This category has the following 5 subcategories, out of 5 total.
Pages in category "Blockades"
The following 38 pages are in this category, out of 38 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
This category has the following 5 subcategories, out of 5 total.
The following 38 pages are in this category, out of 38 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Blockade – A blockade is an effort to cut off supplies, war material or communications from a particular area by force, either in part or totally. A blockade should not be confused with an embargo or sanctions and it is also distinct from a siege in that a blockade is usually directed at an entire country or region, rather than a fortress or city. While most blockades historically took place at sea, blockade is still used on land to prevent someone coming into a certain area. A blockading power can seek to cut off all maritime transport from and to the country, although stopping all land transport to. Blockades restrict the rights of neutrals, who must submit for inspection for contraband. In the 20th century air power has also used to enhance the effectiveness of the blockade by halting air traffic within the blockaded airspace. Close patrol of hostile ports, in order to prevent naval forces from putting to sea, is referred to as a blockade. When coastal cities or fortresses were besieged from the landward side, most recently, blockades have sometimes included cutting off electronic communications by jamming radio signals and severing undersea cables. Following the British naval victory at Quiberon Bay, which ended any hope of a major invasion of the British Isles. This began to starve French ports of commerce, further weakening Frances economy, hawke took command of the blockading fleet off Brest and extended the blockade of the French coast from Dunkirk to Marseilles. The British were able to take advantage of the Navys position to develop plans for landings on the coast. However, these plans were abandoned, due to the formidable logistical challenge this would have posed. The Union blockade of ports was a major factor in the American Civil War, as was the failure of the U-boat blockade in World War I. Julian Corbett and Admiral Mahan emphasized that naval operations were chiefly to be won by decisive battles, a close blockade entails placing warships within sight of the blockaded coast or port, to ensure the immediate interception of any ship entering or leaving. It is both the most effective and the most difficult form of blockade to implement, in a distant blockade, the blockaders stay well away from the blockaded coast and try to intercept any ships going in or out. This may require more ships on station, but they can usually operate closer to their bases and this was almost impossible prior to the 16th century due to the nature of the ships used. A loose blockade is a close blockade where the ships are withdrawn out of sight from the coast. The object of loose blockade is to lure the enemy into venturing out, British admiral Horatio Nelson applied a loose blockade at Cádiz in 1805
2. Aliyah Bet – Aliyah Bet was the code name given to illegal immigration by Jews to Mandatory Palestine in violation of British White Paper of 1939 restrictions, in the years 1934 to 1948. In modern-day Israel it has also called by the Hebrew term Haapala. The Aliyah Bet is distinguished from the Aliyah Aleph, the limited Jewish immigration permitted by British authorities in the same period, during Haapala, several Jewish organizations worked together to facilitate immigration beyond the established quotas. As persecution of Jews intensified in Europe during the Nazi era and those who participated in the immigration efforts consistently refused to term it illegal, instead calling it clandestine. First, from 1934 to 1942, it was an effort to enable European Jews to escape Nazi persecution, during the first phase, several organizations led the effort, after World War II, the Mossad LeAliyah Bet, an arm of the Haganah, took charge. Post-World War II, Haapala journeys typically started in the DP camps, from there, the refugees travelled in disguised trucks, on foot, or by train to ports on the Mediterranean Sea, where ships brought them to Palestine. Most of the ships had names such as Lo Tafchidunu and La-Nitzahon designed to inspire, some were named after prominent figures in the Zionist movement, and people who had been killed while supporting Aliyah Bet. More than 70,000 Jews arrived in Palestine on more than 100 ships, American sector camps imposed no restrictions on the movements out of the camps, and American, French, and Italian officials often turned a blind eye to the movements. Several UNRRA officials acted as facilitators of the emigration, the British government vehemently opposed the movement, and restricted movement in and out of their camps. Britain also set up armed naval patrols to prevent immigrants from landing in Palestine, over 100,000 people attempted to illegally enter Palestine. There were 142 voyages by 120 ships, over half were stopped by the British patrols. The Royal Navy had eight ships on station in Palestine, most of the intercepted immigrants were sent to internment camps in Cyprus. Some were sent to the Atlit detention camp in Palestine, the British held as many as 50,000 people in these camps. Only a few thousand actually entered Palestine, the pivotal event in the Haapala program was the incident of the SS Exodus in 1947. The Exodus was intercepted and boarded by a British patrol, despite significant resistance from its passengers, Exodus was forcibly returned to Europe. Its passengers were sent back to Germany. This was publicized, to the embarrassment of the British government. She arrived off the coast of Palestine on August 25, and the passengers disembarked with the help of the Haganah, which received special permission to assist them
3. Anaconda Plan – The Anaconda Plan is the name applied to an outline strategy for suppressing the Confederacy at the beginning of the American Civil War. Proposed by General-in-Chief Winfield Scott, the plan emphasized a Union blockade of the Southern ports, the snake image caught on, giving the proposal its popular name. A spearhead, a small amphibious force of army troops transported by boats and supported by gunboats, should advance rapidly. They would be followed by a traditional army, marching behind them to secure the victories. The culminating battle would be for the forts below New Orleans, when they fell, the river would be in Federal hands from its source to its mouth, Scotts plan had elements similar to a plan created before the Civil War. That antebellum plan was intended to crush a limited domestic insurrection by closing ports and it was not intended to deal with a new political organization with a regular army. The complete strategy could not be implemented immediately, as no warships of the type imagined for the Mississippi campaign existed, the U. S. Navy was also too small to enforce the blockade in the first months of the war. It would take time to gather and train the forces needed to out the Mississippi thrust. Hence, Scotts plan was subjected to a deal of ridicule. His opponents