Pages in category "Bavarian language"
The following 10 pages are in this category, out of 10 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 10 pages are in this category, out of 10 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Bavarian language – Bavarian, is a major group of Upper German varieties spoken in the southeast of the German language area, largely covered by Bavaria and Austria. It forms a continuum of more or less mutually intelligible local and regional variants, the Bavarians as a group formed in the early medieval period, as the population of the Duchy of Bavaria, forming the south-eastern part of the kingdom of Germany. The Old High German documents from the area of Bavaria are identified as Altbairisch, the dialectal separation of Upper German into East Upper German and West Upper German becomes more tangible in the Middle High German period, from about the 12th century. Three main dialect groups in Bavarian are, Northern Bavarian, mainly spoken in Upper Palatinate, southern Bavarian in Tyrol, South Tyrol, Carinthia, Styria, and the southern parts of Salzburg and Burgenland. Differences are clearly noticeable within those three subgroups, which in Austria often coincide with the borders of the particular states, for example, each of the accents of Carinthia, Styria, and Tyrol can be easily recognised. Also, there is a difference between eastern and western central Bavarian, roughly coinciding with the border between Austria and Bavaria. In addition, the Viennese dialect has some characteristics distinguishing it from all other dialects, in Vienna, minor, but recognizable, variations are characteristic for distinct districts of the city. In contrast to other varieties of German, Bavarian differs sufficiently from Standard German to make it difficult for native speakers to adopt standard pronunciation. All educated Bavarians and Austrians, however, can read, write and understand Standard German, in those regions, Standard German is restricted to use as the language of writing and the media. It is therefore referred to as Schriftdeutsch rather than the usual term Hochdeutsch. Bavaria and Austria officially use Standard German as the medium of education. This accent usually only exists in families where Bavarian is spoken regularly, families that do not use Bavarian at home usually use Standard German instead. In Austria, some parts of grammar and spelling are taught in Standard German lessons, as reading and writing in Bavarian is generally not taught at schools, almost all literate speakers of the language prefer to use Standard German for writing. Regional authors and literature may play a role in education as well, although there exist grammars, vocabularies, and a translation of the Bible in Bavarian, there is no common orthographic standard. Poetry is written in various Bavarian dialects, and many pop songs use the language as well, although Bavarian as a spoken language is in daily use in its region, Standard German, often with strong regional influence, is preferred in the mass media. On the use of Bavarian and standard German in Austria see Austrian German, ludwig Thoma is a noted author who wrote works such as Lausbubengeschichten in Bavarian. There is a Bavarian Wikipedia, completely in Bavarian, notes, The phoneme /h/ is frequently realised as or word-internally, while it is realised as word-initially. Intervocalic /s/ can be voiced to, Bavarian has an extensive vowel inventory, as is common for Germanic languages
2. Austrian German – Austrian German, Austrian Standard German, Standard Austrian German or Austrian High German, is the variety of Standard German written and spoken in Austria and North Italy. It has the highest sociolinguistic prestige locally, as it is the used in the media. In less formal situations, Austrians tend to use forms closer to or identical with the Bavarian and Alemannic dialects, traditionally spoken –, at the time, the written standard was Oberdeutsche Schreibsprache, which was highly influenced by the Bavarian and Alemannic dialects of Austria. Another option was to create a new standard based on the Southern German dialects, thus Standard Austrian German has the same geographic origin as the Standard German of Germany and Swiss High German. The process of introducing the new standard was led by Joseph von Sonnenfels. As German is a language, Austrian German is merely one among several varieties of Standard German. Much like the relationship between British English and American English, the German varieties differ in minor respects but are recognizably equivalent, the official Austrian dictionary, das Österreichische Wörterbuch, prescribes grammatical and spelling rules defining the official language. The 1996 spelling reform is somewhat practiced in Austria, the sharp s is used in Austria, as in Germany. It differed from other dialects in vocabulary and pronunciation, it appears to have spoken with a slight degree of nasality. This was not a standard in a technical sense, as it was just the social standard of upper-class speech. For many years, Austria had a form of the language for official government documents. This form is known as Österreichische Kanzleisprache, or Austrian chancellery language and it is a very traditional form of the language, probably derived from medieval deeds and documents, and has a very complicated structure and vocabulary generally reserved for such documents. For most speakers, this form of the language is difficult to understand, as