Battle of Allenstein
You may be looking for the Siege of Allenstein. The Battle of Allenstein, known as the Battle of Inkowo was an engagement during the early stages of the 1807 Fourth Coalition Napoleonic campaign in Poland. While the battle resulted in a French field victory and allowed for a pursuit of the Russian army. After crushing the Prussian forces in 1806, Napoleon and his Grande Armée advanced east into the Polish provinces of Prussia, the arrival of winter led the Emperor to order his army to winter quarters, thinking that the Russians will do the same. Quite fortuitously, the French of Michel Neys Corps, who had disobeyed orders and overextended his foraging array, thus Napoleon was able to read into Bennigsens intentions and set up what was supposed to be the decisive manoeuvre of the campaign. This allowed Bennigsen to realize the danger in which his army lay. On February 3rd, these arrived at Allenstein and the Inkowo plateau. Seeing an opportunity for a battle, Napoleon ordered four more army corps to march to the battlefield.
He was helped in his task by the fact the French only attacked towards 15,00 hours, when the French eventually attacked, the Russians were prepared and used their fifteen cannon and musketry to inflict heavy losses to the advancing enemy. Nevertheless, the Russian tactical disposition, defending a defilé rather than occupying high ground, with night falling and his position completely compromised, Bennigsen decided to hasten his retreat and ordered Kamensky to extricate his force and withdraw to Deppen. Both sides suffered high losses, with the Russians forced to abandon six cannon. Despite this tactical success, Napoleon failed to bring the Russians to give decisive battle, the French did capture the intact strategic bridges over the Alle, which the Russians omitted to blow up. French pursuit resumed the day, resulting the capture of sixteen cannon. A series of skirmishes led to the Battle of Hoff on February 6th, followed by the Battle of Eylau, dEylau à Friedland,1807 la campagne de Pologne.
Dictionnaire des batailles de Napoléon, 1796-1815, dictionnaire Napoléon, A - H. ISBN 978-2-213-60485-5
Blockade of Almeida
After a French relief attempt failed and his troops broke out at night after blowing up portions of the fortress. The action took place during the Peninsular War portion of the Napoleonic Wars, Portugal is located near the Spanish border about 300 kilometres northeast of Lisbon. The town was captured from a Portuguese garrison during the 1810 Siege of Almeida. On 11 October 1810, Marshal André Massénas French army found itself confronted by the elaborately built, foiled by the virtually impregnable defenses, the French commander halted to wait for reinforcements. Unable to secure food, the French army wasted away from starvation. By 1 January 1811, the 65, 000-strong army had shrunk to 46,500, massena reluctantly retreated from Portugal beginning on 6 March. The British army of Viscount Wellington beat the French II Corps of General of Division Jean Reynier at the Battle of Sabugal on 3 April 1811, the next day, the British invested the fortress of Almeida. After Marshal André Massénas retreat from Portugal, the French installed a garrison of 1,400 men under Brenier in the fortress and these troops were blockaded in the town by forces under Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington.
Since the Anglo-Portuguese Army had no guns to breach the walls. Because of this, this operation was technically a blockade rather than a siege, from 3 to 5 May 1811, Masséna failed to relieve Almeida in the Battle of Fuentes de Onoro. During this time, the blockade was maintained by Major General William Erskines 5th and Major General Alexander Campbells 6th Divisions, campbell guarded the south and west sides of the fortress with too many soldiers and placed his men too far from the city. Though instructed by Wellington to block the Barba del Puerco bridge on the afternoon of the 10th, with great skill, Brenier slipped his men through the Anglo-Portuguese lines on the night of 10-11 May. The fortifications were rigged with explosives and blew up after the French cleared out, after overrunning a Portuguese outpost, Brenier headed northwest toward the Barba del Puerco bridge. Campbell and Brigadier General Denis Pack gave chase with some troops, another regiment arrived at the Barba del Puerco, but since the French had not gotten there yet, the unit marched to another location.