called for an overland campaign, directed primarily at the Confederate capital of Richmond. Their stated belief was that if a few strongholds were taken, the conflict was not the brief affair that Scotts critics imagined. In the four years of war, the Federal Navy enforced a blockade that certainly weakened the South, the form of the Northern victory thus turned out to look very much like what Scott had proposed in the early days. Consequently, the Anaconda has been rehabilitated, and general histories of the Civil War often credit it with guiding President Abraham Lincolns strategy throughout. The Anaconda had a development, both in its origin and the way it played out in the experience of battle. The blockade had already been proclaimed by President Lincoln and this executive order was not rescinded until the end of the war, so the blockade existed independently of Scotts plan. In the early days of the movement, the status of the border states Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland. All except Delaware had strong pro-Southern interests, because Congress was not in session to authorize Presidential initiatives to suppress the rebellion, the burden of raising troops for the war fell on the loyal state governments. Ohio was particularly active in doing so, and early acquired the services of George B, McClellan, who was to serve as the commander of its militia, with rank Major General of Volunteers
4. Argentine air forces in the Falklands War – This article describes the composition and actions of the Argentine air forces in the Falklands War, which comprised units of the Air Force, Army, Navy and other services. For an overview of the air forces of the United Kingdom involved in the conflict, despite initiating the war, Argentina had not prepared a plan for the subsequent defence of the islands. The military dictatorship that governed the country at the time regarded the seizure of the Falklands as an act to obtain a diplomatic bargaining position. Consequently they were taken by surprise when the British responded with a mobilization. The Argentine Air Force had never considered the possibility of waging a naval air campaign against a major NATO power. It was not trained or equipped for such a mission, the FAA had only two tanker aircraft to serve the whole air force and navy, and its fighter-bomber Mirage IIIs and IAI Daggers were not equipped for aerial refuelling. The FAAs training, tactics and equipment were focused on a war against Chile. The option to attack Chile was a cause of concern to the Argentina military during the war. The Chilean armed forces had deployed a significant force to Chiles common border with Argentina, in Argentinas favour, Peru immediately offered its support to the Argentine cause, with the Peruvian Air Force even offering to fly combat missions. This was politely declined by the Argentine government, finally on June 4, ten Peruvian Mirage 5 with AS-30 missiles arrived to Tandil but the war ended before they could be used. Israel Aircraft Industries technicians that were in the country under the 1979 IAI Daggers contract continued their work during the conflict, by the best estimates, Argentina totaled about 240 planes when the war broke out. About half of those were posted in the interior and along the Chilean border, the long distances from their bases prevented them from using their top speed or they risked running out of fuel. Although the Argentines had more aeroplanes than the British Task force, also, the A-4 Skyhawk force were dependent on the two available KC-130 tankers, limiting the amount of aeroplanes that could attack simultaneously. Argentinas fleet of A-4 Skyhawk attack jets was in poor condition. The arms embargo placed by the United States in 1976, due to the Dirty War, had made most airframes unusable, the involvement of Israel in helping to return the A-4 to full operational status has been alleged, but has never been confirmed. The small air arm of the Argentine Navy was in the middle of the transition from the A-4Q Skyhawk to the new Super Etendard. Only five of the Etendards anti-ship Exocet missiles had been delivered at the time of the conflict, additionally, the required programming for the missiles to interact with the Etendards computers had not been completed by French engineers when the conflict broke out. Navy pilots, particularly those of the 3rd Naval Fighters Squadron flying A-4Qs were the only trained in bombing warships
5. Argentine naval forces in the Falklands War – This article describes the composition and actions of the Argentine naval forces in the Falklands War. For a list of forces from the United Kingdom, see British naval forces in the Falklands War. On 2 April an amphibious landing was made at Stanley and on 3 April Argentine marines used helicopters to take over the Georgias, the war could not have happened at a worse time for the Argentines. They were expecting new destroyers, frigates and submarines being built in West Germany and their shipment of French Super Etendards and Exocets were not yet complete. On the other hand, the Royal Navy was in middle of great cutbacks that would have eliminated its force of aircraft carriers and amphibious forces in the coming months. Vice Admiral Juan José Lombardo Ships that only participated in the invasion,2 April, Commander José Sarcona ARA Comodoro Py - A Gearing-class destroyer. ARA Comodoro Seguí - An Allen M. Sumner-class destroyer, formerly USS Hank, Rear Admiral Jorge Allara ARA Cabo San Antonio - Argentine built USS De Soto County-class LST, an amphibious landing ship. ARA Guerrico - A Drummond -class corvette, ARA Bahia Paraiso Antarctic Survey ship. A polar transport, later deployed as hospital ship off Stanley, Bahía Paraíso transported Argentine forces from Corbeta Uruguay base to South Georgia in the events preceding the Falklands War. ARA Alférez Sobral - a Sotoyomo class patrol vessel, formerly USS Salish, damaged by Sea Skua missiles fired by Westland Lynx HAS. Mk. 2/3 helicopters from HMS Glasgow, ARA Comodoro Somellera, a Sotoyomo class patrol vessel, formerly USS Catawba ATA-210. During the war the British claimed to have sunk the Comodoro Somellera with Sea Skua, the ship continued to serve in the Argentine navy until 1998 when she sank in the port of Ushuaia during a storm following a collision with ARA Suboficial Castillo. ARA Isla de los Estados - A transport ship sunk by HMS Alacrity in Falkland Sound, ARA Bahía Buen Suceso - A transport ship, the Bahía Buen Suceso transported Constantino Davidoffs party to South Georgia precipitating the Falklands War. She was moved from Stanley to the Falklands Sound on 29 April, during the trip, the ship spotted the schooner Penelope, property of the FIC, which was taken over by an Argentine Prize crew the following day. While at anchor at Fox Bay, the transport ran aground in a storm and was damaged by 30 mm ADEN cannon fire from BAe Sea Harrier FRS. Mk. 1s. The British eventually captured the hull after the war and sunk her in high seas, direct control from Puerto Belgrano naval base, Buenos Aires Province. Vice Admiral Juan Lombardo Rear Admiral Jorge Allara ARA Veinticinco de Mayo - A Colossus class aircraft carrier, threat of submarine attack kept the ship confined to port after 3 May. ARA Hércules - A Type 42 destroyer, ARA Santísima Trinidad - A Type 42 destroyer. ARA Punta Médanos - A fleet tanker, Captain Héctor Bonzo ARA General Belgrano - A Brooklyn-class cruiser, formerly USS Phoenix sunk by Mk.8 torpedoes fired by HMS Conqueror
