The buff-banded rail is a distinctively coloured, highly dispersive, medium-sized rail of the rail family, Rallidae. It utilises a range of moist or wetland habitats with low and it is usually quite shy but may become very tame and bold in some circumstances, such as in island resorts within the Great Barrier Reef region. Its nest is situated in dense grassy or reedy vegetation close to water. Described subspecies include, Media related to Gallirallus philippensis at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Gallirallus philippensis at Wikispecies
The black-crowned tchagra is a bushshrike. This family of birds is closely related to the true shrikes in the family Laniidae. This species is found in the Arabian peninsula and most of Africa in scrub, open woodland, semi-desert, black-crowned tchagra is a colourful and unmistakable species, 19–22 cm in length. It has a crown and eye stripes separated by a broad white supercilium. The underparts are grey and the upperparts pale brown. The folded wings are chestnut and the tail is black, tipped white, sexes are similar, but young birds have a brown cap and a pale yellow bill. There are 14 subspecies, varying in size and the colour of the back, the male has a switchback display flight. Black-crowned tchagra lays two or three heavily marked white eggs in a cup nest in a tree or bush, both sexes, but mainly the female, incubate for 12–15 days to hatching, the chicks fledge after another 15 days. It is similar in habits to the shrikes, hunting insects and other small prey from a perch in a bush, black-crowned tchagra videos, photos & sounds on the Internet Bird Collection BirdLife Species Factsheet
The baya weaver is a weaverbird found across the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia. Flocks of these birds are found in grasslands, cultivated areas and secondary growth and these nest colonies are usually found on thorny trees or palm fronds and the nests are often built near water or hanging over water where predators cannot reach easily. They are widespread and common within their range but are prone to local, seasonal movements mainly in response to rain, among the population variations, three subspecies are recognized. The nominate race philippinus is found much of mainland India while burmanicus is found eastwards into Southeast Asia. The population in southwest India is darker above and referred to as subspecies travancoreensis and these are sparrow-sized and in their non-breeding plumage, both males and females resemble female house sparrows. They have a conical bill and a short square tail. Non-breeding males and females alike, dark brown streaked fulvous buff above, plain whitish fulvous below, eyebrow long and buff coloured, bill is horn coloured.
Breeding males have a yellow crown, dark brown mask, blackish brown bill, upper parts are dark brown streaked with yellow, with a yellow breast. Baya weavers are social and gregarious birds and they forage in flocks for seeds, both on the plants and on the ground. Flocks fly in formations, often performing complicated manoeuvres. They are known to glean paddy and other grain in harvested fields and they roost in reed-beds bordering waterbodies. They depend on wild grasses such as Guinea grass as well as crops like rice for both their food and nesting material and they feed on insects, sometimes taking small frogs and molluscs, especially to feed their young. Their seasonal movements are governed by food availability and their calls are a continuous chit-chit-. Sometimes ending in a wheezy cheee-eee-ee that is produced by males in a chorus, a lower intensity call is produced in the non-breeding season. They are occasionally known to descend to the ground and indulge in dust bathing, in captivity, individuals are known to form stable peck orders.
The breeding season of the baya weavers is during the monsoons and they nest in colonies typically of up to 20-30, close to the source of food, nesting material and water. Baya weavers are best known for the elaborately woven nests constructed by the males and these pendulous nests are retort-shaped, with a central nesting chamber and a long vertical tube that leads to a side entrance to the chamber. The nests are woven with strips of paddy leaves, rough grasses
The Alpine chough /ˈtʃʌf/, or yellow-billed chough, is a bird in the crow family, one of only two species in the genus Pyrrhocorax. Its two subspecies breed in mountains from Spain eastwards through southern Europe and North Africa to Central Asia and Nepal. The eggs have adaptations to the atmosphere that improve oxygen take-up. This bird has black plumage, a yellow beak, red legs. It has a buoyant acrobatic flight with widely spread flight feathers, the Alpine chough pairs for life and displays fidelity to its breeding site, which is usually a cave or crevice in a cliff face. It builds a stick nest and lays three to five brown-blotched whitish eggs. It feeds, usually in flocks, on short grazed grassland, taking mainly invertebrate prey in summer and fruit in winter, it will readily approach tourist sites to find supplementary food. Although it is subject to predation and parasitism, and changes in agricultural practices have caused population declines. Climate change may present a threat, by shifting the necessary Alpine habitat to higher altitudes.