The French were intercepted just as they reached the bridge and numbers of them were killed or captured, a total of 360 Frenchmen became casualties during the night. An unwise attempt by the 36th Foot Regiment to storm the bridge was repelled with 35 casualties by the French 31st Light Infantry Regiment from Reyniers II Corps, an enraged Wellington wrote, They had about 13,000 to watch 1,400. There they were all sleeping in their spurs even, but the French got off, I begin to be of the opinion that there is nothing on earth so stupid as a gallant officer. Zimmermann, The Battle of Fuentes de Onoro, Wargamers Digest magazine
Battle of Brienne
The battle followed on the heels of reverses suffered by the French in both 1812, which had gutted the strength of the French Army, and 1813, where they fought against the Sixth Coalition. The Sixth Coalition had intentions of deposing Napoleon, dissolving the First French Empire, the battle took place near Brienne-le-Château, where Napoleon had attended military school in his early years. As the Allies advanced on France from three different directions, the French Emperor planned to attack and defeat each in turn, Napoleons first target was the spread-out force of some 17,000 Russians under Field Marshal Blücher. To battle his old adversary, Napoleon had a force of some 30,000 troops, Napoleon had tried to accomplish an envelopment of Bluchers whole force near the Aube River, but allied cavalry captured a set of the Emperors orders and Blucher avoided the trap. Additionally, rain had turned many area roads into mud, slowing Napoleons advance, Napoleon finally caught up with Blucher near Brienne.
The French emperor began the clash by pinning the enemy down while he organised a flanking attack, General Grouchys cavalry and horse artillery kept the Prussians occupied as marshals Ney and Victor secured both the town of Brienne and its chateau. About dusk, the chateau was captured by the French, when Blucher thought the battle was nearly over and his second-in-command General von Gneisenau only just managed to elude capture. During the heavy fighting Napoleon was almost taken prisoner by Russian Cossacks, the battle ended about midnight when the allies retreated. Blucher left behind some 4,000 casualties to Frances 3,000, the Brienner Straße in the Bavarian capital Munich is named after the battle to commemorate the Bavarian contribution in the battle
Battle of Callantsoog
Despite strong opposition by troops of the Batavian Republic under Lieutenant-General Herman Willem Daendels the British troops established a bridgehead and the Dutch were forced to retreat. The British government had long deliberated about the best place for the landing of the Anglo-Russian expedition on the Dutch coast, the British planners thought that the great city of Amsterdam could easily be approached and captured from this direction. The project of the expedition was of course known to the Batavian and French governments and military commanders and this compelled them to spread their forces thinly over a large area, from the Scheldt in the South to Groningen. One of the two divisions of the new Batavian army, under Daendels, was indeed positioned in North Holland and this implied that Dumonceau was several day marches away and could in the event not reach Daendels in time to support him. The same applied to the French forces under the command of General Guillaume Marie Anne Brune, the division was accompanied by companies from the 3rd and 4th battalions Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers.
Second-in-command and Chief-of-Staff was Lieutenant-General Sir James Pulteney, the invasion fleet of about 200 vessels in total was commanded by Vice-Admiral Mitchell. By then, Admiral Duncan had joined the fleet, the next few days the British invasion fleet was again buffeted by inclement weather, but by the evening of the 26th this had sufficiently died down to consider starting the landing the next day. Meanwhile, the Batavian forces had had time to make their preparations for the coming event, to understand these, it is useful to consider the terrain at the proposed landing site, as it was in 1799. Den Helder was just a hamlet with two batteries, called Unie and Revolutie, nearby. It was located at the northern point of a spit of sand that jutted out from the North-Holland peninsula. The spit consisted of three rows of dunes behind the North Sea beach, with a road, bordered by a canal, behind the canal was a marsh, called the Koegras. The sand spit was bordered in the north by the Marsdiep and it was no more than half a mile wide.
Daendels figured that it would be impossible to deploy his division in such a narrow space while fronting the shore. He himself took up position near Callantsoog with the remainder of the 1st Batavian Division and this command consisted of the 1st, 3rd, 4th and 6th Demi-brigades, the 1st Jagers and the 1st Grenadiers. Of course, the implication was that he violated the taboo against dividing his forces, at 3 AM on the morning of August 23, the British vanguard under Gen. Pulteney embarked in the boats of the British invasion fleet. There were not enough boats to accommodate all troops at once and these 2500 men of the 3rd Brigade and Reserve landed without mishap, the first to put foot ashore was Lt. Macdonald of the Grenadier company of the 25th. The fleet had meanwhile swept the beach clear with a vigorous cannonade that displaced a lot of sand, the British had landed at the location that was locally known as Kleine Keeten. On top of the dune near this location stood a semaphore station, the Batavian jagers tried to prevent its capture but were driven back on Kleine Keeten, as had been anticipated since they were just a skirmishing line
Battle of Campo Tenese
The Battle of Campo Tenese saw two divisions of the Imperial French Army of Naples led by Jean Reynier attack the left wing of the Royal Neapolitan Army under Roger de Damas. Though the defenders were protected by fortifications, a French frontal attack combined with a turning movement rapidly overran the position. The action occurred at Campotenese, a mountain village in the municipality of Morano Calabro in the north of Calabria. The battle was fought during the War of the Third Coalition, in the second week of February 1806 the Imperial French armies poured across the border in the Invasion of Naples. The Neapolitan army, divided into two wings, retreated before the forces of their opponents. At Campo Tenese, Damas attempted to make a stand with the wing in order to give the right wing time to join him. After the defeat, the Neapolitan army melted away from desertion, the conflict was far from over. The Siege of Gaeta, the British victory at Maida, in early 1805, French Emperor Napoleon prepared to defend his possessions in Italy against the Austrian Empire.
