|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Book fairs.|
This category has the following 3 subcategories, out of 3 total.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Book fairs.|
This category has the following 3 subcategories, out of 3 total.
1. Trade fair – A few fairs are hybrids of the two, one example is the Frankfurt Book Fair, which is trade only for its first three days and open to the general public on its final two days. They are held on a basis in virtually all markets. Modern trade fairs follow in the tradition of trade fairs established in late medieval Europe, in this era, produce and craft producers visited towns for trading fairs, to sell and showcase products. From the late century, industrial exhibitions in Europe and North America became more common reflecting the technological dynamism of the Industrial Revolution. In the late 19th century, the concept of annual trade shows gained traction. Trade fairs often involve a considerable marketing investment by participating companies, costs include space rental, booth design and construction of trade show displays, telecommunications and networking, travel, accommodations, and promotional literature and items to give to attendees. In addition, costs are incurred at the show for such as electrical, booth cleaning, internet services. Consequently, cities often promote trade shows as a means of economic development, an increasing number of trade fairs are happening online, and these events are called virtual tradeshows. They are increasing in popularity due to their low cost. Large trade fair grounds, List reviewed on March 12,2014, agricultural show Buyers Market of American Craft County fair Lead retrieval List of worlds fairs Rodeo State fair Worlds fair Media related to Trade fairs at Wikimedia Commons Database
2. Book – A book is a set of written, printed, illustrated, or blank sheets, made of paper, parchment, or other materials, fastened together to hinge at one side, with text and/or images printed in ink. A single sheet within a book is a leaf, and each side of a leaf is a page, a set of text-filled or illustrated pages produced in electronic format for reading on a computer screen, smartphone or e-reader device is known as an electronic book, or e-book. The term books may refer the body of works of literature. In library and information science, a book is called a monograph, to distinguish it from serial periodicals such as magazines, journals, in novels and sometimes other types of books, a book may be divided into several large sections, also called books. An avid reader or collector of books or a lover is a bibliophile or colloquially. A shop where books are bought and sold is a bookshop or bookstore, Books are also sold in some department stores, drugstores and newspaper vendors. Books can also be borrowed from libraries, google has estimated that as of 2010, approximately 130,000,000 distinct titles had been published. In some wealthier nations, printed books are giving way to the usage of electronic or e-books, the word book comes from Old English bōc, which in turn comes from the Germanic root *bōk-, cognate to beech. Similarly, in Slavic languages буква is cognate with beech, in Russian and in Serbian and Macedonian, the word букварь or буквар refers specifically to a primary school textbook that helps young children master the techniques of reading and writing. It is thus conjectured that the earliest Indo-European writings may have been carved on beech wood, similarly, the Latin word codex, meaning a book in the modern sense, originally meant block of wood. When writing systems were created in ancient civilizations, a variety of objects, such as stone, clay, tree bark, metal sheets, the study of such inscriptions forms a major part of history. The study of inscriptions is known as epigraphy, the Ancient Egyptians would often write on papyrus, a plant grown along the Nile River. At first the words were not separated from other and there was no punctuation. Texts were written right to left, left to right. The technical term for that last type of writing is boustrophedon, a tablet might be defined as a physically robust writing medium, suitable for casual transport and writing. See also stylus, the instrument used to write on a tablet, clay tablets were flattened and mostly dry pieces of clay that could be easily carried, and impressed with a stylus. They were used as a medium, especially for writing in cuneiform, throughout the Bronze Age. Tablets were used by traders to record sales of such as bushels of grain
3. Author – An author is narrowly defined as the originator of any written work and can thus also be described as a writer. More broadly defined, an author is the person who originated or gave existence to anything, in the copyright laws of various jurisdictions, there is a necessity for little flexibility regarding what constitutes authorship. The United States Copyright Office, for example, defines copyright as a form of protection provided by the laws of the United States to authors of works of authorship. After a fixed amount of time, the copyright expires on intellectual work and it enters the public domain, however, copyright is merely the legal reassurance that one owns his/her work. Technically, someone owns their work from the time its created, an interesting aspect of authorship emerges with copyright in that, in many jurisdictions, it can be passed down to another upon ones death. The person who inherits the copyright is not the author, questions arise as to the application of copyright law. How does it, for example, apply to the issue of fan fiction. If the media responsible for the authorized production allows material from fans, what is the limit before legal constraints from actors, music. Additionally, how does copyright apply to fan-generated stories for books, what powers do the original authors, as well as the publishers, have in regulating or even stopping the fan fiction. In literary theory, critics find