6. Berlin Blockade – The Berlin Blockade was one of the first major international crises of the Cold War. During the multinational occupation of post–World War II Germany, the Soviet Union blocked the Western Allies railway, road, the Soviets offered to drop the blockade if the Western Allies withdrew the newly introduced Deutsche mark from West Berlin. In response, the Western Allies organized the Berlin airlift to carry supplies to the people of West Berlin, the Soviets did not disrupt the airlift for fear this might lead to open conflict. By the spring of 1949, the airlift was clearly succeeding, on 12 May 1949, the USSR lifted the blockade of West Berlin. The Berlin Blockade served to highlight the ideological and economic visions for postwar Europe. These zones were located roughly around the then-current locations of the allied armies, also divided into occupation zones, Berlin was located 100 miles inside Soviet-controlled eastern Germany. The United States, United Kingdom, and France controlled western portions of the city, factories, equipment, technicians, managers and skilled personnel were removed to the Soviet Union. Stalin and other leaders told visiting Bulgarian and Yugoslavian delegations in early 1946 that Germany must be both Soviet and communist, a further factor contributing to the Blockade was that there had never been a formal agreement guaranteeing rail and road access to Berlin through the Soviet zone. At the end of the war, western leaders had relied on Soviet goodwill to them with access. The Soviets also granted only three air corridors for access to Berlin from Hamburg, Bückeburg and Frankfurt, in response, the Soviets started a public relations campaign against American policy and began to obstruct the administrative work of all four zones of occupation. Until the blockade began in 1948, the Truman Administration had not decided whether American forces should remain in West Berlin after the establishment of a West German government, Berlin quickly became the focal point of both US and Soviet efforts to re-align Europe to their respective visions. As Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov noted, What happens to Berlin, happens to Germany, what happens to Germany, Berlin had suffered enormous damage, its prewar population of 4.3 million people was reduced to 2.8 million. After harsh treatment, forced emigration, political repression and the hard winter of 1945–1946. Local elections in 1946 resulted in a massive anti-communist protest vote, Berlins citizens overwhelmingly elected non-Communist members to its city council. Meanwhile, to coordinate the economies of the British and United States occupation zones, after March 1946 the British zonal advisory board was established, with representatives of the states, the central offices, political parties, trade unions, and consumer organisations. As indicated by its name, the advisory board had no legislative power. The Control Commission for Germany – British Element made all decisions with its legislative power and it created its own central bodies headed by a secretariat seated in Stuttgart. Eventually the London Agreement on German External Debts, also known as the London Debt Agreement, was concluded, in response to the announcement of the first of these meetings, in late January 1948, the Soviets began stopping British and American trains to Berlin to check passenger identities
7. Blockade of Wonsan – The Blockade of Wonsan, or the Siege of Wonsan, from February 16,1951 to July 27,1953, during the Korean War, was the longest naval blockade in modern history, lasting 861 days. UN naval forces, primarily from the United States, successfully kept the important city of Wonsan from being used by the North Korean Navy. The blockade also served to divert communist troops from the front line, North Korean resistance used artillery to oppose the American fleet, although this was mostly ineffective, and the city was heavily damaged by UN naval aircraft and warships. North Korean naval forces had been supplied by the Soviet Union and China with all sorts of sea mines. Soviet military advisors were employed to create more effective mine fields. One of the first objectives of the operation was to begin plotting the locations of mines, because of this, the use of minesweepers became a necessity and eventually dozens would serve in the blockade. Operation Wonsan, or the Clearance of Wonsan, began on October 10 of 1950, rear Admiral James H. Doyle commanded Task Force 90, a fleet of dozens of American warships which were used in the clearance. Two days later on October 12, mines sank the sweepers USS Pledge and USS Pirate, killing men and wounding dozens of others. The United States Navy Pacific Fleet responded by starting the production of new minesweepers in the largest shipbuilding program since World War II. Other vessels were damaged by mines and battery fire as well but the loss of the Pirate, operation Tailboard was the codename for the United States Army landing at Wonsan, and it was found to have been unnecessary. Preparations began over 800 miles away at Inchon where on October 15, thousands of marines and soldiers,30,184 in total, when it came time to land on October 25, the North Koreans had already withdrawn and the British and South Koreans were securing the area. Ultimately the landing was not needed and MacArthur was criticized for not using the X Corps in the pursuit of the retreating North Korean Army on the Inchon front, general MacArthurs plan was to regroup in Japan before launching another offensive, while holding Pusan Perimeter. When the North Koreans and Chinese recaptured the city, defenses were rebuilt in a more formidable way, additional sea mines were deployed, the blockade began on February 16,1951 and would last 861 days until the armistice in July 1953. During nearly three years of blockading United States Navy ships and aircraft engaged shore batteries repeatedly, several American vessels were damaged by land based artillery fire though none were destroyed. UN Task Group 95.2 was assigned to the blockade and they first bombarded Wonsan on February 17,1951, targeting everything used by the communists and causing heavy damage. On February 19, the destroyer USS Ozbourn, under Commander Charles O. Akers, was fired on by shore batteries in the Wonsan area. She received two hits and several near misses and successfully rescued a downed pilot from the USS Valley Forge with a motor boat. The boat officer of the received a Bronze Star for the rescue