For its part, the Austrian army in Italy under Archduke Charles, King Ferdinand IVs Neapolitan army counted only 22,000 soldiers. Afraid that Saint-Cyrs corps might overrun his lands, the king concluded a treaty with Napoleon to remain neutral during the War of the Third Coalition. As soon as Saint-Cyrs army marched north and Queen Maria Carolina violated the agreement and invited the British, lieutenant General James Henry Craigs 6,000 British and General Maurice Lacy of Grodnos 7,350 Russians landed at Naples on 20 November 1805. However, Napoleons decisive victory at the Battle of Austerlitz on 2 December 1805 resulted in the demise of the Third Coalition, as a result, both expeditionary forces were ordered by their governments to withdraw and they were gone by mid-January. This left Ferdinand alone to face the fury of Napoleon, who had determined to conquer the Kingdom of Naples, Saint-Cyrs corps was renamed the Army of Naples in January 1806 and placed under the command of Masséna, though Joseph was the nominal leader.
Annoyed at being demoted, Saint-Cyr clashed with Masséna and was recalled early in the campaign, the army was divided into three wings. General of Division Jean Reynier commanded 7,500 soldiers of the wing assembled at Rome. Masséna led the 17,500 troops of the center, concentrated at Rome, the 5,000 men of the left wing under General of Division Giuseppe Lechi massed at Ancona on the Adriatic Sea. General of Division Guillaume Philibert Duhesme was marching from Austria with an additional 7, in total, Massénas army numbered more than 41,000 men. While the Imperial French armys combat effectiveness was high, it suffered from maladministration and its troops were poorly paid and fed, leading the soldiers to rob the local people as a matter of course
Battle of Abensberg
As the day wore on, Feldmarschall-Leutnant Johann von Hiller arrived with reinforcements to take command of the three corps that formed the Austrian left wing. The action ended in a complete Franco-German victory, the battlefield was southeast of Abensberg and included clashes at Offenstetten, Biburg-Siegenburg, Rohr in Niederbayern, and Rottenburg an der Laaber. On the same day, the French garrison of Regensburg capitulated, after Marshal Louis-Nicolas Davouts hard-fought victory at Battle of Teugen-Hausen the previous day, Napoleon determined to break through the Austrian defenses behind the Abens River. The emperor assembled a provisional corps consisting of part of Davouts corps plus cavalry, Napoleon directed his German allies from the Kingdom of Bavaria and the Kingdom of Württemberg to attack across the Abens from the west, while Lannes thrust from the north toward Rohr. While the Austrians initially held the line, Lannes strike force crashed through Louis defenses farther east. On the left, the Austrians managed to conduct a capable rear guard action, the day ended with the Austrians barely holding onto a line behind the Große Laber River.
The next day, Hiller withdrew to Landshut, separating the left wing from the army under Generalissimo Archduke Charles. The French surrender of Regensburg on 20 April allowed Charles army a retreat route to the bank of the Danube. The Battle of Landshut was fought on 21 April, Archduke Charles stole a march on Napoleon when his army invaded the Kingdom of Bavaria on 10 April 1809. Even though the Austrian army took six days to march from the Inn River at the frontier to the Isar River. Napoleons deputy commander, Marshal Louis Alexandre Berthier mismanaged the Grande Armées concentration, the central mass of Archduke Charles 209, 600-man host crossed the Isar at Landshut on 16 April, but the next day Emperor Napoleon arrived at the front from Paris. On 19 April, Charles realized he had an opportunity to destroy Davout and he launched 65,000 troops in three powerful columns northwest as Davout attempted a flank march across his front. Luckily for the French, General of Cavalry Johann I Joseph, both sides fed in reinforcements as the infantry battled over a pair of parallel ridges in the Battle of Teugen-Hausen.