it contains many highly specialised terms for diplomatic, internal, official. There are no variations, because this special written form has mainly been used by a government that has now for centuries been based in Vienna. Österreichische Kanzleisprache is now used less and less, thanks to various reforms that reduced the number of traditional civil servants. As a result, Standard German is replacing it in government, when Austria became a member of the European Union, the Austrian variety of the German language — limited to 23 agricultural terms — was protected in Protocol no. 10, regarding the use of Austrian-specific terms in the framework of the European Union, Austrian German is the only variety of a pluricentric language recognized under international law or EU primary law. All facts concerning “Protocol no. 10” are documented in Markhardts Das österreichische Deutsch im Rahmen der EU, Peter Lang,2005
3. Cimbrian language – Cimbrian refers to any of several local Upper German varieties spoken in northeastern Italy. The speakers of the language are known as Zimbern, Cimbrian is a Germanic language related to Bavarian most probably deriving from a Southern Bavarian dialect. It is also related to the Mócheno language and its many essential differences in grammar as well as in vocabulary and pronunciation make it practically unintelligible for people speaking Standard German or Bavarian. The use of Italian throughout the country and the influence of nearby Venetian have both had large effects on the number of speakers of Cimbrian throughout past centuries and this effect has been large enough to cause Cimbrian to be deemed by some as an endangered language. The earliest record of the movement of Bavarians to Verona dates to ca, the settlement continued during the 11th and 12th centuries. A theory of Lombardic origin of the Zimbern was proposed in 1948 by Bruno Schweizer, the debate was again revived in 2004 by Cimbrian linguist Ermenegildo Bidese. The majority of linguists remains committed to the hypothesis of medieval immigration and this is the likely origin of the current endonym. An alternative hypothesis derives the name from a term for carpenter and it is estimated that about 2,220 people speak Cimbrian. In Trentino, according to the census of 2001, the first in which data on native languages were recorded, in other municipalities of Trentino 615 persons declared themselves members of the Cimbrian linguistic group, a total of 882 in Trentino. Cimbrian is officially recognised in Trentino by provincial and national law, beginning in the 1990s, various laws and regulations have been passed by the Italian parliament and provincial assembly that put the Cimbrian language and culture under protection. School curricula were adapted in order to teach in Cimbrian, a cultural institute was founded by decree in 1987, whose purpose is to. The cultural institute hosts literature competitions for children as well as summer camps. The following description of Cimbrian grammar refers predominantly to the dialect of Lusern, a star represents sounds that are used by those who speak the Lusern dialect outside of Lusern in strictly Italian areas. Diacritics and graphemes common in German and other languages are mostly utilized for sounds that do not exist in Italian, diphthongs are written as in Italian whereby, for example, drai three is written in contrast to the German Drei but is pronounced the same. Is rendered as in standard German as k while the grapheme ch is reserved for the sound, is rendered differently according to dialect, In the Thirteen and Seven communities, is rendered as in Italian - g. If is to be kept before a vowel, the writing must change to gh, in Lusern, is rendered mostly as g, perhaps due to more familiarity with German in Lusern. Though, seeing ghe and ghi is not uncommon, nouns in Cimbrian, as in German and other German dialects, have three genders - masculine, feminine, as well as neuter. Cimbrian makes use of the nominative, dative, and accusative cases, the genitive case was formerly used but has now been replaced with the use of the dative + vo, a similar case which can also be seen in modern German
4. Gottscheerish – Gottscheerish is a German dialect which was the main language of communication among the Gottscheers in the enclave of Gottschee, Slovenia before 1941. It is occasionally referred to as Granish or Granisch in the United States, today there are only a few speakers left in Slovenia and around the world. Gottscheerish belongs to Southern Bavarian within the Bavarian dialect group, the Bavarian dialects of Carinthia are closest to it. Gottscheerish developed independently for more than 600 years from the settlement of the first German-speaking settlers from Eastern Tyrol, the Gottscheer Germans used Gottscheerish as oral language for daily communication, whereas their written language was Standard German. However, folk songs and folk tales collected in the 19th and 20th century have published in Gottscheerish. Already in the 19th century many speakers of Gottscheerish left their homes to emigrate to the United States, after resettlement of most Gottscheers by the German occupation forces in 1941 during the Second World War only a few hundred speakers of Gottscheerish remained in their homeland. After the war Gottscheerish was forbidden in Yugoslavia, according to the UNESCO, Gottscheerish is a critically endangered language. The majority of its speakers live in the U. S. with a significant