8. Blockade runner – A blockade runner is usually a lighter-weight ship used for evading a naval blockade of a port or strait, as opposed to confronting the blockaders to break the blockade. Very often blockade running is done in order to transport cargo, in other cases the blockade runners would carry mail in an attempt to communicate with the outside world. Blockade runners are often the fastest ships available, and come lightly armed and armored and their operations are quite risky since blockading fleets would not hesitate to fire on them. However, the profits from a successful blockade run are tremendous. Although having modus operandi similar to that of smugglers, blockade-runners are often operated by states navies as part of the regular fleet, notable users of blockade runners include the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War and Germany during the World Wars. Blockade runners have always been considered enemy combatants by the party and have been fired upon or captured when detected. Blockade runners are often the subject of press coverage when they reach port, there were numerous blockades and attempts at blockade running during the Peloponnesian War. With his fleet blockaded, Leon of Salamis dispatched blockade runners to seek reinforcements from Athens, during the Punic Wars, the Carthaginian Empire attempted to get around Roman blockades of its ports and strongholds. Twelve major ports and approximately 3,500 miles of coastline along the Confederate States were patrolled by some 500 ships that were commissioned by the Union government. Great Britain played a role on the blockade running business, as they had huge investments in the south and were the recipients of many commodities exported goods. Great Britain also had control over many of the ports in the Caribbean, as well as Atlantic ports off the East Coast of the United States, such as the Bahamas. Among the more notable of these vessels was the CSS Advance that completed more than 20 successful runs through the Union blockade before being captured. These vessels also served to import badly needed supplies, especially firearms, the blockade played a major role in the Unions victory over the Confederate states. By the end of the Civil War the Union Navy had captured more than 1,100 blockade runners and had destroyed or run aground another 355 vessels, during the Great Cretan Revolt, Greek blockade runners supplied the Christians revolting against the Turkish rule during this time. Names of the include, Arkadion, Hydra, Panhellenion, and Enosis. During World War I the Central Powers, most notably Germany, were blockaded by the Entente Powers, in particular the North Sea blockade made it nearly impossible for surface ships to leave Germany for the then neutral United States and other locations. The blockade was run with cargo submarines, also called merchant submarines, Deutschland and Bremen, the Marie successfully ran the British North Sea blockade and docked, heavily damaged, in Batavia, Dutch East Indies on May 13,1916. In 1918 Germany tried unsuccessfully to supply their forces in Africa by sending Zeppelin LZ104, on the outbreak of war, the Royal Navy imposed a naval blockade against Germany
9. Blockade Runner Badge – It was instituted on 1 April,1941 and first awarded on 1 July of the same year. The badge was designed by Otto Placzeck in Berlin and it was in either tombac or zinc and featured a ship with a large eagle grasping a swastika on its bow. Around the circumference of the badge is a chain, through which the ship is cutting, the eagle was silvered whilst the rest of the badge was a dark gray colour. The badge was worn on the left breast pocket of the uniform, a smaller half-size version was awarded for use by civilians and members of the merchant marine
10. British ground forces in the Falklands War – This is a list of the ground forces from the United Kingdom that took part in the Falklands War. 3 Commando Brigade was the formation with most experience of amphibious operations, in its NATO role,3 Commando Brigade was reinforced by the Dutch Korps Mariniers. However, the situation required reinforcement by British units, with the result that 2nd & 3rd Battalions of the Parachute Regiment were reassigned from 5 Infantry Brigade,5 Infantry Brigade - the UKs main out of area reaction formation, tasked with operations outside the European theatre. At the time, it would normally be formed using two battalions of the Parachute Regiment, together with the UK based Gurkha battalion and these were chosen as they were immediately available, as they were neither on internal security duties in Northern Ireland nor attached to BAOR. 42 Commando, Royal Marines — Mount Kent - Mount Harriet,45 Commando, Royal Marines — Red Beach - Douglas Settlement - Two Sisters. 2nd Battalion, Parachute Regiment ^1 — Blue Beach 2 - Goose Green & Darwin - Wireless Ridge,5 x Landing ship logistics detachments. 3 x Surgical support teams Postal courier communications unit detachment of 1 PC regiment Detachment 47 Air Despatch Squadron RCT.59 Independent Commando Squadron, 1st Bn, Welsh Guards — Sapper Hill. 1st Bn, 7th Duke of Edinburghs Own Gurkha Rifles — Mount William
11. British naval forces in the Falklands War – This is a list of the naval forces from the United Kingdom that took part in the Falklands War. For a list of forces from Argentina, see Argentine naval forces in the Falklands War. Command In Northwood, London, Commander-in-Chief, Fleet, Admiral Sir J. D. E, fieldhouse Commander Task Group 324.3 and Flag Officer Submarines, Vice-Admiral P. G. M. Herbert In the South Atlantic, Commander Task Group 317.8 and Flag Officer, First Flotilla, Rear-Admiral J. F. Woodward Commander Task Group 317.0 and Commodore Amphibious Warfare, Commodore M. C. Clapp Centaur-class aircraft carrier - V/STOL carrier HMS Hermes - Flagship 2 SHAR pilots Captain L. E. J, black RN801 Naval Air Squadron part 809 Naval Air Squadron 820 Naval Air Squadron Landing Platform Docks HMS Fearless Captain E. S. J. Larken 4 LCU,100 troops or one Main Battle Tank, LCU Foxtrot Four, bombed and sunk in the Choiseul Sound by A-4B Skyhawks 4 LCVP,25 troops or a Land Rover with trailer. Flight deck for 4 Sea King HC.4 HMS Intrepid Captain P. G. V, canter HMS Alacrity - sank Argentine transport ship ARA Isla de Los Estados. Lynx helicopter damaged by fire from armed coaster ARA Monsunen. Rickard Rothesay class frigates HMS Yarmouth Commander A. S, HMS Leeds Castle HMS Dumbarton Castle Churchill class submarines HMS Conqueror - sank the ARA General Belgrano Commander C. L. Le Marchand Swiftsure class submarines HMS Spartan Commander J. B. Taylor HMS Splendid Commander R. C, lane-Nott Hecla class survey vessels 2,744 t, used as casualty ferries HMS Hecla Captain G. L. Campbell Trawler/Minesweepers - Minesweeper Auxiliary 11th MCM Squadron Civilian trawlers converted to Extra-Deep Armed Team Sweep with some extempore acoustic and they were manned by Royal Naval personnel, mainly from 1st MCM Squadron based at Rosyth. All five minesweepers were involved in clearing two minefields off Port Stanley, bailey RFA Olmeda 36,000 t G. P. Overbury RFA Tidespring 27,400 t S. Redmond RFA Tidepool 27,400 t J. W. Gaffrey RFA Blue Rover 11,522 t D. A. Reynolds RFA Appleleaf 40,870 t G. P. A. McDougall RFA Brambleleaf 40,000 t M. S. J, farley RFA Bayleaf 40,000 t A. E. T. Hunter RFA Plumleaf 25,790 t R. W. M. Green Supply ships RFA Regent 22,890 t J. Logan RFA Resource 22,890 t B. A. Seymour RFA Fort Austin 23,600 t Commodore Sam Dunlop RFA RFA Fort Grange 23,600 t D. G. M. Liners SS Canberra 44,807 GRT — equipped with helicopter pad,67,140 GRT — equipped with helicopter pad and carried 3,200 men of the 5th Infantry Brigade. SS Uganda 16,907 GRT — equipped with helicopter pad, contender Bezant 11,445 GRT — equipped with helicopter pad and carried nine Wasp helicopters and 4 Harriers, arrived after cease fire. A
