This category has the following 5 subcategories, out of 5 total.
Pages in category "Blockades"
The following 39 pages are in this category, out of 39 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
This category has the following 5 subcategories, out of 5 total.
The following 39 pages are in this category, out of 39 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Blockade – A blockade is an effort to cut off supplies, war material or communications from a particular area by force, either in part or totally. A blockade should not be confused with an embargo or sanctions and it is also distinct from a siege in that a blockade is usually directed at an entire country or region, rather than a fortress or city. While most blockades historically took place at sea, blockade is still used on land to prevent someone coming into a certain area. A blockading power can seek to cut off all maritime transport from and to the country, although stopping all land transport to. Blockades restrict the rights of neutrals, who must submit for inspection for contraband. In the 20th century air power has also used to enhance the effectiveness of the blockade by halting air traffic within the blockaded airspace. Close patrol of hostile ports, in order to prevent naval forces from putting to sea, is referred to as a blockade. When coastal cities or fortresses were besieged from the landward side, most recently, blockades have sometimes included cutting off electronic communications by jamming radio signals and severing undersea cables. Following the British naval victory at Quiberon Bay, which ended any hope of a major invasion of the British Isles. This began to starve French ports of commerce, further weakening Frances economy, hawke took command of the blockading fleet off Brest and extended the blockade of the French coast from Dunkirk to Marseilles. The British were able to take advantage of the Navys position to develop plans for landings on the coast. However, these plans were abandoned, due to the formidable logistical challenge this would have posed. The Union blockade of ports was a major factor in the American Civil War, as was the failure of the U-boat blockade in World War I. Julian Corbett and Admiral Mahan emphasized that naval operations were chiefly to be won by decisive battles, a close blockade entails placing warships within sight of the blockaded coast or port, to ensure the immediate interception of any ship entering or leaving. It is both the most effective and the most difficult form of blockade to implement, in a distant blockade, the blockaders stay well away from the blockaded coast and try to intercept any ships going in or out. This may require more ships on station, but they can usually operate closer to their bases and this was almost impossible prior to the 16th century due to the nature of the ships used. A loose blockade is a close blockade where the ships are withdrawn out of sight from the coast. The object of loose blockade is to lure the enemy into venturing out, British admiral Horatio Nelson applied a loose blockade at Cádiz in 1805
2. Aliyah Bet – Aliyah Bet was the code name given to illegal immigration by Jews to Mandatory Palestine in violation of British White Paper of 1939 restrictions, in the years 1934 to 1948. In modern-day Israel it has also called by the Hebrew term Haapala. The Aliyah Bet is distinguished from the Aliyah Aleph, the limited Jewish immigration permitted by British authorities in the same period, during Haapala, several Jewish organizations worked together to facilitate immigration beyond the established quotas. As persecution of Jews intensified in Europe during the Nazi era and those who participated in the immigration efforts consistently refused to term it illegal, instead calling it clandestine. First, from 1934 to 1942, it was an effort to enable European Jews to escape Nazi persecution, during the first phase, several organizations led the effort, after World War II, the Mossad LeAliyah Bet, an arm of the Haganah, took charge. Post-World War II, Haapala journeys typically started in the DP camps, from there, the refugees travelled in disguised trucks, on foot, or by train to ports on the Mediterranean Sea, where ships brought them to Palestine. Most of the ships had names such as Lo Tafchidunu and La-Nitzahon designed to inspire, some were named after prominent figures in the Zionist movement, and people who had been killed while supporting Aliyah Bet. More than 70,000 Jews arrived in Palestine on more than 100 ships, American sector camps imposed no restrictions on the movements out of the camps, and American, French, and Italian officials often turned a blind eye to the movements. Several UNRRA officials acted as facilitators of the emigration, the British government vehemently opposed the movement, and restricted movement in and out of their camps. Britain also set up armed naval patrols to prevent immigrants from landing in Palestine, over 100,000 people attempted to illegally enter Palestine. There were 142 voyages by 120 ships, over half were stopped by the British patrols. The Royal Navy had eight ships on station in Palestine, most of the intercepted immigrants were sent to internment camps in Cyprus. Some were sent to the Atlit detention camp in Palestine, the British held as many as 50,000 people in these camps. Only a few thousand actually entered Palestine, the pivotal event in the Haapala program was the incident of the SS Exodus in 1947. The Exodus was intercepted and boarded by a British patrol, despite significant resistance from its passengers, Exodus was forcibly returned to Europe. Its passengers were sent back to Germany. This was publicized, to the embarrassment of the British government. She arrived off the coast of Palestine on August 25, and the passengers disembarked with the help of the Haganah, which received special permission to assist them