complications in the term author beyond what constitutes authorship in a legal setting, in the wake of postmodern literature, critics such as Roland Barthes and Michel Foucault have examined the role and relevance of authorship to the meaning or interpretation of a text. Barthes challenges the idea that a text can be attributed to any single author and he writes, in his essay Death of the Author, that it is language which speaks, not the author. The words and language of a text itself determine and expose meaning for Barthes, with this, the perspective of the author is removed from the text, and the limits formerly imposed by the idea of one authorial voice, one ultimate and universal meaning, are destroyed. The psyche, culture, fanaticism of an author can be disregarded when interpreting a text, because the words are rich enough themselves with all of the traditions of language. To expose meanings in a work without appealing to the celebrity of an author, their tastes, passions, vices, is, to Barthes, to allow language to speak. Michel Foucault argues in his essay What is an author and that all authors are writers, but not all writers are authors. He states that a letter may have a signatory—it does not have an author. For a reader to assign the title of author upon any written work is to certain standards upon the text which. Foucaults author function is the idea that an author exists only as a function of a work, a part of its structure
4. Bookbinding – Bookbinding is the process of physically assembling a book from an ordered stack of paper sheets that are folded together into sections or sometimes left as a stack of individual sheets. The stack is then bound together along one edge by either sewing with thread through the folds or by a layer of flexible adhesive, for protection, the bound stack is either wrapped in a flexible cover or attached to stiff boards. Finally, a cover is adhered to the boards and a label with identifying information is attached to the covers along with additional decoration. Bookbinding is a trade that relies on basic operations of measuring, cutting. A finished book depends on a minimum of two dozen operations to complete but sometimes more than double that according to the specific style. All operations have an order and each one relies on accurate completion of the previous step with little room for back tracking. An extremely durable binding can be achieved by using the best hand techniques, Bookbinding combines skills from other trades such as paper and fabric crafts, leather work, model making, and graphic arts. It requires knowledge about numerous varieties of book structures along with all the internal and external details of assembly, a working knowledge of the materials involved is required. Bookbinding is a craft of great antiquity, and at the same time. The division between craft and industry is not so wide as might at first be imagined and it is interesting to observe that the main problems faced by the mass-production bookbinder are the same as those that confronted the medieval craftsman or the modern hand binder. Before the computer age, the bookbinding trade involved two divisions, second was Letterpress binding which deals with making new books intended to be read from and includes fine binding, library binding, edition binding, and publishers bindings. A result of the new bindings is a third division dealing with the repair, restoration, with the digital age, personal computers have replaced the pen and paper based accounting that used to drive most of the work in the stationery binding industry. There is a grey area between the two divisions. There are cases where the printing and binding jobs are combined in one shop, a step up to the next level of mechanization is determined by economics of scale until you reach production runs of ten thousand copies or more in a factory employing a dozen or more workers. The craft of bookbinding probably originated in India, where religious sutras were copied on to palm leaves with a metal stylus, the leaf was then dried and rubbed with ink, which would form a stain in the wound. The finished leaves were given numbers, and two long twines were threaded through each end through wooden boards, making a palm-leaf book, when the book was closed, the excess twine would be wrapped around the boards to protect the manuscript leaves. Buddhist monks took the idea through Afghanistan to China in the first century BC, similar techniques can also be found in ancient Egypt where priestly texts were compiled on scrolls and books of papyrus. Another version of bookmaking can be seen through the ancient Mayan codex, writers in the Hellenistic-Roman culture wrote longer texts as scrolls, these were stored in boxes or shelving with small cubbyholes, similar to a modern winerack
5. Book cover – A book cover is any protective covering used to bind together the pages of a book. This article is concerned with modern mechanically produced covers, before the early nineteenth century, books were hand-bound, in the case of luxury medieval manuscripts using materials such as gold, silver and jewels. For hundreds of years, book bindings had functioned as a device for the expensively printed or hand-made pages. In the 1820s great changes began to occur in how a book might be covered, not only were the new types of book-covers cheaper to produce, they were also printable, using multi-colour lithography, and later, half-tone illustration processes. Techniques borrowed from the nineteenth-century poster-artists gradually infiltrated the book industry, the book cover became more than just a protection for the pages, taking on the function of advertising, and communicating information about the text inside. Some of the first radically modern cover designs were produced in the Soviet Union during the 1920s by avant-gardists such as Alexander Rodchenko, another highly influential early book cover designer was Aubrey Beardsley, thanks to his striking covers for the first four volumes of The Yellow Book. In the post-war era, book covers have become important as the book industry has become commercially competitive. Covers now give detailed hints about the style, genre and subject of the book and this can differ from country to country because of other tastes of the markets. So translated books can also have different book-accessories such as belonging to childrens books. The era of internet sales has not diminished the importance of the book cover, as it now continues its role in a two-dimensional digital form, helping to identify. The Book Cover Archive *Decorated Publishers Bindings-Grand Valley State University Archives, on the topic of cover art