Ultimately, Davout brought superior forces to bear in the late afternoon and that night, Charles ordered Hohenzollern to withdraw a little to the east, closer to his main body. On the morning of 19 April, Archduke Charles requested that Hohenzollern provide a link between the III and V Armeekorps, the III Armeekorps commander detached General-Major Ludwig Thierrys 6, 000-man infantry brigade to his left. While the Battle of Teugen-Hausen raged, Thierry clashed with Bavarian troops near Arnhofen, on 20 April, Archduke Charles main body consisted of the III, IV, and I Reserve Armeekorps. These were arrayed near Dünzling and Eckmühl, feldzeugmeister Johann Kollowrats II Armeekorps spent 19 April attacking Regensburg from north of the Danube. While successfully defending the city, Colonel Louis Coutards 2, 000-man 65th Line Infantry Regiment ran dangerously low on small-arms ammunition, General of Cavalry Count Heinrich von Bellegardes I Armeekorps remained north of the Danube
Battle of Arroyo dos Molinos
The Battle of Arroyo dos Molinos took place on 28 October 1811 during the Peninsular War. An allied force under General Rowland Hill trapped and defeated a French force under General Jean-Baptiste Girard, a whole French infantry division and a brigade of cavalry were destroyed as viable fighting formations. In the middle of October,1811 a French division under the command of Jean-Baptiste Girard crossed the River Guardiana at Mérida, major-General Rowland Hill consulted with General Wellington and received permission to pursue Girard with his Second Division. By the evening of the 27 October, Hills forces had reached a point four miles from the French at Arroyo dos Molinos, the 71st Regiment of Foot was ordered to occupy the village of Alcuéscar, three miles from Arroyo. The French 34th and 40th Regiments suffered extremely heavy losses during the battle and he wrote to Napoleon, Lhonneur des armes est sauvé, les Aigles ne sont pas tombés au pouvoir de lennemi. Longs cavalry charged, the 2nd Hussars Kings German Legion particularly distinguishing themselves, over 200 of them were captured plus three pieces of artillery.
Included in the haul was the French grenadier company drum, the shell of which was emblazoned with three flaming grenade emblems, the drums and drum majors staff are on display in The Border Regiment museum, Carlisle Castle
Battle of Bautzen
In the Battle of Bautzen a combined Russian/Prussian army was pushed back by Napoleon I of France, but escaped destruction, some sources claim, because Michel Ney failed to block their retreat. The Prussians under Count Gebhard von Blücher and Russians under Prince Peter Wittgenstein, the Prusso-Russian army was in a full retreat following their defeat at the Battle of Lützen. Finally, generals Wittgenstein and Blücher were ordered to stop at Bautzen by Tsar Alexander I, the Prusso-Russian army was nearly 100,000 men strong, but Napoleon had 115,000 troops. Additionally, Marshal Ney had 85,000 more men within easy marching distance, Wittgenstein formed two defensive lines, with the first holding strongpoints in villages and along ridges and the second holding the bridges behind a river bend. Napoleon had planned to pin down his enemies to their lines, due to faulty reconnaissance, he became concerned that the Prusso-Russians had more soldiers and held stronger positions than they actually did.
So Napoleon decided he would not set up his trap until they had been softened up, after an intense bombardment by the grande batterie of Napoleons artillery and hours of heated fighting, the French overpowered the first defensive lines and seized the town of Bautzen. The Prusso-Russians appeared to be buckling, by nightfall, the French were ready to cut the allies off from their line of retreat. But Marshal Ney became confused and his faulty positioning left the open for the Allies to escape. Fighting on the day, the 21st, was again hard and after several hours of setbacks. But these assaults were only intended to fix the allies in place so they could be cut off, once again, Marshal Ney became distracted and decided to seize the village of Preititz, and thus lost sight of the strategic importance of cutting off the allies. The Prusso-Russians were being pushed back across the river and, at 4 p. m. when the Imperial Guard was sent in, without Neys forces to seal them in, they again escaped the total defeat Napoleon had planned.
Losses on both sides totaled around 20,000, the French victory at Bautzen is therefore often called a Pyrrhic victory. Although a success for the French, Bautzen was not the decisive, Neys failure to cut the line of retreat robbed the French of complete victory. Once more Napoleon had to settle for a narrow, pyrrhic victory, to make matters worse, during the battle, Napoleons close friend and Grand Marshal of the Palace, General Geraud Duroc, was mortally wounded by a cannonball and died hours after the battle. Following Bautzen, Napoleon agreed to a truce with the Coalition. The Armistice of Pleischwitz was signed on 4 June, and lasted until 20 July, during this time he hoped to gather more troops, especially cavalry, and better train his new army. The allies, would not be idle, they too would mobilize and better prepare, and after hostilities were resumed, the Austrians joined the ranks of the allies. It is reported that Napoleon quoted, that his agreement to this truce was a bad mistake, the campaign would resume in August
Battle of Caldiero (1805)
The Battle of Caldiero took place on October 30,1805, pitting the French Armée dItalie under Marshal André Masséna against an Austrian army under the command of Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen. The fighting took place at Caldiero,15 kilometres east of Verona, in the War of the Third Coalition, on 18 October, Masséna won a bridgehead on the east bank of the Adige River in the Battle of Verona. At dawn, the French launched their attack from Verona against Josef Philipp Vukassovichs division, after heavy fighting, the divisions of Guillaume Philibert Duhesme and Gaspard Amédée Gardanne cleared the town of San Giorgio and part of the heights of Veronetta. The French lost 77 dead and 246 wounded, while the Austrians suffered 246 killed and 906 wounded, Archduke Charles was so unhappy with Vukassovichs performance that he replaced him with Franz Seraph of Orsini-Rosenberg. The fighting on 29 October is considered by one historian to be part of the Battle of Caldiero, on that day, the divisions of Duhesme and Gardanne advanced on the left against Rosenberg, while Molitors and Louis Partouneauxs divisions moved forward against the town of Veronetta.