3. Anaconda Plan – The Anaconda Plan is the name applied to an outline strategy for suppressing the Confederacy at the beginning of the American Civil War. Proposed by General-in-Chief Winfield Scott, the plan emphasized a Union blockade of the Southern ports, the snake image caught on, giving the proposal its popular name. A spearhead, a small amphibious force of army troops transported by boats and supported by gunboats, should advance rapidly. They would be followed by a traditional army, marching behind them to secure the victories. The culminating battle would be for the forts below New Orleans, when they fell, the river would be in Federal hands from its source to its mouth, Scotts plan had elements similar to a plan created before the Civil War. That antebellum plan was intended to crush a limited domestic insurrection by closing ports and it was not intended to deal with a new political organization with a regular army. The complete strategy could not be implemented immediately, as no warships of the type imagined for the Mississippi campaign existed, the U. S. Navy was also too small to enforce the blockade in the first months of the war. It would take time to gather and train the forces needed to out the Mississippi thrust. Hence, Scotts plan was subjected to a deal of ridicule. His opponents called for an overland campaign, directed primarily at the Confederate capital of Richmond. Their stated belief was that if a few strongholds were taken, the conflict was not the brief affair that Scotts critics imagined. In the four years of war, the Federal Navy enforced a blockade that certainly weakened the South, the form of the Northern victory thus turned out to look very much like what Scott had proposed in the early days. Consequently, the Anaconda has been rehabilitated, and general histories of the Civil War often credit it with guiding President Abraham Lincolns strategy throughout. The Anaconda had a development, both in its origin and the way it played out in the experience of battle. The blockade had already been proclaimed by President Lincoln and this executive order was not rescinded until the end of the war, so the blockade existed independently of Scotts plan. In the early days of the movement, the status of the border states Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland. All except Delaware had strong pro-Southern interests, because Congress was not in session to authorize Presidential initiatives to suppress the rebellion, the burden of raising troops for the war fell on the loyal state governments. Ohio was particularly active in doing so, and early acquired the services of George B, McClellan, who was to serve as the commander of its militia, with rank Major General of Volunteers
4. Argentine air forces in the Falklands War – This article describes the composition and actions of the Argentine air forces in the Falklands War, which comprised units of the Air Force, Army, Navy and other services. For an overview of the air forces of the United Kingdom involved in the conflict, despite initiating the war, Argentina had not prepared a plan for the subsequent defence of the islands. The military dictatorship that governed the country at the time regarded the seizure of the Falklands as an act to obtain a diplomatic bargaining position. Consequently they were taken by surprise when the British responded with a mobilization. The Argentine Air Force had never considered the possibility of waging a naval air campaign against a major NATO power. It was not trained or equipped for such a mission, the FAA had only two tanker aircraft to serve the whole air force and navy, and its fighter-bomber Mirage IIIs and IAI Daggers were not equipped for aerial refuelling. The FAAs training, tactics and equipment were focused on a war against Chile. The option to attack Chile was a cause of concern to the Argentina military during the war. The Chilean armed forces had deployed a significant force to Chiles common border with Argentina, in Argentinas favour, Peru immediately offered its support to the Argentine cause, with the Peruvian Air Force even offering to fly combat missions. This was politely declined by the Argentine government, finally on June 4, ten Peruvian Mirage 5 with AS-30 missiles arrived to Tandil but the war ended before they could be used. Israel Aircraft Industries technicians that were in the country under the 1979 IAI Daggers contract continued their work during the conflict, by the best estimates, Argentina totaled about 240 planes when the war broke out. About half of those were posted in the interior and along the Chilean border, the long distances from their bases prevented them from using their top speed or they risked running out of fuel. Although the Argentines had more aeroplanes than the British Task force, also, the A-4 Skyhawk force were dependent on the two available KC-130 tankers, limiting the amount of aeroplanes that could attack simultaneously. Argentinas fleet of A-4 Skyhawk attack jets was in poor condition. The arms embargo placed by the United States in 1976, due to the Dirty War, had made most airframes unusable, the involvement of Israel in helping to return the A-4 to full operational status has been alleged, but has never been confirmed. The small air arm of the Argentine Navy was in the middle of the transition from the A-4Q Skyhawk to the new Super Etendard. Only five of the Etendards anti-ship Exocet missiles had been delivered at the time of the conflict, additionally, the required programming for the missiles to interact with the Etendards computers had not been completed by French engineers when the conflict broke out. Navy pilots, particularly those of the 3rd Naval Fighters Squadron flying A-4Qs were the only trained in bombing warships