The Alpine chough was first described as Corvus graculus by Linnaeus in the Systema Naturae in 1766, the genus name is derived from Greek πύρρος, flame-coloured, and κόραξ, raven. The species epithet graculus is Latin for a jackdaw, the current binomial name of the Alpine chough was formerly sometimes applied to the red-billed chough. The English word chough was originally an alternative name for the jackdaw, Corvus monedula. The red-billed chough, formerly common in Cornwall and known initially as the Cornish chough, eventually became just chough. The Alpine chough has two extant subspecies, P. g. graculus, the nominate subspecies in Europe, north Africa, the Caucasus and northern Iran. P. g. digitatus, described by the German naturalists Wilhelm Hemprich and it breeds in the rest of the depicted Asian range, mainly in the Himalayas. A Pleistocene form from Europe was similar to the extant subspecies, the Australian white-winged chough, Corcorax melanorhamphos, despite its similar bill shape and black plumage, is only distantly related to the true choughs.
The adult of the subspecies of the Alpine chough has glossy black plumage, a short yellow bill, dark brown irises. It is slightly smaller than red-billed chough, at 37–39 centimetres length with a 12–14 cm tail and a 75–85 cm wingspan and it has a similar buoyant and easy flight
The black francolin is a gamebird in the pheasant family Phasianidae of the order Galliformes, gallinaceous birds. It was formerly known as the Black Partridge and it is the state bird of Haryana state, India. The head of the black francolin is curved with brown iris eyes color and unique pattern of brown color crown and it has a length range of 33 to 36 cm and weight approximate about 453 g and the size of black francolin is 9 to 16 inches. The primary color is black with black breast rufous belly, white spots on flanks, the flight pattern of black francolin is short, direct flight punctuated by glides with rounded wings, rounded tail narrow black and white bars. The male black francolin is black with white patch on the cheek, the back and wings are scalloped with shades of golden brown with sub-terminal tawny-buff bands and pale edges. Tail is black with white or greyish bars. The female is brown, but has a chestnut hind neck. The extent of the spotting on the flanks varies substantially across the species range.
The female has the upper plumage and tail as in the male but the black is replaced by mottled brown, female is similar but dull with no cheek patch, and collar is replaced with a nuchal patch. Head and under parts are buff where the shows black. Rump and upper tail coverts light brown, Black francolins appear to be found in scrubby habitats with plenty of cultivated crops tall enough to offer shelter and open beneath to provide escape routes and easy travel. They prefer the areas of vegetation, usually near water. They are not forest birds but will frequent brush land and wood edges associated with grass land and they appear to be more closely associated to water than chukars are, and in drier areas. Francolins normally nests in a tall grasslands from late March to May, the male may be seen standing on a rock or low tree attracting attention with its extraordinary creaking call. It may be all day long in April, during nesting. Both parents tend chicks after hatching, young stay with parents through their first winter.
The most likely breeding locations Savanna, Scrub vegetation areas under the cultivated crops and they have a loud call during the breeding season. They are generally monogamous in the wild and it is best to house only pair per aviary, well planted aviaries with little surrounding traffic would be best for breeding
The brown pelican is a small pelican found in the Americas. It is one of the best known and most prominent birds found in the areas of the southern and western United States. It is one of only three species found in the Western Hemisphere and one of the only two that feeds by diving into the water. The brown pelican is the smallest of the eight species of pelican and it is 106–137 cm in length, weighs from 2.75 to 5.5 kg and has a wingspan from 1.83 to 2.5 m. Through most of its range, the pelican is an unmistakable bird. Like all pelicans, this species has a large bill,28 to 34.8 cm long in this case. The head is white but often gets a yellowish wash in adult birds, the bill is grayish overall in most birds, though breeding birds become reddish on the underside of the throat. The back and tail are streaked with gray and dark brown, in adult pelicans, the breast and belly are a blackish-brown and the legs and feet are black. The juvenile is similar but has a neck and white underparts. The Peruvian pelican, previously considered a subspecies of brown pelican, is now considered to be a separate species and it has very similar plumage to the brown, but it is noticeably larger.
