Category:Birds on coins
Pages in category "Birds on coins"
The following 46 pages are in this category, out of 46 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 46 pages are in this category, out of 46 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. 1804 dollar – The 1804 dollar or Bowed Liberty Dollar was a dollar coin struck by the Mint of the United States, of which fifteen specimens are currently known to exist. Though dated 1804, none were struck in that year, all were minted in the 1830s or later and they were first created for use in special proof coin sets used as diplomatic gifts during Edmund Roberts trips to Siam and Muscat. Some silver dollars were struck in 1804, though all were dated 1803, in 1806, production was suspended by order of James Madison, then Secretary of State, and the denomination was not struck again until the 1804-dated pieces were minted. Edmund Roberts distributed the coins in 1834 and 1835, two additional sets were ordered for government officials in Japan and Cochinchina, but Roberts died in Macau before they could be delivered. Besides those 1804 dollars produced for inclusion in the diplomatic sets, numismatists first became aware of the 1804 dollar in 1842, when an illustration of one example appeared in a publication authored by two Mint employees. A collector subsequently acquired one example from the Mint in 1843, in response to numismatic demand, several examples were surreptitiously produced by Mint officials. Unlike the original coins, these later restrikes lacked the correct edge lettering, from their discovery by numismatists,1804 dollars have commanded high prices. Auction prices reached $1,000 by 1885, and in the mid-twentieth century, in 1999, a Class I example sold for $4.14 million, then the highest price paid for any coin. Their high value has caused 1804 dollars to be a frequent target of counterfeiting, the Coinage Act of 1792, the legislation which provided for the establishment of the Mint of the United States, authorized coinage of multiple denominations of gold, silver and copper coins. The act went on to state that the coin would be struck in an alloy consisting of 89.2 percent silver and 10.8 percent copper, the purity and weight standards outlined in the Act were based on the mean of several assays conducted on Spanish milled dollars. At that time, silver bullion was supplied to the Mint exclusively by private depositors, the first dollar coins, known as Flowing Hair dollars, were issued by the Mint beginning in 1794. By 1800, a majority of depositors requested their bullion be struck as silver dollars and this contributed to a shortage of small change in circulation, and as a result, the public became increasingly critical of the Mint. Mint Director Elias Boudinot began encouraging depositors to accept coins. Dollar coin production ceased in March 1804, although those pieces bore the date of 1803, in 1832, commercial shipper Edmund Roberts began acting as an envoy to Asia on behalf of the United States government, with the intent of negotiating trade deals in the region. During his mission, he reached deals both with Said bin Sultan, the Sultan of Muscat and Oman, and the Phra Khlang of Siam, an important financial minister of that nation. Roberts was given items which were to be presented as gifts to the officials with whom he was negotiating, but described them as being of very mean quality, and of inconsiderable value. After the treaties were ratified in the United States, Roberts had to return to Siam, in a letter to the Department of State dated October 8,1834, Roberts decried the gifts of his previous journey as inadequate and insulting to his hosts in the Orient. S. Neatly arranged in a morocco case & then to have an outward covering would be proper to send not only to the sultan, but to other Asiatics
2. Alabama Centennial half dollar – The coin was created by Laura Gardin Fraser, who became the first woman designer of a coin. Alabama Congressman Lilius Bratton Rainey introduced legislation for a coin at the request of the states centennial commission. The bill originally provided for commemorative quarters but was amended to provide for halves instead, the bill moved quickly through the legislative process and became the Act of May 10,1920 with the signature of President Woodrow Wilson. To boost sales, a symbol, 2X2 was included in the design for a minority of the coins, Alabama was admitted to the Union in 1819, and celebrated its centennial in 1919. The Alabama Centennial Commission sponsored local celebrations in the state in 1919 and 1920, the coin would also help with fundraising, and the proceeds were to be used for historical and monumental purposes. Commission members persuaded local congressman Lilius Bratton Rainey to push for passage of a bill authorizing a coin, although not mentioned in the legislation, in the case of the Alabama Centennial half dollar, the centennial commission was the authorized group. Rainey introduced legislation for an Alabama Centennial half dollar in the House of Representatives on February 28,1920 and it was referred to the Committee on