimes, the southern dialect Roncalese was included within Zuberoan. A Basque language variety close to Zuberoan may have extended farther east into the Central Pyrenees, as attested by place names, Zuberoan is marked by influences from Occitan, especially in the lexicon. In contrast to other Basque dialects, which have five vowels, Zuberoan has six, however, the sixth vowel may have resulted from an influence of the Béarnese vowel shift some centuries ago instead of being an ancient vowel lost in other dialects of Basque. Another distinct characteristic is the use of verb forms xuka, a form of address including in third person verbs the interlocutor marker embedded in the auxiliary verb and this example of the Orreaga ballad composed by Arturo Campion shows some differences between this dialect and the standard Basque
9. Standard Basque – Euskara batua enjoys official language status in Spain, but remains unrecognised as an official language in France, the only language officially recognised by this country being French. The standard version of Basque was created in the 1970s by the Euskaltzaindia, mainly based on the central Basque dialect, a further step was taken in 1973 with a proposal to establish a standard conjugation. The westernmost dialect – Biscayan—is strange for the speakers from other dialects, demolinguistic reasons, the central area and the western area were in 1968—and still are—the zones where most Basque-language speakers live. Moreover, it was—and it is—in Gipuzkoa and the areas where the Basque language is strongest. Sociolinguistic reasons, since the 18th century, the central dialect—and, more precisely, economic and cultural reasons, Bilbao is certainly the most important Basque city, but it is not Basque-speaking. The same goes for Gasteiz, Iruñea, and Baiona-Angelu-Biarritz, so Gipuzkoa, the only Basque province with a multipolar structure—i. e. With no head city, all the province being a big city—is the main Basque-speaking city, according to Koldo Zuazo, there are six main advantages that euskara batua has brought to the Basque language, Basque speakers can easily understand each other by using batua. When using historical dialects, the difficulties to understand each other are bigger, before the creation of batua, Basque speakers had to turn to Spanish or French to discuss highbrow topics or work subjects—Euskara Batua gives them a suitable tool for this. Thanks to batua, more people than ever have been able to learn the Basque language. Basque language has broken its ever-retreating boundaries, if we look at old maps showing the area where Basque was spoken, we will see that this area was always diminishing. Batua has given prestige to the Basque language, because now it can be used in high-level usages of society. Basque speakers are more united, since batua was made, the boundaries of the language have also been broken. With a stronger speakers community, Basque language becomes stronger, all these advantages have been widely recognized—for example, they are cited by the pro-historical dialects organization Badihardugu. Standard Basque has been described as a language by its critics. Then, Basque purists have argued that its existence and proliferation will kill the historic, others argue that Standard Basque has safeguarded the future of a language which is competing with French and Spanish. Research by the Euskaltzaindia shows that Basque is growing most in the areas where euskara batua has been introduced, another point of contention was the spelling of ⟨h⟩. Northeastern dialects pronounce it as an aspiration while the rest do not use it, Standard Basque requires it in writing but allows a silent pronunciation. Opponents complained that many speakers would have to relearn their vocabulary by rote, federico Krutwig also promoted the creation of an alternative literary dialect, this time based on the Renaissance Labourdine used by Joanes Leizarraga the first translator of the Protestant Bible