5. Argentine naval forces in the Falklands War – This article describes the composition and actions of the Argentine naval forces in the Falklands War. For a list of forces from the United Kingdom, see British naval forces in the Falklands War. On 2 April an amphibious landing was made at Stanley and on 3 April Argentine marines used helicopters to take over the Georgias, the war could not have happened at a worse time for the Argentines. They were expecting new destroyers, frigates and submarines being built in West Germany and their shipment of French Super Etendards and Exocets were not yet complete. On the other hand, the Royal Navy was in middle of great cutbacks that would have eliminated its force of aircraft carriers and amphibious forces in the coming months. Vice Admiral Juan José Lombardo Ships that only participated in the invasion,2 April, Commander José Sarcona ARA Comodoro Py - A Gearing-class destroyer. ARA Comodoro Seguí - An Allen M. Sumner-class destroyer, formerly USS Hank, Rear Admiral Jorge Allara ARA Cabo San Antonio - Argentine built USS De Soto County-class LST, an amphibious landing ship. ARA Guerrico - A Drummond -class corvette, ARA Bahia Paraiso Antarctic Survey ship. A polar transport, later deployed as hospital ship off Stanley, Bahía Paraíso transported Argentine forces from Corbeta Uruguay base to South Georgia in the events preceding the Falklands War. ARA Alférez Sobral - a Sotoyomo class patrol vessel, formerly USS Salish, damaged by Sea Skua missiles fired by Westland Lynx HAS. Mk. 2/3 helicopters from HMS Glasgow, ARA Comodoro Somellera, a Sotoyomo class patrol vessel, formerly USS Catawba ATA-210. During the war the British claimed to have sunk the Comodoro Somellera with Sea Skua, the ship continued to serve in the Argentine navy until 1998 when she sank in the port of Ushuaia during a storm following a collision with ARA Suboficial Castillo. ARA Isla de los Estados - A transport ship sunk by HMS Alacrity in Falkland Sound, ARA Bahía Buen Suceso - A transport ship, the Bahía Buen Suceso transported Constantino Davidoffs party to South Georgia precipitating the Falklands War. She was moved from Stanley to the Falklands Sound on 29 April, during the trip, the ship spotted the schooner Penelope, property of the FIC, which was taken over by an Argentine Prize crew the following day. While at anchor at Fox Bay, the transport ran aground in a storm and was damaged by 30 mm ADEN cannon fire from BAe Sea Harrier FRS. Mk. 1s. The British eventually captured the hull after the war and sunk her in high seas, direct control from Puerto Belgrano naval base, Buenos Aires Province. Vice Admiral Juan Lombardo Rear Admiral Jorge Allara ARA Veinticinco de Mayo - A Colossus class aircraft carrier, threat of submarine attack kept the ship confined to port after 3 May. ARA Hércules - A Type 42 destroyer, ARA Santísima Trinidad - A Type 42 destroyer. ARA Punta Médanos - A fleet tanker, Captain Héctor Bonzo ARA General Belgrano - A Brooklyn-class cruiser, formerly USS Phoenix sunk by Mk.8 torpedoes fired by HMS Conqueror
6. Berlin Blockade – The Berlin Blockade was one of the first major international crises of the Cold War. During the multinational occupation of post–World War II Germany, the Soviet Union blocked the Western Allies railway, road, the Soviets offered to drop the blockade if the Western Allies withdrew the newly introduced Deutsche mark from West Berlin. In response, the Western Allies organized the Berlin airlift to carry supplies to the people of West Berlin, the Soviets did not disrupt the airlift for fear this might lead to open conflict. By the spring of 1949, the airlift was clearly succeeding, on 12 May 1949, the USSR lifted the blockade of West Berlin. The Berlin Blockade served to highlight the ideological and economic visions for postwar Europe. These zones were located roughly around the then-current locations of the allied armies, also divided into occupation zones, Berlin was located 100 miles inside Soviet-controlled eastern Germany. The United States, United Kingdom, and France controlled western portions of the city, factories, equipment, technicians, managers and skilled personnel were removed to the Soviet Union. Stalin and other leaders told visiting Bulgarian and Yugoslavian delegations in early 1946 that Germany must be both Soviet and communist, a further factor contributing to the Blockade was that there had never been a formal agreement guaranteeing rail and road access to Berlin through the Soviet zone. At the end of the war, western leaders had relied on Soviet goodwill to them with access. The Soviets also granted only three air corridors for access to Berlin from Hamburg, Bückeburg and Frankfurt, in response, the Soviets started a public relations campaign against American policy and began to obstruct the administrative work of all four zones of occupation. Until the blockade began in 1948, the Truman Administration had not decided whether American forces should remain in West Berlin after the establishment of a West German government, Berlin quickly became the focal point of both US and Soviet efforts to re-align Europe to their respective visions. As Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov noted, What happens to Berlin, happens to Germany, what happens to Germany, Berlin had suffered enormous damage, its prewar population of 4.3 million people was reduced to 2.8 million. After harsh treatment, forced emigration, political repression and the hard winter of 1945–1946. Local elections in 1946 resulted in a massive anti-communist protest vote, Berlins citizens overwhelmingly elected non-Communist members to its city council. Meanwhile, to coordinate the economies of the British and United States occupation zones, after March 1946 the British zonal advisory board was established, with representatives of the states, the central offices, political parties, trade unions, and consumer organisations. As indicated by its name, the advisory board had no legislative power. The Control Commission for Germany – British Element made all decisions with its legislative power and it created its own central bodies headed by a secretariat seated in Stuttgart. Eventually the London Agreement on German External Debts, also known as the London Debt Agreement, was concluded, in response to the announcement of the first of these meetings, in late January 1948, the Soviets began stopping British and American trains to Berlin to check passenger identities