community in Queens, most of them are of the oldest generation, who spent their childhood in Gottschee County. There are speakers in Canada, Austria and Germany as well, everyday language in the family and elsewhere is English and German or the local dialect, respectively. In Slovenia there are families who preserved Gottscheerish in spite of the ban after World War II. Today, however, there are no more children learning it as first language. As a primarily or exclusively spoken language, the representation of Gottscheerish has varied considerably. The following table shows how some of the more problematic phonemes have been represented in different writing systems, the symbol ə for schwa is frequently distorted in representations of Gottscheerish, incorrectly replaced by the partial differential symbol ∂ or umlauted ä. The phonological inventory of Gottscheerish differs from standard German in a number of ways, the phonological inventory here is based on Hans Tschinkels 1908 grammar. Tschinkel does not explicitly distinguish between phonemic and phonetic status, consonants in parentheses are either phonetic/positional variants, idiolect variants, or dialect variants. In the westernmost part of Gottschee, known as the Suchen Plateau, the phonemes /s/ and /ʃ/ merged to yield /ɕ/, the phoneme /r/ is rarely realized as. The phoneme /l/ is realized as after front vowels and after labial/velar obstruents, Tschinkel gives a large vowel inventory for Gottscheerish, especially for vowel clusters. He does not strictly distinguish between phonemic and phonetic values, the following numbers are given in abridged form in Hans Tschinkels transcription
5. Northern Bavarian – Northern Bavarian is a dialect of the Bavarian language, together with Central Bavarian and Southern Bavarian. The language is spoken in the Upper Palatinate, although not in Regensburg. According to the survey, Northern Bavarian is also spoken in Upper Franconia, as well as in some areas in Upper and Lower Bavaria, such as in the areas around Eichstätt. If it still there, it would include the ostegerländische Dialektgruppe. Ethnologue states that there are 9,000 speakers of the Bavarian language as of 2005 in the Czech Republic, according to the same linguistic survey, the dialect is flourishing in the areas where it is spoken, despite the fact that most speakers are also fluent in German. Northern Bavarian has 8 vowels, And 11 diphthongs, Before /l/, /i, e, in southern varieties of Northern Bavarian the diphthongs /iə̯, uə̯/ are realized with an opener offset, i. e. An interesting aspect of the diphthongs are the so-called reversed diphthongs, or in German and they are called so because the Middle High German diphthongs became in Northern Bavarian, while they generally became in Standard German. Compare Standard German Brief, Bruder, Brüder and Northern Bavarian, the Northern Bavarian diphthong corresponds to the Middle High German and Standard German. Compare Standard German Schaf, Stroh and Northern Bavarian, likewise, the Northern Bavarian diphthong corresponds to the Middle High German and Standard German and by unrounding to. Compare Standard German Schnee, böse with Northern Bavarian, in many Northern Bavarian variants, nasalization is increasingly common. Northern Bavarian has about 33 consonants, /r/ is realized as either or when occurring postvocally, /lʲ/ may be syllabic, as in Northern Bavarian, compare Standard German Mühle. All nouns in Northern Bavarian one of have three genders, feminine, masculine and neuter, many nouns have the same gender as in Standard German, but there are many exceptions. An example is Benzin, which is neuter in Standard German, another example is Butter, which is feminine in Standard German, but can be all three genders in Northern Bavarian depending on where in the Northern Bavarian–speaking you are. As in Standard German there are four cases in Northern Bavarian, the genitive case, however, is uncommon and is commonly replaced either with the dative and a possessive pronoun or with the preposition von and the dative, e. g. or fathers house. An exception is the genitive instead of the dative after the possessive pronouns. Prepositions take the dative or the accusative, but not the genitive, the dative ending -m often sounds like the accusative ending -n, so that these two cases are not distinguishable. Nouns in Northern Bavarian are inflected for number, and to a lesser extent, inflecting for number is common across all three genders, and especially umlaut is productive, in particular in masculine nouns. The most common marker in feminine nouns is, while it is with most neuter nouns
6. Southern Bavarian – Southern Bavarian, or Southern Austro-Bavarian, is a cluster of Upper German dialects of the Bavarian group. They are primarily spoken in Tyrol, in Carinthia and in the parts of Upper Styria. Due to the isolation of these Alpine regions, many features of the Old Bavarian language from the Middle High German period have been preserved. On the other hand, the Southern Bavarian dialect area is influenced by Slovene, Italian, the speech area historically included the former linguistic enclaves in Carniola around Kočevje in the Gottschee region, Sorica and Nemški Rovt. The Cimbrian language still spoken in several language-islands in north-eastern Italy mostly counts as a separate Bavarian language variant, Southern Bavarian is also spoken in the Werdenfelser Land region around Mittenwald and Garmisch-Partenkirchen in German Upper Bavaria