Battle of Ayohuma
The Battle of Ayohuma was an action fought on 14 November 1813, during the second Upper Peru Campaign of the Argentine War of Independence. The republican forces of the Army of the North, led by General Manuel Belgrano were defeated by the royalists, after the rout of Vilcapugio, Belgrano established his headquarters at Macha. There he reorganized his army, obtaining help from Francisco Ocampo, at the end of October 1813, the republican army included around 3,400 men, of which barely 1,000 were veterans. Despite their recent victory, Pezuelas troops were short of horses and supplies, however, on 29 October, they left their camp in Condo-Condo in order to attack the republicans before they could obtain further reinforcements. On 12 November, they arrived at Toquirí, a hill dominating the plain of Ayohuma. In the meantime, just two away from Toquirí, on 8 November, Belgrano had discussed his plans with his officials. The majority of them wanted to withdraw to Potosí, but the general convinced his officers to fight and that same night the army left Macha, reaching Ayohuma on the morning of the next day.
The armies that were about to face each other exhibited a significant disproportion, while the republican cavalry outnumbered the royalists two-to-one, Pezuela had twice as much infantry and 18 pieces of artillery, against only eight carried by Belgranos troops. At dawn of 14 November the royalists began their descent from their high position, Belgranos troops were meanwhile attending Mass, even if aware of the enemy movements. An hour later, Pezuela had completed their maneuver, outflanking the republicans on their right, in the opinion of Lieutenant Gregorio Aráoz de Lamadrid, one of Belgranos best officers, this move proved decisive for the outcome of the battle. Then, Pezuelas artillery opened fire, blasting holes in the republicans ranks, in a hail of enemy fire, Belgrano ordered the advance of his infantry and cavalry toward the enemy right flank, but they could not overcame Pezuelas entrenchements. To make matters worse, the lighter guns were no match for the royalists. Among the dead was the commander of the Batallón de Castas, Colonel José Superí and his battalion was made of soldiers of African and mulatto descent.
Belgranos 500 survivors retreated to Potosí, but the city had to be evacuated on 18 November due to the approaching royalists. Belgrano moved back to Tucumán, where on 30 January 1814 and he would write about the tactical superiority of the Spaniard officers as compared to his limited knowledge of warfare. Battle of Pequereque Battle of Vilcapugio Action of Tambo Nuevo Flag of Macha García Camba, memorias para la Historia de las armas españolas en el Perú. Sociedad tipográfica de Hortelano y compañia, V. I, enigmas sobre las primeras banderas argentinas
Battle of Almansa
The Battle of Almansa, fought on 25 April 1707, was one of the most decisive engagements of the War of the Spanish Succession. It has been described as probably the only Battle in history in which the English forces were commanded by a Frenchman, the Bourbon army of about 25,000 was composed of Spanish and French troops in equal proportion, as well as an Irish regiment. Opposing them was a mainly Anglo-Portuguese force with strong Dutch, the battle began with an artillery exchange. Only the Portuguese infantry held, attacked by the three sides, and tried to retire fighting, galway lost 5,000 men killed and 12,000 taken prisoner, of his army of 22,000, only 5,000 escaped to Tortosa. The victory was a step in the consolidation of Spain under the Bourbons. With the main allied army destroyed, Philip V of Spain regained the initiative, the city of Xàtiva was burned, and its name changed to San Felipe in order to punish it. In memory of events, nowadays the portrait of the monarch still hangs upside down in the local museum of LAlmodí.
Before long, the remaining allies of the Habsburg pretender, Archduke Charles, were his supporters in Catalonia. Frederick II of Prussia referred to Almansa as the most scientific battle of our century
By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem.
This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula.
The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growth
Battle of Aguere
The battle took place November 14–15,1494. Fernández de Lugo had suffered defeat by Guanche forces at the First Battle of Acentejo, the Battle of Aguere was followed by the decisive Second Battle of Acentejo more than a month later, which resulted in the complete Castilian conquest of Tenerife. The group enlisted the aid of Juan Alfonso Pérez de Guzmán, the Duke of Medina Sidonia, who contributed 600 soldiers and 30 horsemen, veterans of the conquest of Granada. 500 Castilian soldiers were added to this force, a group that included survivors of the First Battle of Acentejo and a contingent sent by Doña Inés Peraza. Fernández de Lugo had the support of Ferdinand and Isabella, during this time of regrouping, he captured many slaves in Gran Canaria. The Castilian force embarked from Gran Canaria in November in 6 caravels and about a dozen smaller ships, and headed towards the port of Santa Cruz de Tenerife. After fortifying Santa Cruz, the Castilian marched on November 13–14 towards La Cuesta, the Castilians maintained Santa Cruz as their base of operations, with their fleet waiting there in case of a defeat.