6. Dust jacket – The dust jacket of a book is the detachable outer cover, usually made of paper and printed with text and illustrations. This outer cover has folded flaps that hold it to the front, in addition to its promotional role, the dust jacket protects the book covers from damage. At this date, publishers did not have their books bound in uniform house bindings, at the end of the 18th century publishers began to issue books in plain paper-covered boards, sometimes with a printed spine-label, this form of binding was intended to be temporary. Some collections of prints were issued at this period in printed paper wrappings. These small boxes are sometimes loosely and erroneously referred to as the first dust jackets. True publishers bindings in cloth and leather, in all, or a substantial part of. After publishers cloth bindings started coming into use on all types of books in the 1820s. The earliest known examples were issued on English literary annuals which were popular from the 1820s to the 1850s and these books often had fancy bindings that needed protection. The jackets that were used at this time completely enclosed the books like wrapping paper and were sealed shut with wax or glue, the oldest publishers dust jacket now on record was issued in 1829 on an English annual, Friendships Offering for 1830. It was discovered at the Bodleian Library in Oxford by Michael Turner and its existence was announced by Oxford in 2009. It is three years older than the previous oldest known jacket, which was discovered in 1934 by the English bookman John Carter on another English annual, both jackets are of the type that completely enclosed the books. This is the jacket that became standard in the industry and is still in use today. There are, however, enough surviving examples from the 1890s to state unequivocally that dust jackets were all and they were probably issued more often than not by the 1860s and 1870s in Europe, Great Britain, and the United States. Throughout the nineteenth century, nearly all dust jackets were discarded at or soon after purchase. Many were probably discarded in bookstores as the books were put out for display, or when they were sold, even late in the nineteenth century there were still some publishers who were not using dust jackets at all. Some firms, such as subscription houses which sold millions of cheap books door-to-door, cloth dust jackets became popular late in the nineteenth century. These jackets, with the outer cloth usually reinforced with an underlayer of paper, were issued mostly on ornate gift editions, other types of publishers boxes were also popular in the second half of the nineteenth century, including many made to hold multi-volume sets of books. The jackets on boxed volumes were often plain, sometimes with cutouts on the spine to allow the title or volume numbers of the books to be seen
7. Book design – Book design is the art of incorporating the content, style, format, design, and sequence of the various components and elements of a book into a coherent whole. In the words of Swiss typographer Jan Tschichold, book design, though largely forgotten today, methods, to produce perfect books, these rules have to be brought back to life and applied. Richard Hendel describes book design as a subject, and refers to the need for a context to understand what that means. Front matter, or preliminaries, is the first section of a book, the pages are numbered in lower-case Roman numerals. Each page is counted, but no folio or page number is expressed, or printed, front matter generally only appears in the first volume in a multi-volume work, although some elements may appear in each volume. The following table will help distinguish some of the different types of front matter, The structure of a work is often described hierarchically. Volumes A volume is a set of leaves that are bound together, thus each work is either a volume, or is divided into volumes. Books and parts A single volume may embody either a part of a book or the whole of a book, in works, parts include multiple books. Chapters and sections A chapter or section may be contained within a part and/or a book, when both chapters and sections are used in the same work, the sections are more often contained within chapters than the reverse. Modules and units In some books the chapters are grouped into bigger parts, the numbering of the chapters can begin again at the start of every module. In educational books, especially, the chapters are often called units, the first page of the actual text of a book is the opening page, which often incorporates special design features, such as initials. The following are two examples, The Lord of the Rings has three parts, with each part containing two books, each containing, in turn, multiple chapters. The front cover contains at least the title and/or author. On the inside of the page, extending to the facing page is the front endpaper sometimes referred as FEP. The free half of the end paper is called a flyleaf, traditionally, in hand-bound books, the endpaper was just a sheet of blank or ornamented paper physically masking and reinforcing the connection between the cover and the body of the book. These books have an audience and traditions of their own where the design and immediacy is especially important and publishing tradition. The spine is the edge of a book as it normally stands on a bookshelf. It is customary for it to have printed text on it, in books from continental Europe, vertical spine text traditionally runs from the bottom up, though this convention has been changing lately