Coinage, Weights and Measures, of which Indiana Congressman Albert Vestal was the chairman. The choice of denomination came as a surprise to committee member William A. Ashbrook of Ohio, a coin collector, Rainey was amenable to that, and also accepted Ashbrooks discouragement when the Alabaman wanted to double the authorized number of coins. The committee voted to recommend Raineys bill, with an amendment to provide for half dollars instead of quarters, the three coinage bills—Maine Centennial, Alabama Centennial, and Pilgrim Tercentenary—were considered in that order by the House of Representatives on April 21,1920. As the Maine piece was considered, Ohios Warren Gard asked questions about the bills provisions, Gard then questioned Vestal, and learned that another coin, the Pilgrim one, was next on the Houses agenda. It seems to me rather to cheapen the national coin, because it looks like an old-fashioned medal at a county fair rather than the half dollar of the daddies, to use the old expression. I think that these propositions are open to objection, which, of course. Vestal agreed to pass on Gards concerns to Secretary Houston, the following day, April 22,1920, the House notified the Senate of its passage of the Alabama bill. It was referred to the Senate Committee on Banking and Currency, on April 28, smoot, however, stated if the bills had not been reached by about 2,00 pm, there would probably not be any objection. When McLean tried again to advance the coin bills, Kansas Charles Curtis asked if there was any urgency, McLean replied that as the three coin bills were to mark ongoing anniversaries, there was a need to have them authorized and get the production process started. All three bills passed the Senate without opposition and the Alabama bill was enacted with the signature of President Woodrow Wilson on May 10,1920. On June 1,1920, Owen proposed to Kilby that one side have a depiction of the Alabama Capitol building and the other jugate heads of James Monroe and Woodrow Wilson. Kilby sent the proposal, which included rough sketches, to the Director of the Mint, Raymond T. Baker and its sculptor-member, James Earle Fraser, designer of the Buffalo nickel, disliked the capitol as a subject, feeling that buildings never translated well to coins
3. Double eagle – A double eagle is a gold coin of the United States with a denomination of $20. The coins are made from a 90% gold and 10% copper alloy and have a weight of 1.0750 troy ounces. The eagle, half eagle, and quarter eagle were specifically given these names in the Act of Congress that originally authorized them, likewise, the double eagle was specifically created as such by name. The first double eagle was minted in 1849, coinciding with the California Gold Rush, in that year, the mint produced two pieces in proof. The first resides in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D. C, the second was presented to Treasury Secretary William M. Meredith and was later sold as part of his estate—the present location of this coin remains unknown. In 1850, regular production began and continued until 1933, prior to 1850, eagles with a denomination of $10 were the largest denomination of US coin. The $10 eagles were produced beginning in 1795, just two years after the first U. S. mint opened, since the $20 gold piece had twice the value of the eagle, these coins were designated double eagles. In 1866, the motto In God We Trust was added to the liberty coronet double eagle, in 1877, the coins denomination design on the reverse was changed from twenty D to twenty dollars creating a third and final subtype for the series. An 1879 pattern coin was made for the quintuple stella using a design combining features of the liberty head double eagle and stella pattern coin, however this coin was stolen in July 2008. The Saint-Gaudens double eagle is named for the designer, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, theodore Roosevelt imposed upon him in his last few years to redesign the nations coinage at the beginning of the 20th century. Saint-Gaudens work on the high-relief $20 gold piece is considered to be one of the most extraordinary pieces of art on any American coin. The mint eventually insisted on a version, as the high-relief coin took up to eleven strikes to bring up the details. Only 12,367 of these coins were struck in 1907 and these coins easily top the $10,000 price in circulated grades, but can reach nearly a half million dollars in the best states of preservation. There were several changes in the years of this design. The first coins issued in 1907 design featured a date in Roman numerals, the motto In God We Trust was omitted from the initial design, as Roosevelt felt that putting the name of God on money that could be used for immoral purposes was inappropriate. By act of Congress, the motto was added in mid-1908, the design of the Saint-Gaudens coin was slightly changed once more when New Mexico and Arizona became states in 1912, and the number of stars along the rim was accordingly increased from 46 to 48. Double eagles were routinely minted through 1933, although few of the very last years coinages were released before the recall legislation of that year. Accordingly, these issues bring very high prices, the Saint-Gaudens obverse design was reused in the American eagle gold bullion coins that were instituted in 1986