12. Corfu incident – The Corfu Incident was a 1923 diplomatic and military crisis between the Kingdom of Greece and the Kingdom of Italy. There was a dispute between Greece and Albania. The Italian General Enrico Tellini became the chairman of the commission, from the outset of the negotiations, the relations between Greece and the commission were negative. Eventually the Greek delegate openly accused Tellini of working in favour of Albanias claims, the five victims were Enrico Tellini, Major Luigi Corti, Lieutenant Mario Bonacini, Albanian interpreter Thanassi Gheziri and the chauffeur Farnetti Remizio. None of the victims were robbed, the incident occurred close to the disputed border and therefore could have been carried out by either side. Upon news of the murder, anti-Greek demonstrations broke out in Italy, the Greek newspapers were reported by Australian newspapers to condemn unanimously the Tellini crime, and express friendly sentiments towards Italy. They hope that the Cabinet will give satisfaction to Italy without going beyond the limits of national dignity. In addition, Italy demanded that Greece must reply to the ultimatum within 24 hours, the other demands were rejected on the ground that they would infringe the sovereignty and honor of Greece. Mussolini and the Italian cabinet were not satisfied with the reply of the Greek government, the Italian press, including the opposition journals, endorsed Mussolinis demands and insisted that Greece must comply without discussion. Mussolinis decision was received with enthusiasm in all Italy, on August 31,1923, a squadron of the Italian Navy bombarded the Greek island of Corfu and landed 5000 or 8000 or 10,000 troops. The bombardment lasted 15 or 30 minutes, as a result of the bombardment 16 civilians were killed,30 injured and two had limbs amputated, while according to other sources 20 were killed and 32 wounded. There were no soldiers reported among the victims, all of whom were refugees, the majority of those killed were children. The Commissioner of the Save the Children Fund described the bombing as inhuman and revolting, unjustifiable, the prefect of Corfu, Petros Evripaios, and Greek officers and officials were arrested by the Italians and detained aboard an Italian warship. The Greek garrison of 150 men did not surrender but retired to the interior of the island, after the landing, the Italian officers were worried that British citizens may have been wounded or killed, and were relieved when they learned that there were no British among the victims. The residence of the British officer in charge of the training school. The Greek Government proclaimed martial law throughout Greece, the Greek fleet was ordered to retire to the Gulf of Volo to avoid contact with the Italian fleet. In the Athens Cathedral, a memorial service was held for the persons who were killed in the Corfu bombardment. After the service, demonstrations against Italy broke out, all places of amusement were closed as a sign of mourning for the victims of the bombardment
13. Cuban Missile Crisis – The confrontation is often considered the closest the Cold War came to escalating into a full-scale nuclear war. An agreement was reached during a meeting between Khrushchev and Fidel Castro in July 1962 and construction of a number of missile launch facilities started later that summer. The 1962 midterm elections were under way in the United States and these missile preparations were confirmed when an Air Force U-2 spy plane produced clear photographic evidence of medium-range and intermediate-range ballistic missile facilities. The United States established a blockade to prevent further missiles from reaching Cuba. It announced that they would not permit offensive weapons to be delivered to Cuba, after a long period of tense negotiations, an agreement was reached between U. S. President John F. Kennedy and Khrushchev. Secretly, the United States also agreed that it would dismantle all U. S. -built Jupiter MRBMs, when all offensive missiles and Ilyushin Il-28 light bombers had been withdrawn from Cuba, the blockade was formally ended on November 20,1962. The negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union pointed out the necessity of a quick, clear, as a result, the Moscow–Washington hotline was established. A series of sharply reduced U. S. –Soviet tensions during the following years. The United States had been embarrassed publicly by the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion in April 1961, afterward, former President Eisenhower told Kennedy that the failure of the Bay of Pigs will embolden the Soviets to do something that they would otherwise not do. U. S. covert operations against Cuba continued in 1961 with the similarly unsuccessful Operation Mongoose, in addition, Khrushchevs impression of Kennedys weakness was confirmed by the Presidents response during the Berlin Crisis of 1961, particularly to the building of the Berlin Wall. He also told his son Sergei that on Cuba, Kennedy would make a fuss, make more of a fuss, CIA agents or pathfinders from the Special Activities Division were to be infiltrated into Cuba to carry out sabotage and organization, including radio broadcasts. When Kennedy ran for president in 1960, one of his key election issues was a missile gap with the Soviets leading. In fact, the U. S. led the Soviets by a margin that would only increase. In 1961, the Soviets had only four intercontinental ballistic missiles, by October 1962, they may have had a few dozen, with some intelligence estimates as high as 75. The U. S. on the hand, had 170 ICBMs and was quickly building more. It also had eight George Washington– and Ethan Allen–class ballistic missile submarines with the capability to launch 16 Polaris missiles each, the Soviet Union did have medium-range ballistic missiles in quantity, about 700 of them, however, these were very unreliable and inaccurate. The U. S. had an advantage in total number of nuclear warheads at the time. The U. S. also led in missile defensive capabilities, naval and air power, Khrushchev faced a strategic situation where the U. S. was perceived to have a splendid first strike capability that put the Soviet Union at a huge disadvantage