In terms of strategy, the tableland of San Cristóbal de La Laguna was of importance to the conquest of the island. Fernández de Lugo garrisoned Santa Cruz to prevent a surprise attack, the Guanches, alerted by inhabitants on the coast, gathered their forces. The mencey Bencomo sent emissaries to the other menceys, and gathered about 2,000 warriors at La Cuesta before the Castilians had reached that point, Bencomo sent two spies to observe the strength and size of the Castilian forces. However, the spies were discovered by the Castilians, and Bencomo could not benefit from any intelligence regarding the enemy forces and this gave the Castilians an early advantage, although they suffered from the disadvantage of advancing up a difficult height surrounded by Guanche warriors. However, having garrisoned Santa Cruz, Fernández de Lugo decided to take a risk in advancing this way, the next day the Guanche forces were surprised that the Castilians had ascended La Cuesta and were dominating the rising grounds in the midst of the plain of Aguere.
The laurisilva-covered area called Aguere by the natives included Las Mercedes, parts of present-day San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Bencomo reorganized his forces and with 5,000 men rushed to what are now the outskirts of San Cristóbal, intending to cut off the Castilians. However, before the Guanche forces could do this, Fernández de Lugos army had already appeared before them, the Guanche center was commanded by Bencomo, the right flank by Acaymo, mencey of Tacoronte, and the left flank by Tinguaro. Based on this information, Buenaventura Bonnet believes that the battle took place in the now known as Barrio del Timple, Barrio Nuevo or Viña Nava. The battle began with an assault by the Guanche troops, who were armed with weapons like the banote or banot. They had no shields or armor, and wore the tamarco, the Guanche forces hurled rocks. The Castilian vanguard consisted of harquebusiers and crossbowmen who mowed the attacking Guanche ranks with their projectiles, the Castilian pikemen and horsemen attacked the Guanches who were fleeing the crossbow and harquebus fire
First Battle of Acentejo
It resulted in a victory for the Guanches of Tenerife. The Spaniards were under the command of the Adelantado Alonso Fernández de Lugo, Fernández de Lugo landed at Añazo, near present-day Santa Cruz de Tenerife, in late April, and built the fortified camp of el Real de Santa Cruz. Bencomo, the ruler of Taoro, refused Fernández de Lugos terms, and instead began to form his own alliance against the Castilians, composed of the menceyatos of Tacoronte, Tegueste and Icod. In a state of war, Fernández de Lugo advanced through present-day San Cristóbal de La Laguna to the known as Acentejo. The Castilians committed the terrible blunder of walking blindly into the now called Barranco de San Antonio. While Tinguaro with 300 men ambushed the vanguard of the Castilian forces, Bencomo arrived at the battle with 3,000 men, attacking the rearguard of the dispersed Europeans. It is believed that four out of five Spanish soldiers fell in this battle, the defeat was not total, however. Fernández de Lugo, though wounded, was able to escape with his life, and his surviving forces were harried until he was forced to re-embark at Añazo and sail back to Gran Canaria.
The Adelantado was able to return and defeat the forces in two major battles, the Battle of Aguere and Second Battle of Acentejo, and other minor clashes. A town built on the site where the battle occurred is called La Matanza de Acentejo and this was the greatest defeat in the history of the Spanish Atlantic expansion, in terms of casualties suffered by Spain. José Juan Acosta, Félix Rodríguez Lorenzo, Carmelo L. Quintero Padrón, Conquista y Colonización, Batalla de Acentejo 510 Aniversario de la Batalla de Acentejo, La Derrota de un Imperio
Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire
The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire was one of the most significant events in the Spanish colonization of the Americas. Many of those on the Cortés expedition of 1519 had never seen combat before, in fact, Cortés had never commanded men in battle before. However, there was a generation of Spaniards who participated in expeditions in the Caribbean and Tierra Firme, learning strategy. The Spanish conquest of Mexico had antecedents with established practices, in their advance, the allies were tricked and ambushed several times by the people they encountered. When Cortés left Tenochtitlan to return to the coast and deal with the expedition of Pánfilo de Narváez, Alvarado allowed a significant Aztec feast to be celebrated in Tenochtitlan and on the pattern of the earlier massacre in Cholula, closed off the square and massacred the celebrating Aztec noblemen. The biography of Cortés by Francisco López de Gómara contains a description of the massacre, the Alvarado massacre at the Main Temple of Tenochtitlan precipitated rebellion by the population of the city.