4. Eisenhower dollar – The coin depicts President Dwight D. Eisenhower on the obverse, with both sides designed by Frank Gasparro. In 1965, the Mint had begun to strike copper-nickel clad coins instead of silver, no dollar coins had been struck in thirty years, and none, initially, were minted in the new metal. Beginning in 1969, legislators sought to reintroduce a dollar coin into commerce, after Eisenhower died in March of that year, there were a number of proposals to honor him with the new coin. While these bills generally commanded wide support, enactment was delayed by a dispute whether the new coin should be in base metal or 40% silver. In 1970, a compromise was reached to strike the Eisenhower dollar in base metal for circulation, President Richard Nixon, who had served as vice president under Eisenhower, signed legislation authorizing the new coin on December 31,1970. Although the collectors pieces sold well, the new dollars failed to circulate to any degree, except in and around Nevada casinos, where they took the place of privately issued tokens. There are no dollars dated 1975, coins from year and from 1976 bear a double date 1776–1976. Beginning in 1977, the Mint sought to replace the Eisenhower dollar with a smaller-sized piece, Anthony dollar, struck beginning in 1979, but that piece also failed to circulate. Due to their modest cost and the length of the series. The silver dollar had never been a coin, circulating little except in the West, it served as a means of monetizing metal. This caused shortages of silver dollars in the states where the pieces circulated. On August 3,1964, Congress passed legislation providing for the striking of 45 million silver dollars. This legislation was enacted as coins vanished from circulation as the price of silver rose past the $1.29 per ounce at which silver dollars were worth more as bullion than as currency. The new pieces were intended to be used at Nevada casinos, Numismatic periodicals complained that striking the dollars was a waste of resources. The law had passed at the urging of the Senate Majority Leader, Mike Mansfield. A public announcement of the new pieces was made on May 15,1965, both the public and many congressmen saw the issue as a poor use of Mint resources at a time of severe coin shortages, which would only benefit coin dealers. On May 24, one day before a hastily called congressional hearing, Adams announced that the pieces were deemed trial strikes, the Mint later stated that 316,076 pieces had been struck, all were reported melted amid heavy security. To ensure that there would be no repetition, Congress inserted a provision in the Coinage Act of 1965 forbidding the coinage of silver dollars for five years and that act also removed silver from the dime and quarter, and reduced the silver content of the half dollar to 40%
5. Flying Eagle cent – The Flying Eagle cent is a one-cent piece struck by the Mint of the United States as a pattern coin in 1856, and for circulation in 1857 and 1858. The coin was designed by Mint Chief Engraver James B, Longacre, with the eagle in flight based on the work of Longacres predecessor, Christian Gobrecht. By the early 1850s, the large cent being issued by the Mint was becoming unpopular in commerce and expensive to coin. After experimenting with sizes and compositions, the Mint decided on an alloy of 88% copper and 12% nickel for a new. After the Mint produced patterns with an 1856 date and gave them to legislators and officials, the new cent was issued in exchange for the worn Spanish colonial silver coin that had circulated in the U. S. until then, as well as for its larger predecessor. So many cents were issued that they choked commercial channels, especially as they were not legal tender, the eagle design did not strike well, and was replaced in 1859 by Longacres Indian Head cent. The cent was the first official United States coin to be struck at the Philadelphia Mint in 1793 and these pieces, today known as large cents, were made of pure copper and were about the size of a half dollar. They were struck every year, except 1815 due to a shortage of metal, worn Spanish colonial silver pieces were then commonly used as money throughout the United States. The Mint then struck silver or gold in response to deposits by those holding bullion, by the 1840s, profits, or seignorage, from monetizing copper into cents helped fund the Mint. In 1849, copper prices rose sharply, causing the Department of the Treasury to investigate alternatives to the large one-cent pieces. The cent was unpopular in trade, as it was not a legal tender, nobody had to take it, the cent was disliked for its large size as well. In 1837, the eccentric New York chemist Lewis Feuchtwanger had experimented with a smaller cent size in making model coins as part of a plan to sell his alloy to the government for use in coinage. His pieces circulated as hard