14. Falklands War – It began on Friday,2 April 1982, when Argentina invaded and occupied the Falkland Islands in an attempt to establish the sovereignty it had claimed over them. On 5 April, the British government dispatched a naval force to engage the Argentine Navy. The conflict lasted 74 days and ended with the Argentine surrender on 14 June 1982, in total,649 Argentine military personnel,255 British military personnel, and three Falkland Islanders died during the hostilities. The conflict was an episode in the protracted confrontation over the territories sovereignty. Argentina asserted that the islands are Argentine territory, and the Argentine government thus characterised its military action as the reclamation of its own territory, the British government regarded the action as an invasion of a territory that had been a Crown colony since 1841. Falkland Islanders, who have inhabited the islands since the early 19th century, are descendants of British settlers. The conflict has had an effect in both countries and has been the subject of various books, articles, films, and songs. Patriotic sentiment ran high in Argentina, but the outcome prompted large protests against the military government. In the United Kingdom, the Conservative Party government, bolstered by the outcome, was re-elected the following year. The cultural and political weight of the conflict has had less effect in Britain than in Argentina, diplomatic relations between the United Kingdom and Argentina were restored in 1989 following a meeting in Madrid, Spain, at which the two governments issued a joint statement. No change in either countrys position regarding the sovereignty of the Falkland Islands was made explicit, in 1994, Argentinas claim to the territories was added to its constitution. In December 1981 there was a change in the Argentine military regime, bringing to office a new junta headed by General Leopoldo Galtieri, Brigadier Basilio Lami Dozo. Anaya was the architect and supporter of a military solution for the long-standing claim over the islands. Such action would also bolster its dwindling legitimacy, the newspaper La Prensa speculated in a step-by-step plan beginning with cutting off supplies to the islands, ending in direct actions late in 1982, if the UN talks were fruitless. The Royal Navy ice patrol vessel HMS Endurance was dispatched from Stanley to South Georgia in response, the Argentine military junta, suspecting that the UK would reinforce its South Atlantic Forces, ordered the invasion of the Falkland Islands to be brought forward to 2 April. Britain was initially taken by surprise by the Argentine attack on the South Atlantic islands, despite repeated warnings by Royal Navy captain Nicholas Barker, on 2 April 1982, Argentine forces mounted amphibious landings off the Falkland Islands. The invasion was met with a defence organised by the Falkland Islands Governor Sir Rex Hunt. Word of the invasion first reached Britain from Argentine sources, a Ministry of Defence operative in London had a short telex conversation with Governor Hunts telex operator, who confirmed that Argentines were on the island and in control
15. Gaza imports – Import of goods into the Gaza Strip is limited as part of the blockade of the Gaza Strip imposed by Israel and Egypt. Israel allows limited humanitarian supplies from aid organizations into the Gaza Strip, humanitarian organizations, including UN agencies, bring goods into Gaza. Cement, wood, iron, cattle, animal medicine, musical instruments, after Hamas won the 2006 legislative election, Israel and Egypt tightened their closure of Gazas borders. Israel says the purpose of the restrictions in import of goods into Gaza are to pressure Hamas, construction materials including metal pipes, steel and cement are banned, since Israel fears could be used for building rockets and constructing underground bunkers and tunnels. In September 2007, citing an intensification of Qassam rocket attacks, the declaration allowed Israel to prevent the transfer of electricity, fuel, and other supplies into Gaza. The stated purpose of the blockade was to pressure Hamas into ending the rocket attacks, on June 1,2010 the border was partially opened, and the Egyptian Red Crescent sent 30 tons of medicine across the border on June 14. Egypt’s foreign ministry has made it clear that the crossing will remain open mainly for people, not for aid, to go through. Egypt does not limit the supply of gas and fuel, though since Egyptian fuel is heavier than Israeli fuel, it damages the newer cars in Gaza, israels blockade was initially more restrictive and has generally been softened over time. On June 17,2010, the Israel cabinet agreed to ease the restrictions on items permitted into the Gaza strip,1, Items Subject to Specific Permission 1. Dual Use goods and items, liable to be used, side by side with their civilian purposes, for the development, production, installation or enhancement of military capabilities and terrorist capacities. Items used as raw materials for improving protection for terror activists - Fibers or woven fabrics containing Carbon or Glass variants, according to Amnesty International, the Economist, Haaretz and UN reports, prior to June 2010, the following were banned or restricted, Food. According to a UN report, importation of lentils, pasta, tomato paste, soda, juice, jam, spices, shaving cream, potato chips, cookies and candy are now permitted. Fruit, milk products in small packages and frozen food products are also allowed, dry food, ginger and chocolate were at one point barred. A4 paper, crayons, stationery, soccer balls, and musical instruments have been, at times, AFP includes toilet paper as a banned good, though the BBC lists it as permitted. A UN report by Kevin M. Cahill said reconstruction was halted because of lack of steel, cement or glass, fuel had not been imported from Israel since 2008. While fuel is available from Egypt, in contrast to Israeli fuel, it damages the newer cars in Gaza, Israel allowed only limited amounts of industrial fuel into Gaza prior to June 2010. According to Gisha, fishing ropes and rods, ginger and chocolate, hatcheries, batteries for hearing aids have been restricted. Wheelchairs, at times, have been banned
16. Blockade of the Gaza Strip – The blockade of the Gaza Strip refers to a land, air, and sea blockade on the Gaza Strip by Israel and Egypt from 2007 to present. In March 2007, Hamas and Fatah formed a Palestinian authority national unity government headed by Ismail Haniya. Shortly after, in June, Hamas took control of the Gaza Strip in the course of the Battle of Gaza, seizing government institutions and replacing Fatah and other government officials with its own. Following the takeover, Egypt and Israel largely sealed their border crossings with Gaza, Israel maintains that the blockade is necessary to limit Palestinian rocket attacks from the Gaza Strip on its cities and to prevent Hamas from obtaining other weapons. In June 2010 Secretary of State Hillary Clinton said the humanitarian needs in the Hamas-controlled area must be met along with legitimate Israeli security concerns. Concerning the restrictions on goods reaching Gaza via the land crossings the Palmer report stated that they were a significant cause of Gazas unsustainable and unacceptable humanitarian situation. UN envoy Desmond Tutu, United Nations Human Rights Council head Navi Pillay, January 1991 marked the beginning of the permanent closure policy, whereby each resident of Gaza who desired to travel within Israel or the West Bank was required to have a personal exit permit. In March 1993, Israel imposed an overall closure on Gaza with newly built checkpoints, when the Al-Aqsa Intifada broke out in September 2000 Israel put trade restrictions on the Gaza Strip and closed the Gaza International Airport. The economic effects worsened