Seeing a mass of French troops approaching, the Austrians abandoned Veronetta, the French mauled Rosenbergs division and forced Johann Maria Philipp Frimont out of San Michele after street fighting. By the end of the day, Massénas troops closed up to the defense line of Archduke Charles. The French counted losses of 527 killed and wounded, plus 157 captured, Austrian casualties were heavier, numbering 1,926 killed and wounded, with 1,114 prisoners. Upon reconnoitering the Austrian position, Masséna drew up his plan, to the left Molitors division would deploy close to Ca dellAra and would set out to take the heights of Colognola. To the right, Duhesme would march on Gombione in order to fall upon Caldiero, Masséna was planning to wait for Verdiers flanking maneuver before committing to a frontal attack, but Archduke Charles took the initiative, attacking on both flanks of the French army. Taking with him the cavalry he had available, Simbschen made the first move against Molitor, descending the slope of the Colognola heights, on the other side of the battlefield, Nordmann moved forward too, following the river line of the Adige.
Molitor moved forward himself and his forces clashed with Simbschens, forcing the back up the slopes of the Colognola Alta. A second French assault would fail and the fighting would continue much of the day. In the centre, general Gardanne belatedly formed his men and painstakingly fought his way up towards Caldiero against a determined Bellegarde, Gardannes first attempt failed and he was forced to fall back on Rotta, where he was immediately reinforced by Partounneaux and dEspagne. With his force thus augmented, Gardanne moved forward again and this time the French managed to take the position of Caldiero. A furious Austrian counterattack regained the position only to see Gardanne receive further reinforcements, one of Duhesmes brigades, Bellegarde reformed his men for another counterattack, which he led in cooperation with Reuss-Plauens forces, which had just come up as reinforcements. The Austrians finally evacuated the position and the exhausted French drove them out, on the French right, general Duhesme moved early against the forces of prince Reuss-Plauen and moved his first brigade under François Goullus against the Austrians at Gombione.
However, Duhesme saw the situation on his rapidly deteriorating and was thus forced to send Mathieu Herbins brigade in support of Gardannes assault of Caldiero
Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube
The Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube was Napoleon’s penultimate battle before his abdication and exile to Elba. Encountering Field Marshal Schwarzenbergs larger Austrian force, Napoleon Bonaparte withdrew his French army after confused fighting, faced with converging Allied Armies, Napoleon decided to attack Field Marshal Schwarzenbergs Austrian troops before attacking General Blücher’s lines of communications on the upper Marne. Early on 20 March Napoleon set out for Arcis-sur-Aube in order to break out towards the Marne. By 11,00 a. m. on 20 March, Marshal Ney, by 1,00 p. m. Napoleon arrived along the northern bank of the Aube River and crossed the bridge. A bitter cavalry action developed in the afternoon and into the night. On one occasion the Emperor, protected only by a company of the Polish 1st Light Cavalry Regiment of the Imperial Guard barely avoided being taken prisoner. During the night Schwarzenberg brought up and deployed 80,000 troops to face the French. Schwarzenberg, suspecting a trap and yet unaware of his advantage, did not attack until 3,00 p. m.
on 21 March. He broke contact with the enemy and ordered most French troops to recross the Aube River. A French rear guard commanded by Marshal Oudinot bitterly held off the Austrians until 6,00 p. m. before falling back in good order and blowing the bridge over the Aube River up behind them. The Austrians made no effort to pursue the retreating French, the battle cost the French 3,000 casualties and the Austrians 4,000 casualties. On 25 March the Allies defeated Marshal Marmont and Marshal Mortier at the Battle of Fère-Champenoise, the Allies ignored Napoleon’s attempts to attack their lines of communications, and marched on Paris, which the Allies occupied on 31 March