times tokens in the years of the late 1830s. At the time, it was felt that coins should contain a large proportion of their face value in metal. The coin would be annular, that is, it would have a hole in the middle. The Mint struck experimental pieces, and found that it was difficult to eject such pieces from the presses where they were struck, provisions for a smaller cent were dropped from the legislation that gave congressional approval for the three-cent piece in 1851. Numismatic historian Walter Breen suggested that one factor in rejecting the holed coins was that they reminded many of Chinese cash coins with their minimal purchasing value. A drop in prices in 1851 and early 1852 made the matter of a smaller cent less urgent at the Department of the Treasury
6. Franklin half dollar – The Franklin half dollar is a coin that was struck by the United States Mint from 1948 to 1963. The fifty-cent piece pictures Founding Father Benjamin Franklin on the obverse, a small eagle was placed to the right of the bell to fulfill the legal requirement that half dollars depict the figure of an eagle. Produced in 90 percent silver with a edge, the coin was struck at the Philadelphia, Denver. At the end of April 2016 the metal value of the $0.50 coin was approximately $6.48, Mint director Nellie Tayloe Ross had long admired Franklin, and wanted him to be depicted on a coin. In 1947, she instructed her chief engraver, John R. Sinnock, Sinnocks designs were based on his earlier work, but he died before their completion. The designs were completed by Sinnocks successor, Gilroy Roberts, the Mint submitted the new designs to the Commission of Fine Arts for its advisory opinion. The Commission disliked the small eagle and felt that depicting the crack in the Liberty Bell would expose the coinage to jokes, despite the Commissions disapproval, the Mint proceeded with Sinnocks designs. After the coins were released in April 1948, the Mint received accusations that Sinnocks initials JRS on the cutoff at Franklins shoulder were a tribute to Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin, no change was made, with the Mint responding that the letters were simply the artists initials. The coin was struck regularly until 1963, beginning in 1964 it was replaced by the Kennedy half dollar, though the coin is still legal tender, its value to collectors or as silver both greatly exceed its face value. Mint Director Nellie Tayloe Ross had long been an admirer of Benjamin Franklin, in 1933, Sinnock had designed a medal featuring Franklin, which may have given her the idea. Franklin had opposed putting portraits on coins, he advocated proverbs about which the holder could profit through reflection, in a 1948 interview, Ross noted that Franklin only knew of living royalty on coins, and presumably would feel differently about a republic honoring a deceased founder. He detested the eagle, and numismatic lore has it that he referred to it as a scavenger. Given the practical man that he was, Franklin proposed the wild turkey as our national bird, an 1890 statute forbade the replacement of a coin design without congressional action, unless it had been in service for 25 years, counting the year of first issuance. The Walking Liberty half dollar and Mercury dime had been first issued in 1916, they could be replaced without congressional action from and after 1940. Mint officials considered putting Franklin on the dime in 1941, during the war, the Mint contemplated adding one or more new denominations of coinage, Sinnock prepared a Franklin design in anticipation of a new issue, which did not occur. The dime was redesigned in 1946 to depict fallen President Franklin Roosevelt, the Walking Liberty design seemed old-fashioned to Mint officials, and the only other coin being struck which was eligible for replacement was the Lincoln cent. Abraham Lincoln remained a figure, and Ross did not want to be responsible for removing him from the coinage. In 1947, Ross asked Sinnock to produce a design for a half dollar featuring Franklin, the chief engraver adapted his earlier work for the obverse
7. Half dime – The half dime, or half disme, was a silver coin, valued at five cents, formerly minted in the United States. Some numismatists consider the denomination to be the first coin minted by the United States Mint under the Coinage Act of 1792, with production beginning on or about July 1792. However, others consider the 1792 half dime to be nothing more than a coin, or test piece. These coins were smaller than dimes in diameter and thickness. The introduction of the copper-nickel five-cent pieces made the coins of the same denomination redundant. The following types of half dimes were produced by the United States Mint or under the authority of the Coinage Act of 1792, authorized by the Act of April 2,1792, it lasted until 1873. Until 1829 it showed no value anywhere on its obverse or reverse, the flowing hair half dime was designed by Robert Scot and this same design was also used for half dollar and dollar silver coins minted during the same period. The obverse bears a Liberty portrait similar to that appearing on the 1794 half cent and cent but without the liberty cap, mintage of the 1794 version was 7,765 while 78,660 of the 1795 version were produced. The obverse of the draped bust half dime was based on a sketch by artist Gilbert Stuart, with the dies engraved by Robert Scot, the primary 1796 variety bears fifteen stars representing the then number of states in the union. The reverse bears a wreath surrounding a small eagle perched on a cloud. 