The brown and Peruvian pelicans may overlap in areas along the Pacific coast of South America. The brown pelican lives on both coasts in the Americas, on the Atlantic Coast and Gulf Coast they distribute from Nova Scotia to Venezuela, and to the mouth of the Amazon River. Along the Atlantic, they are less common north of the Carolinas. On the Pacific Ocean they are found from British Columbia to northern Peru, in the Pacific, they are fairly common along the coast of California and Central America. Some immature birds may stray to inland freshwater lakes, after nesting, North American birds move in flocks further north along the coasts, returning to warmer waters for winter. They are common in Mangrove swamps, Pelicans are very gregarious birds, they live in flocks of both sexes throughout the year. They are exceptionally buoyant due to the air sacks beneath their skin and in their bones. In level flight, pelicans fly in groups, with their heads back on their shoulders
The American robin is a migratory songbird of the thrush family. It is named after the European robin because of its reddish-orange breast, the American robin is widely distributed throughout North America, wintering from southern Canada to central Mexico and along the Pacific Coast. It is the bird of Connecticut and Wisconsin. According to some sources, the American robin ranks behind only the red-winged blackbird as the most abundant extant land bird in North America and it has seven subspecies, but only T. m. confinis of Baja California Sur is particularly distinctive, with pale gray-brown underparts. The American robin is active mostly during the day and assembles in large flocks at night and its diet consists of invertebrates and berries. It is one of the earliest bird species to lay eggs and its nest consists of long coarse grass, twigs and feathers, and is smeared with mud and often cushioned with grass or other soft materials. It is among the first birds to sing at dawn, the adult robin is preyed upon by hawks and snakes, but when feeding in flocks, it can be vigilant and watch other birds for reactions to predators.
Brown-headed cowbirds lay eggs in nests, but robins usually reject the cowbird eggs. This species was first described in 1766 by Carl Linnaeus in the edition of his Systema Naturae as Turdus migratorius. The binomial name derives from two Latin words, turdus and migratorius from migrare to go, the term robin for this species has been recorded since at least 1703. There are about 65 species of medium to large thrushes in the genus Turdus, characterized by rounded heads, longish pointed wings and the olive thrush, T. olivaceus, both African species. This conflicts with a 2007 DNA study of 60 of 65 Turdus species which places the American robins closest relative as the rufous-collared robin of Central America, though having distinct plumage, the two species are similar in vocalization and behavior. Beyond this, it lies in a group of four species of otherwise Central American distribution. Seven subspecies of American robin are recognized and these subspecies intergrade and are only weakly defined.
It winters in southern coastal Alaska, southern Canada, most of the US, Bermuda and it is uniformly darker or blackish on the head, with a dark gray back. The underparts are more red than those of the nominate subspecies. T. m. achrusterus breeds from southern Oklahoma east to Maryland and western Virginia and south to northern Florida and it winters through much of the southern part of the breeding range. It is smaller than the nominate subspecies, the black feathers of the forehead and crown have pale gray tips
The Alexandrine parakeet or Alexandrian parrot is a member of the psittaciformes order and of the family Psittaculidae. The species name eupatria has its origins from Greek, where the prefix eu translates into good or noble and the suffix patria is a Greek word translating as either fatherland or ancestry. Consequently, the scientific name means something in the line of noble ancestry. The species has naturalized itself in numerous European countries, the Alexandrine parakeets natural call heard here, is a powerful screech but deeper than that of its very close-relative the rose-ringnecked or rose-ringed parakeet. The Alexandrine parakeet is one of the largest species of parakeet species and this species measures 58 cm in total length with a wing length averaging 18. 9–21.5 cm and a tail length of 21. 5–35.5 cm. Adult birds commonly weigh between 200 and 300 g and it is mainly green with a blue-grey sheen on its cheeks and nape, particularly in males. All Alexandrine parakeets boldly display a patch at the top of their wing coverts.
The shoulder patch is seen in parakeets at their first feathering before fledging, the lower and upper mandibles are red with yellow tips. The adults irises are yellowish-white and the rings are light grey. The legs are grey except in the P. e. siamensis where they are yellowish-grey, the species is dimorphic in adulthood. The immatures are monomorphic and are similar but duller in appearance to that of the adult females, adult males always show pitch-black neck rings and large pink bands on their napes. Often males only display a band of blueish-grey above their bold pink nape-band. Adult females frequently show neck ring shadows that are anywhere between light and dark shades of grey, females never display true black feathers in their neck-rings. The adult feathering usually is acquired between 18–30 months of age, but may show up as young as 12 and/or as old as a full 36 months of age. Consequently, it may be difficult to identify the sex of Alexandrine parakeets by sight with absolute certainty until they are a full 36 months of age.