When the captured emperor Motecuhzoma II, now seen as a puppet of the invading Spaniards, attempted to calm the outraged populace. Cortés had returned to Tenochtitlan and his men fled the city during the Noche Triste in June,1520. The Spanish and reinforcements returned a year on August 13,1521 to a civilization that had wiped out by famine. This made it easier to conquer the remaining Aztecs, the fall of the Aztec Empire was the key event in the formation of the Spanish overseas empire, with New Spain, which became Mexico, a major component. The Spanish conquerors could and did write accounts that narrated the conquest from the first landfalls in Mexico to the victory over the Mexica in Tenochtitlan on August 13,1521. Indigenous accounts are from particular native viewpoints and as the events had a impact on their polity. All accounts of the conquest and indigenous alike, have biases, in general, Spanish accounts do not credit their indigenous allies support. Individual conquerors accounts exaggerate that individuals contribution to the conquest, downplaying other conquerors, indigenous allies accounts stress their loyalty to the Spanish and their particular aid as being key to the Spanish victory.
Their accounts are similar to Spanish conquerors accounts contained in petitions for rewards and these were almost immediately published in Spain and in other parts of Europe. Interestingly, Cortéss right-hand man, Pedro de Alvarado did not write at any length about his actions in the New World, two letters to Cortés about Alvarados campaigns in Guatemala are published in The Conquistadors. Rather than it being a petition for rewards for services, as many Spanish accounts were, the account was used by eighteenth-century Jesuit Francisco Javier Clavijero in his descriptions of the history of Mexico. On the indigenous side, the allies of Cortés, particularly the Tlaxcalans, wrote extensively about their services to the Spanish Crown in the conquest, the most important of these are the pictorial Lienzo de Tlaxcala and the Historia de Tlaxcala by Diego Muñoz Camargo
Battle of Ameixial
In the spring of 1663, the Spanish had undertaken their most successful attack on Portugal, since the beginning of the war. Under command of John of Austria the Younger, son of Philip IV of Spain, the important city of Évora was taken on 22 May, opening perspectives for a march on Lisbon,135 kilometres to the west. But the lack of ammunition and money paralysed the Spanish army, the Spanish commander decided to retreat to a strategic position at the north east of Évora and wait for the enemy, leaving a garrison of 3,700 in Évora. The Portuguese army was reinforced by three regiments of about 3,000 troops, from England and were put under the command of the Duke of Schomberg, included were a small number of mercenaries from France. Of this foreign contingent, almost 2000 fought in Ameixial, about 1600 incorporated in the infantry and 300 in the cavalry, don John of Austria standard was captured when his squadron was almost totally killed. The standard was presented to King Afonso VI of Portugal himself.
The Spanish casualties were high, all of their artillery and baggage was captured. When the Spanish garrison of Évora of 3,700 men capitulated on 24 June 1663, a memorial stone was placed on the site of the battlefield. In Spain, the battle is known as the Battle of Estremoz. English Expedition to Portugal Bibliography Livermore, H. V. Portugal, the History of Portugal - From the Reign of D. Joao II. to the Reign of D. Joao V. História de Portugal, A Restauração da Independência-O início da Dinastia de Bragança, the Manuscripts of J. M. Heathcote, Esq. Conington Castle. The Making of an Enterprise, The Society of Jesus in Portugal, Its Empire, and Beyond, 1540-1750
Battle of Azcapotzalco
The Battle of Azcapotzalco, was fought on August 19,1821, in the town of Azcapotzalco, near Mexico City. It was to be the last major and decisive action of the Mexican War of Independence. The insurgents, commanded by the colonels Anastasio Bustamante and Luis Quintanar, Mexico City as capital of the Viceroyalty of New Spain was the key point for ending the 11 year Mexican War of Independence. The Army of the Three Guarantees had surrounded the periphery of the city and the royalist forces were forced into Tacuba, Bustamante successfully occupied the Haciendas of Cristo and Careaga, and from there he took the next step into Mexico City. On 19 August 1821, the insurgent, Nicolas Acosta, entered Azcapotzalco, the attack began in the middle of a rainstorm. As soon as the battle began, the royalist general Manuel de la Concha went to his headquarters in Tacubaya for reinforcements, the insurgents retired to Azcapotzalco, sending troops to the Hacienda of Careaga. General Concha followed and tried to force them to him in Azcapotzalco.