54,757 half dimes of this design were minted, following a two-year hiatus, mintage of half dimes resumed in 1800. The obverse remained essentially the same as the version. The eagle on the reverse now had outstretched wings, heraldic style and this reverse design first appeared on gold quarter and half eagles and then dimes and dollars in the 1790s. Mintage of the series never surpassed 40,000, with none produced in 1804, no denomination or mintmark appears on the coins, all were minted in Philadelphia. Production of half dimes resumed in 1829 based on a new design by Chief Engraver William Kneass, all coins were minted at Philadelphia and display no mintmark. The high circulating mintage in the series was in 1835, when 2,760,000 were struck, both Capped Bust and Liberty Seated half dimes were minted in 1837. These were the last silver half dimes produced, the design features Liberty seated on a rock and holding a shield and was first conceived in 1835 used first on the silver dollar patterns of 1836. The series is divided into several subtypes, the first was struck at Philadelphia in 1837 and New Orleans in 1838 and lacks stars on the obverse
8. Half eagle – The Half Eagle is a United States coin that was produced for circulation from 1795 to 1929 and in commemorative and bullion coins since the 1980s. Composed almost entirely of gold, it has a value of five dollars. Its production was authorized by The Act of April 2,1792, the design and composition of the half eagle changed many times over the years, but it was originally designed by Robert Scot. At this time the coin contained.9167 gold and.0833 copper and silver and it had a diameter of approximately 25 mm, a weight of 8.75 grams, and a reeded edge. The obverse design, or Turban Head, depicted a portrait of Liberty facing to the right. The reverse depicted a small eagle and this type was produced from 1795 to 1798. Simultaneously, another type was minted that depicted a larger heraldic eagle on the reverse with the inscription E PLURIBUS UNUM and this type was produced through 1807. From 1807 to 1812, a new designed by John Reich was produced, the Draped Bust, featuring a round-capped Liberty facing left on the obverse. For the first time, the value 5 D. was placed on the reverse of the coin to indicate its value, in 1813 a modified version of the Draped Bust was introduced, removing much of the bustline and giving Liberty an overall larger appearance. This design which would last through 1834, another modification occurred in 1829 when the diameter of the coin was reduced slightly to 23.8 mm, although the overall design remained unchanged. By 1834, the gold in the eagle had been worth more than its face value for several years. The Act of June 28,1834 called for a reduction in the gold used. The weight of the coin was reduced to 8.36 grams, the reduced to 22.5 mm. A new obverse, the Classic Head, was created by William Kneass for the altered coin, the reverse still depicted the modified eagle introduced in 1813, but E PLURIBUS UNUM was removed to distinguish further the new composition. In 1837, the content of this type was increased to.900 in accordance with the Act of January 18,1837. In 1839 the coin was redesigned again, the new obverse was designed by Christian Gobrecht and is known as the Liberty Head or Coronet head. The reverse design remained largely the same, although the value was changed from 5 D. to Five D, for those struck at the Philidephia Mint, there was no longer any silver in the coin, its composition was now.900 gold and.100 copper. However, gold ore used at the branch mints of Charlotte and Dahlonega had a high natural silver content
9. Kennedy half dollar – The Kennedy half dollar, first minted in 1964, is a fifty-cent coin currently issued by the United States Mint. Intended as a memorial to the assassinated President John F. Kennedy, use of existing works by Mint sculptors Gilroy Roberts and Frank Gasparro allowed dies to be prepared quickly, and striking of the new coins began in January 1964. The silver coins were hoarded upon their release in March 1964 by collectors, although the Mint greatly increased production, the denomination was seldom seen in circulation. Continued rises in the price of increased the hoarding—many early Kennedy half dollars have been melted for their silver. Starting with 1965-dated pieces, the percentage of silver was reduced from 90% to 40%. In 1971, when silver was eliminated entirely from the coins and production increased, the series began to see improved, a special design for the reverse of the half dollar was issued for the United States Bicentennial and was struck in 1975 and 1976. In 2014 a special edition of the Kennedy half dollar was struck in 99. 