after the creation of a ‘buffer zone’ in September 2001, the worsening economic and humanitarian situation raised great concern abroad.4 billion out of the economy of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. The Israel Defense Forces left the Gaza Strip on 1 September 2005 as part of Israels unilateral disengagement plan, an Agreement on Movement and Access between Israel and the Palestinian Authority was concluded in November 2005 to improve Palestinian freedom of movement and economic activity in the Gaza Strip. Under its terms, the Rafah crossing with Egypt was to be reopened, with transits monitored by the Palestinian National Authority and the European Union. Only people with Palestinian ID, or foreign nationals, by exception, in categories, subject to Israeli oversight, were permitted to cross in. The sanctions were imposed after Hamas refused to renounce violence, to previous agreements. In March 2007, the Palestinian Legislative Council established a national unity government, with 83 representatives voting in favor, government ministers were sworn in by Mahmoud Abbas, the chairman on the Palestinian Authority, in a ceremony held simultaneously in Gaza and Ramallah. Throughout 2006, the Karni crossing remained only partially operational, costing Palestinians losses of $500,000 a day, basic food commodities were severely depleted, bakeries closed and food rationing was introduced. Linked with the Fatah–Hamas conflict, President Mahmoud Abbas has expressed his approval of the Gaza blockade, Abbas also objected to the entrance of Qatari fuel to the Gaza electricity plant via Israel, because his PA would be unable to collect taxes on the fuel. Abbas and his party Fatah also opposed the opening of the Rafah Border Crossing if Hamas would take part in the monitoring in addition to the Presidential Guard. Israel allows limited humanitarian supplies from aid organizations into the Gaza Strip, but not dual-use items, International aid group Mercy Corps said it was blocked from sending 90 tons of macaroni and other foodstuffs
17. CSS Lark – The Lark was a paddle steamer employed by the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. She was the last blockade runner to successfully escape from a Southern port before the Union blockade completely closed off this source of supplies. Lark was designed and built by John Laird & Sons, the ship made four successful round trips through the blockade between Galveston, Texas, and Havana, Cuba. In April 1865, she ran aground near the entrance to Galveston harbor, two launches dispatched from the Union blockading squadron attacked the Lark, which managed to fend off the assault with help from Confederate ground forces. On May 24, she dashed into Galveston again and managed to slip through the back out to open sea. Galveston Weekly News, April 26,1865 Life on the Texan Blockade, MOLLUS War Papers
18. Operation Maritime Guard – Operation Maritime Guard was a NATO blockade, in the international waters of the Adriatic Sea, of the former Yugoslavia. The operation began on November 22,1992 and it authorized NATO to use force, and included stopping, inspecting, and diverting ships bound for the former Yugoslavia. All ships bound to or coming from the waters of the former Yugoslavia were halted for inspection and verification of their cargoes. With support from Turkey, the Netherlands, and Germany, the operation was strengthened to allow for NATO aircraft to shoot down aircraft that violated the blockade. An article in the academic journal International Affairs stated that Operation Maritime Guard was, the blockade comprised destroyers from Turkey, Italy, Germany, Greece, and the United Kingdom, and frigates from the United States and the Netherlands, assisted by NATO Maritime Patrol Aircraft. The frigate USS Kauffman and aircraft carrier USS Theodore Roosevelt were among the warships took part in the operation. AWACS supported the effort with its sophisticated maritime radar by providing blockading ships with long-range sea surveillance coverage, the blockade was directed by the Commander-in-Chief Allied Forces Southern Europe, U. S. Admiral Mike Boorda. Under the blockade,12,367 ships were contacted,1,032 of them were inspected or diverted to a port to be inspected and its successor was Operation Sharp Guard
19. Revolta da Armada – The Brazilian government received support from the United States, although military involvement was minor during the conflict. To avoid a war, Marshal Deodoro resigned the presidency in 23 November. With the resignation of Deodoro, after just nine months from the beginning of his administration, the 1891 Constitution, however, provided for a new election if the presidency or vice-presidency became vacant sooner than two years in office. The opposition then accused Floriano of staying as head of the nation illegally, the second revolt started in March 1892, when thirteen generals sent a letter and manifesto to the President Marshal Floriano Peixoto. This document demanded new elections be called to fulfill the constitutional provision, Floriano harshly suppressed the movement, ordering the arrest of their leaders. Thus, not legally solved, the tensions increased. The revolt broke out in September 1893 at Rio de Janeiro, with many of the Brazilian Navys most powerful ships either in the hands of the rebels or under repair, the Brazilian government had to improvise a new fleet to battle the rebel fleet. The cardboard squadron had to face off against a mutiny that had overtaken most of the ships of the original navy. Local bloody conflicts in some regions of Brazil ensued, the navys mutiny off Rio de Janeiro also was a challenge, and became linked to the Federalist Rebellion. The revolt included the powerful battleship Aquidaban and a collection of small ironclads, modern cruisers and this did not leave the government with much left to challenge the mutineers, who could have controlled the seas and influenced the concurrent conflicts on land. In this case, however, the new fleet was dedicated to confronting the original navy of the same country, Brazilian Navy Brazilian battleship Aquidabã Brazilian battleship Riachuelo First Battle of Topolobampo Rebellions and revolutions in Brazil