The young males can be identified as soon as they display one pitch-black feathers of their neck rings and/or one pink feathers of their nape bands, the young males develop their neck rings and nape bands in two or sometimes three successive moulting seasons. Adult parakeets with neither pitch-black feathers in their neck rings nor pink feathers in their bands are usually females. It is thus recognized as the worlds largest genuine parakeet species and it looks much like the Nominate sub-species
The blue-gray gnatcatcher is a very small songbird, 10–13 cm in length and weighing only 5–7 g. Adult males are blue-gray on the upperparts with white underparts, have a dark bill. Both sexes have an eye ring. The blue-gray gnatcatchers breeding habitat includes open deciduous woods and shrublands in southern Ontario, the eastern and southwestern United States, though gnatcatcher species are common and increasing in number while expanding to the northeast, it is the only one to breed in Eastern North America. They build a cone-like nest on a tree branch. The incubation period is 13 days for both sexes, both parents construct the nest and feed the young, they may raise two broods in a season. These birds migrate to the southern United States, northern Central America-, Bahamas and Caicos Islands, and they forage actively in trees or shrubs, mainly eating insects, insect eggs and spiders. They may hover over foliage, or fly to catch insects in flight, the tail is often held upright while defending territory or searching for food.
The songs are heard on breeding grounds, and occasionally heard other times of the year. org Blue-grey gnatcatcher media. Blue-gray gnatcatcher photo gallery at VIREO Blue-gray gnatcatcher Bird Sound at Florida Museum of Natural History BirdLife species factsheet for Polioptila caerulea Polioptila caerulea, interactive range map of Polioptila caerulea at IUCN Red List maps Audio recordings of Blue-gray gnatcatcher on Xeno-canto
The blue-naped parrot, known as the blue-crowned green parrot, Luzon parrot, the Philippine green parrot, and locally known as pikoy, is a parrot found throughout the Philippines. The species is widespread throughout the Philippines, including the Talaud Islands and islands off north and it is found in secondary forest, at forest edges and in plantations at elevations of up to 1000 m. Flock size is usually under a dozen, the blue-naped parrot feeds on mangoes, seeds and grains. Habitat loss and trapping have has made this species scarce on most islands except Mindoro, the Katala Foundation has raised concerns over the increasing illegal trade of this bird on Palawan. There are currently five recognized subspecies, others are now generally considered invalid. T. l. lucionensis and Mindoro T. l. hybridus, blue on crown less extensive, tinged with violet. T. l. salvadorii, Rest of Philippines, the birds of the Philippines, An annotated check-list. A Guide to the Birds of the Philippines and New York, Oxford University Press.
Oriental Bird Images, Blue-naped parrot Selected photos
The blue-black grassquit is a small bird in the tanager family, Thraupidae. It was previously classified in the bunting and American sparrow family and it breeds from southern Mexico through Central America, and South America as far as northern Chile and Paraguay, and on Trinidad and Tobago. It is the member of the genus Volatinia. Adult blue-black grassquits are 10.2 cm long and weigh 9.3 g and they have a slender conical black bill. The male is glossy blue-black, with a tail and wings. Female and immature birds have brown upperparts and dark-streaked buff underparts, the male has a jumping display, often performed for long periods, which gives rise to the local name johnny jump-up. This is accompanied by a persistent wheezing jweeee call and this is a common bird in semi-open areas, including cultivation and gardens. It makes a cup nest, with a typical clutch of one to three pale green eggs blotched with reddish brown. Both sexes incubate for 9–10 days, with about the same again for the young to fledge.
The blue-black grassquit feeds mainly on seeds and it is quite gregarious and forms communal evening roosts. Ffrench, Richard, ONeill, John Patton, Don R, a Guide to the Birds of Trinidad and Tobago. BirdLife species factsheet for Volatinia jacarina Blue-black grassquit media
The black-capped donacobius is a conspicuous, vocal South American bird. It is found in swamps and wetlands in Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, French Guiana, Paraguay, Suriname. The black-capped donacobius is the member of the genus Donacobius. Its familial placement is not established, and ornithologists disagree as to its closest relations, in the 19th century, it was placed in the Turdidae, and in the 20th century, moved to the Mimidae. It had various English names, including the black-capped mockingthrush, in the 1980s and 1990s, suggestions that it was a type of wren were accepted by the South American Classification Committee, the American Ornithologists Union and most other authorities. More recently, listing organizations and authors follow Van Remsen and Keith Barkers conclusion that it is not a wren either, Black-capped donacobiuses are common in a wide range of Amazonian wetlands, including oxbow lakes, riparian zones, and other areas with tall dense aquatic or semi-aquatic vegetation.
Mating for life, pairs of black-capped donacobiuses can be seen frequently and they often will engage in antiphonic dueting. Adult offspring will remain with their parents and help raise siblings from subsequent nesting periods in a system of cooperative breeding. Black-capped Donacobius videos on the Internet Bird Collection Photo, Article sunbirdtours Photo-Medium Res, Article chandra. as. utexas. edu Black-capped Donacobius photo gallery VIREO Photo-High Res