99% gold. Even though ample supplies of circulating half dollars are available from most banks. Since 2002, Kennedy half dollars have only been struck to satisfy the demand from collectors, within hours of the assassination of John F. Mrs. Kennedys reasoning was that she did not want to replace George Washington on the quarter, both Roberts and Gasparros designs had been approved by Kennedy. After the Mint produced trial strikes, Jacqueline and Robert Kennedy were invited to view them, mrs. Kennedy viewed the designs favorably, but suggested that the hair be altered slightly. Frank Gasparros reverse design of the Kennedy half dollar was also influenced by the experience he gained from designing the President John, the reverse design of the Kennedy appreciation medal depicts a larger and more detailed Presidential Seal than the one he designed on the Mints Presidential series. Gasparros placement of his initials FG is also located on both the Kennedy appreciation medal and Kennedy half dollar. Congressional approval was required for any change within 25 years of the last. In early December, Representative Henry Gonzalez introduced a bill for Kennedy to appear on the half dollar, President Johnson stated that he had been moved by letters from many members of the public to agree with the plan. The bill to authorize the Kennedy half dollar passed on December 30,1963, work was already underway on coinage dies, the use of the already-available designs allowed for the completion of the first dies on January 2,1964. Only proof coins were initially struck, the first Kennedy half dollars intended for circulation were struck at the Denver Mint on January 30,1964, followed by the Philadelphia Mint the next week. A ceremonial first strike was held at both Philadelphia and Denver on February 11,1964, the Treasury Department made the coins available to the public beginning on March 24,1964
10. Morgan dollar – The Morgan dollar was a United States dollar coin minted from 1878 to 1904, and again in 1921. The coin is named after its designer, United States Mint Assistant Engraver George T. Morgan, the obverse depicts a profile portrait representing Liberty, while the reverse depicts an eagle with wings outstretched. The dollar was authorized by the Bland–Allison Act, following the passage of the 1873 act, mining interests lobbied to restore free silver, which would require the Mint to accept all silver presented to it and return it, struck into coin. Instead, the Bland–Allison Act was passed, which required the Treasury to purchase between two and four million dollars worth of silver at market value to be coined into dollars each month and this act, once again, was repealed in 1893. In 1898, Congress approved a bill that all remaining bullion purchased under the Sherman Silver Purchase Act to be coined into silver dollars. When those silver reserves were depleted in 1904, the Mint ceased to strike the Morgan dollar, the Pittman Act, passed in 1918, authorized the melting and recoining of millions of silver dollars. Pursuant to the act, Morgan dollars resumed mintage for one year in 1921, the design was replaced by the Peace dollar later the same year. In the early 1960s, a quantity of unissued Morgan dollars was discovered in the Treasury vaults. Individuals began purchasing large quantities of the pieces at face value, beginning in the 1970s, the Treasury conducted a sale of silver dollars minted at the Carson City Mint through the General Services Administration. In 2006, Morgans reverse design was used on a silver dollar issued to commemorate the old San Francisco Mint building, in 1873, Congress enacted the Fourth Coinage Act, which effectively ended the bimetallic standard in the United States by demonetizing silver bullion. Prior to enactment of the Coinage Act, silver could be brought to the mints, the act ended production of the standard silver dollar and provided for mintage of a silver trade dollar, which was intended to compete with Mexican dollars for use in the Orient. Under the act, bullion producers were allowed to bring bullion to the mints in order to be cast into bars or coined into the newly authorized trade dollars for a small fee. Protests also came from bankers, manufacturers and farmers, who felt an increased supply would have a positive impact. Groups were formed that demanded the free coinage of silver in order to inflate the dollar following the Panic of 1873, beginning in 1876, several bills were introduced in the House of Representatives in an effort to resume the free coinage of silver. One such bill introduced into the House by Democratic Representative Richard P, bland of Missouri was passed in the fall of 1876. Republican senator William B. Allison of Iowa added important amendments to the bill in the Senate, the House bill allowed Free Silver, one of Allisons amendments struck that provision. This same amendment allowed for the issuance of certificates for the first time in United States history. The bill was vetoed by President Rutherford B, the presidents veto was overridden on February 28,1878