When the royalist forces arrived, the insurgent forces attacked them in the vestibule, the combat continued until 11 am and stopped when the insurgent ammunition ran out. Anastasio Bustamante ordered a cannon placed at the entrance of the town but it was unfruitful, the famous insurgent soldier Encarnación Ortiz known as El Pachondo tried to rescue the artillery but was shot and killed. The act inflamed the insurgents who assaulted the vestibule, facing the royalist forces hand-to-hand, defeating them, the victory by the insurgent forces of the Army of the Three Guarantees forced the royalists to leave the Haciendas of Clavería, Tacuba and San Jacinto. The victory of the insurgents in the last battle of the war cleared the way to Mexico City which was taken by the insurgents on 27 September 1821. Valentin Canalizo fought in this battle and he, like Anastasio Bustamante, would become President of Mexico. México a través de los siglos
Action of 7 April 1800
The blockade squadron consisted of the ships of the line HMS Leviathan and HMS Swiftsure and the frigate HMS Emerald, commanded by Rear-Admiral John Thomas Duckworth on Leviathan. The Spanish convoy sailed from Cadiz on 3 April 1800 and encountered Duckworths squadron two days later, the Spanish attempted to escape and succeeded in capturing one ship early on 6 April. The British captured a brig the following morning and the British squadron divided in pursuit of the remainder, Swiftsure had been detached south in pursuit of the rest of the convoy. Two Spanish frigates, Nuestra Señora del Carmen and Santa Florentina mistook Duckworths force for part of their convoy, came too close and had to surrender after a short but fierce resistance. The third frigate Santa Sabina managed to escape Emeralds pursuit but the rest of the convoy was left unprotected, in all, the British captured and sent into Gibraltar 13 vessels of the 16-ship convoy. This fleet, initially under the command of Vice-Admiral Sir John Jervis, the port of Cadiz was the principal maritime conduit for Spanish trade and communication, particularly with regard to the extensive Spanish colonies in the Americas.
In March 1800, command of the blockade was entrusted to Rear-Admiral John Thomas Duckworth sailing in the 74-gun ship of the line HMS Leviathan with Captain James Carpenter. Accompanying Leviathan was the 74-gun HMS Swiftsure under Captain Benjamin Hallowell and these prizes were sent to the fleet bases at Lisbon and Gibraltar, the latter accompanied by Incendiary. Accompanying this convoy were three 34-gun frigates, Nuestra Señora del Carmen under Captain Don Fraquin Porcel, Santa Florentina under Captain Don Manuel Norates and Santa Sabina. All three frigates had undergone extensive preparations for the voyage, with new copper sheathing on their hulls and full crews and they were each carrying 500 quintals of quicksilver for use in the Peruvian silver mining industry. The Spanish convoy sailed on 3 April, and by the afternoon of 5 April was crossing the Bay of Cádiz when it was sighted by lookouts on Leviathan, the British force immediately gave chase, the Spanish scattering in an effort to escape.
Calm weather delayed both forces, but by 03,00 on 6 April Waller was able to bring Emerald across the path of the small Spanish merchant ship Confiance, Confiance surrendered immediately and was taken to Gibraltar by a prize crew as the British force pressed on. The following morning calm winds prevented any movement at all, with allowed boats from Leviathan, for 40 minutes the boats, under the command of Lieutenant Charles March Gregory, exchanged fire with the brig Los Angeles, before the Spanish vessel surrendered. On the morning of 6 April no Spanish ships were in other than Los Angeles. Duckworth ordered his force to separate, Hallowell pursuing to the south while Leviathan went west, at 12,00 however Waller signaled that six sails were visible to the northeast and Duckworth reversed his decision, joining Emerald in pursuit of the main body of the Spanish convoy. By the time fell, nine Spanish sail were visible to Leviathans lookouts. During the day the British convoy had succeeded in overrunning two more Spanish ships, La Bastanesa and Nuestra Senora de las Delares, both carrying supplies to Buenos Aires.
Duckworth planned to sail using a northwesterly breeze that should allow him to cut across the head of the Spanish convoy