20. Operation Sharp Guard – Operation Sharp Guard was a multi-year joint naval blockade in the Adriatic Sea by NATO and the Western European Union on shipments to the former Yugoslavia. Warships and maritime patrol aircraft from 14 countries were involved in searching for, the operation began on 15 June 1993. It was suspended on 19 June 1996, and was terminated on 2 October 1996, the operation replaced naval blockades Operation Maritime Guard and Sharp Fence. It put them under a single chain of command and control, some maintain that despite the nominal official joint command and control of the operation, in reality it was NATO staff that ran the operation. The Yugoslav Wars were being waged, and the participants hoped to limit the fighting by limiting supplies to it, fourteen nations contributed ships and patrol aircraft to the operation. At any given time,22 ships and 8 aircraft were enforcing the blockade, with ships from Standing Naval Force Atlantic, and eight maritime patrol aircraft, were involved in searching for and stopping blockade runners. Most contributors to the operation supplied one or two ships, the Turkish Navy, for example, participated with frigates, submarines, and tankers. The operational area was divided into a series of sea boxes, each boarding team was composed of a guard team to board and wrest control of the target ship, and a search team, to conduct the search. The ships were authorized to board, inspect, and seize both ships seeking to break the blockade and their cargo, the Combined Task Force 440 was commanded by Admiral Mario Angeli of Italy. It marked the first time since its founding in 1949 that NATO was involved in combat operations, the issue of differing views among nations in the coalition as to the use of force authorized by rules of engagement arose in April 1994. He received confirmation that he should follow the British commodores guidance from his own higher authority, under U. S. Navy standards, disabling fire means firing rounds into the ships engineering space. The U. S. cruiser was about to pass the order along to the Dutch Kortenaer-class frigate HMNLS Van Kinsbergen. However, the fact that the Dutch definition of disabling fire involves launching rounds into the bridge of the ship, with an increased risk of loss of life. The ship was boarded by Dutch Marines inserted by helicopter from HMNLS Van Kinsbergen, three Yugoslav Navy Končar-class corvettes challenged the NATO operation and one of them tried to ram the British frigate HMS Chatham as it was assisting Van Kinsberger. The corvettes eventually fled following the reaction of the British warship, lido II had to undergo repairs before being diverted to Italy, since the crew had sabotaged the ships engine room. The leaking was contained by a party from HMS Chatham. Seven Yugoslav stowaways were found on board, the NATO and WEU forces challenged more than 73,000 ships, boarded and inspected almost 6,000 at sea, and diverted 1,500 suspect ships to ports for further inspection. Of those, nearly a dozen vessels were found to be blockade runners, NATO officials said no ships were able to run the blockade successfully, and that the maritime blockade had a major effect in preventing escalation of the conflict
21. Siege of Vienna – The Siege of Vienna in 1529 was the first attempt by the Ottoman Empire, led by Suleiman the Magnificent, to capture the city of Vienna, Austria. The siege signalled the pinnacle of the Ottoman Empires power and the extent of Ottoman expansion in central Europe. Thereafter,150 years of military tension and reciprocal attacks ensued, culminating in the Battle of Vienna of 1683. The inability of the Ottomans to capture Vienna in 1529 turned the tide against almost a century of conquest throughout eastern, the Ottoman Empire had previously annexed Central Hungary and established a vassal state in Transylvania in the wake of the Battle of Mohács. According to Arnold J. Toynbee, The failure of the first brought to a standstill the tide of Ottoman conquest which had been flooding up the Danube Valley for a century past. There is speculation by historians that Suleimans main objective in 1529 was actually to assert Ottoman control over the whole of Hungary. The decision to attack Vienna after such an interval in Suleimans European campaign is viewed as an opportunistic manoeuvre after his decisive victory in Hungary. Other scholars theorise that the suppression of Hungary simply marked the prologue to a later and his brother-in-law, Archduke Ferdinand I of Austria, brother of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, claimed the vacant Hungarian throne. Thus Hungary became divided into Royal Hungary and Ottoman Hungary up until 1700, Ferdinand set out to enforce his claim on Hungary and captured Buda in 1527, only to relinquish his hold on it in 1529 when an Ottoman counter-attack stripped Ferdinand of all his territorial gains. Estimates of Suleimans army vary widely from 120,000 to more than 300,000 men mentioned by various chroniclers, Suleiman launched his campaign on 10 May 1529 and faced numerous obstacles from the onset. Sickness and poor health became common among the janissaries, claiming many lives along the perilous journey, Suleiman arrived in Osijek on 6 August. The only resistance came at Pozsony, where the Turkish fleet was bombarded as it sailed up the Danube, as the Ottomans advanced towards Vienna, the citys population organised an ad-hoc resistance formed from local farmers, peasants and civilians determined to repel the inevitable attack. The Ottoman army that arrived in late September had been depleted during the long advance into Austrian territory, leaving Suleiman short of camels. Many of his troops arrived at Vienna in a state of health after the tribulations of a long march through the thick of the European wet season. Of those fit to fight, a third were light cavalry, or Sipahis, three richly-dressed Austrian prisoners were dispatched as emissaries by the Sultan to negotiate the citys surrender, Salm sent three richly-dressed Muslims back without a response. More rain fell on 11 October, and with the Ottomans failing to make any breaches in the walls, in addition, Suleiman was facing critical shortages of supplies such as food and water, while casualties, sickness, and desertions began taking a toll on his armys ranks. The janissaries began voicing their displeasure at the progression of events, the Sultan convened an official council on 12 October to deliberate the matter. It was decided to attempt one final, major assault on Vienna, extra rewards were offered to the troops
22. Type 4 Ka-Tsu – The special Type 4 Launch Ka-Tsu was a Japanese amphibious landing craft of World War II. The first prototype was completed in late 1943 and trials were conducted off Kure in March 1944, the Ka-Tsus primary purpose was to transport cargo and/or troops ashore. It was unarmored apart from some light shielding for the crew and its engine compartment and electric final drives were hermetically sealed, as it was intended to be launched from a submarine. The twin drive propeller shafts were designed to retract into their ducts once the vehicle reached the beach, the first prototype was completed in late 1943 and trials were conducted off Kure in March 1944. By the time that development had completed, it was proposed that the Ka-Tsu be used to attack US battleships anchored in atolls which could not readily be attacked using conventional means. Tests were successfully carried out on a modified Ka-Tsu but the war ended any such mission could be mounted. Initial landing trials, however, revealed deficiencies of the Ka-Tsu, in addition, after the carrying submarine surfaced, it was found that at least 20 minutes were necessary to remove the Ka-Tsus watertight engine covers and launch the tank. Full-scale landing trials were carried out with a submarine carrying two Ka-Tsus and these tests revealed that the Ka-Tsus were noisy, very slow in the water, and their tracks tended to slip if they encountered even the slightest obstacles. Blockade Runner Type 3 submergence transport vehicle Ha-101 class submarine Tomczyk, zaloga, Steven J. Japanese Tanks 1939–45