8. Editing – Editing is the process of selecting and preparing written, visual, audible, and film media used to convey information. The editing process can involve correction, condensation, organization, and many other modifications performed with an intention of producing a correct, consistent, accurate and complete work. The editing process begins with the authors idea for the work itself. As such, editing can involve creative skills, human relations, there are various editorial positions in publishing. Typically, one finds editorial assistants reporting to the editorial staff. Senior executive editors are responsible for developing a product for its final release, the smaller the publication, the more these roles overlap. The top editor at many publications may be known as the chief editor, a frequent and highly regarded contributor to a magazine may acquire the title of editor-at-large or contributing editor. Mid-level newspaper editors often manage or help to manage sections, such as business, sports, in U. S. newspapers, the level below the top editor is usually the managing editor. Obtaining manuscripts or recruiting authors is the role of an editor or a commissioning editor in a publishing house. Finding marketable ideas and presenting them to appropriate authors are the responsibilities of a sponsoring editor, copy editors correct spelling, grammar and align writings to house style. Changes to the industry since the 1980s have resulted in nearly all copy editing of book manuscripts being outsourced to freelance copy editors. At newspapers and wire services, copy editors write headlines and work on substantive issues, such as ensuring accuracy, fairness. In some positions, they design pages and select news stories for inclusion, at U. K. and Australian newspapers, the term is sub-editor. They may choose the layout of the publication and communicate with the printer and these editors may have the title of layout or design editor or makeup editor. However, another editor is sometimes involved in the creation of research articles. Called the authors editor, this works with authors to get a manuscript fit for purpose before it is submitted to a scholarly journal for publication. The primary difference between copy editing scholarly books and journals and other sorts of copy editing lies in applying the standards of the publisher to the copy. K, technical editing involves reviewing text written on a technical topic, identifying usage errors and ensuring adherence to a style guide. Large companies dedicate experienced writers to the editing function
9. Book illustration – The illustration of manuscript books was well established in ancient times, and the tradition of the illuminated manuscript thrived in the West until the invention of printing. Other parts of the world had comparable traditions, such as the Persian miniature, modern book illustration comes from the 15th-century woodcut illustrations that were fairly rapidly included in early printed books, and later block books. Other techniques such as engraving, etching, lithography and various kinds of printing were to expand the possibilities and were exploited by such masters as Daumier. Book illustration as we now know it evolved from early European woodblock printing, in the early 15th century, playing cards were created using block printing, which was the first use of prints in a sequenced and logical order. The first known European block printings with a communications function were devotional prints of saints, as printing took off and books became common, printers began to use woodcuts to illustrate them. Hence, centers for woodblock playing-card and religious-print production became centers for illustrated books, luxury books were for a few decades often printed with blank spaces for manual illumination in the old way. Unlike later techniques, woodcut uses relief printing just as metal moveable type does, however the technique either gives rather crude results or was expensive if a high-quality block-cutter was used, and could only manage fine detail on atypically large pages. They remained so until the later 19th century and they required the illustrations to be printed separately, on a different type of printing press, so encouraging illustrations that took a whole page, which became the norm. A wide range of books were now illustrated, initially mostly on a few pages, but with the number of illustrations gradually rising over the period, and tending to use more etching than engraving. In East Asia colour printing with many different woodblocks was increasing widely used, the developed technique in Japan was called nishiki-e. Lithography allowed for more variety and accuracy. This is because the artist could now draw directly on the plate itself. New techniques developed in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries revolutionized book illustrations and put new resources at the disposal of artists, in the early nineteenth century, the photogravure process allowed for photographs to be reproduced in books. In this process, light-sensitive gelatin was used to transfer the image to a metal plate, another process, chromolithography, which was developed in France in the mid-nineteenth century, permitted color printing. The process was extremely labor-intensive and expensive though as the artist would have to prepare a plate for each color used. In the late century, the process known as offset lithography made color printing cheaper. The process used a process to transfer a photographic negative to a rubber surface before printing. There were various movements and their proponents in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that took an interest in the enrichment of book design