Richmond Bridge, London
Richmond Bridge is an 18th-century stone arch bridge that crosses the River Thames at Richmond, connecting the two halves of the present-day London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. It was designed by James Paine and Kenton Couse and its construction was privately funded by a tontine scheme, for which tolls were charged until 1859. The bridge was widened and slightly flattened in 1937–40, but otherwise conforms to its original design. The eighth Thames bridge to be built in what is now Greater London, the small town of Sheen on the Surrey bank of the Thames,10 miles west of the City of London or 16 miles by river, had been the site of a royal palace since 1299. Although a ferry had almost certainly existed at the site of the bridge since Norman times. As the ferry was unable to handle large loads and was cancelled due to weather conditions. Local resident William Windham had been sub-tutor to Prince William, Duke of Cumberland, as a reward for his services, George II leased Windham the right to operate the ferry until 1798.
Windham sub-let the right to operate the ferry to local resident Henry Holland, with the ferry unable to serve the demands of the area, in 1772 Windham sought Parliamentary approval to replace the ferry with a wooden bridge, to be paid for by tolls. The Act stipulated that no tax of any sort could be used to finance the bridge, Henry Holland was granted £5,350 compensation for the loss of the ferry service. The commission appointed James Paine and Kenton Couse to design and build the new bridge, the Act specified that the bridge was to be built on the site of the existing ferry or as much lower down the river as the Commission can settle. Local residents lobbied for it to be built at Water Lane, the approach to the river was relatively flat, avoiding the steep slope to the existing ferry pier on the Surrey bank. The bridge was designed as an arch bridge of 300 feet in length and 24 feet 9 inches in width. The tall 60-foot wide central span was designed to allow shipping to pass, palladian toll houses were built in alcoves at each end.
The building was put out to tender, and on 16 May 1774 Thomas Kerr was awarded the contract to build the bridge for the sum of £10,900. With additional costs, such as compensating landowners and building new approach roads, most of the money needed was raised from the sale of shares at £100 each in two tontine schemes, the first for £20,000 and the second for £5,000. The first was called the Richmond-Bridge Tontine, but when it became clear that the initial £20,000 would not be sufficient to complete construction a second tontine was set up. Each investor was guaranteed a return of 4% per annum, so £1,000 per annum from the income raised from tolls was divided amongst the investors in the two tontines, on the death of a shareholder their share of the dividend was divided among the surviving shareholders. To avoid fraud, each investor was obliged to sign an affidavit that they were alive before receiving their dividend, any revenue over the £1,000 per annum required to pay the investors was held in a general fund for the maintenance of the bridge
Chiswick Bridge is a reinforced concrete deck arch bridge over the River Thames in west London. Built on the site of a ferry, the bridge is 606 feet long. At the time of its opening its 150-foot central span was the longest concrete span over the Thames, the bridge is possibly best known today for its proximity to the end of The Championship Course, the stretch of the Thames used for the Boat Race and other rowing races. The villages of Chiswick and Mortlake, about 6 miles west of central London on the north and south banks of the River Thames, had been linked by a ferry since at least the 17th century. Both areas were populated, so there was little demand for a fixed river crossing at that point. With the arrival of railways and the London Underground in the 19th century commuting to London became practical and affordable, the scheme was abandoned due to costs and arguments between various interested parties over the exact route the road should take. After the First World War, the population of the west London suburbs continued to grow, thanks to improved transport links.
The Ministry of Transport agreed to pay heavy subsidies towards the cost, a new arterial road, now the A316 road, was given Royal Assent on 3 August 1928, and construction began in 1930. The construction of the required two new bridges to be built, at Twickenham and Chiswick. The proposal was authorised in 1928 and construction began in the same year, the bridge, along with the newly built Twickenham Bridge and the rebuilt Hampton Court Bridge, was opened by Edward, Prince of Wales on 3 July 1933, and the ferry service was permanently closed. The bridge has concrete foundations supporting a five-arch cellular reinforced concrete superstructure, the deck is supported by a concealed lattice of columns and beams rising from the arched superstructure. The structure is faced with 3,400 tons of Portland stone, the bridge is 606 feet long, and carries two 15-foot wide walkways, and a 40-foot wide road. At the time it was built, the 150-foot central span was the longest concrete span over the Thames, unusually for a Thames bridge, only three of Chiswick Bridges five spans cross the river, the shorter spans at each end of the bridge cross the former towpaths.
To allow sufficient clearance for shipping without steep inclines, the roads to the bridge are elevated from some distance back from the river. The bridge was built by the Cleveland Bridge & Engineering Company at a cost of £208,284, additional costs such as building the approach roads and purchasing land brought the total cost of the bridge to £227,600. The Ministry of Transport paid 75% of the cost, with Surrey, the bridge was generally well received. Country Life praised the design as reflecting in its design the eighteenth century Palladian tradition of Lord Burlingtons famous villa at Chiswick. Chiswick Bridge is a transport route, and the eighth busiest of Londons 20 Thames road bridges
Westminster Bridge is a road-and-foot-traffic bridge over the River Thames in London, linking Westminster on the west side and Lambeth on the east side. The bridge is painted green, the same colour as the leather seats in the House of Commons which is on the side of the Palace of Westminster nearest to the bridge. This is in contrast to Lambeth Bridge, which is red, in 2005–2007, it underwent a complete refurbishment, including replacing the iron fascias and repainting the whole bridge. It links the Palace of Westminster on the west side of the river with County Hall, the next bridge downstream is the Hungerford footbridge and upstream is Lambeth Bridge. Westminster Bridge was designated a Grade II* listed structure in 1981, for over 600 years, the nearest bridge to London Bridge was at Kingston. A bridge at Westminster was proposed in 1664, but opposed by the Corporation of London, despite further opposition in 1722, and after a new timber bridge was built at Putney in 1729, the scheme received parliamentary approval in 1736.
Financed by private capital and grants, Westminster Bridge was built between 1739–1750, under the supervision of the Swiss engineer Charles Labelye, the City of London responded to Westminster Bridge by removing the buildings on London Bridge and widening it in 1760–63. The City commenced work on the Blackfriars Bridge, which opened in 1769, other bridges from that time include Kew Bridge, Battersea Bridge, and Richmond Bridge. The bridge was required for traffic from the expanding West End to the developing South London as well as to south coast ports, without the bridge, traffic from the West End would have to negotiate the congested routes to London Bridge such as the Strand and New Oxford Street. Roads south of the river were improved, including the junction at the Elephant & Castle in Southwark, by the mid–19th century the bridge was subsiding badly and expensive to maintain. The current bridge was designed by Thomas Page and opened on 24 May 1862, with a length of 820 feet and a width of 85 feet, it is a seven-arch, cast-iron bridge with Gothic detailing by Charles Barry.
It is the oldest road bridge across the Thames in central London, on 22 March 2017, a terrorist attack started on the bridge and continued into Bridge Street and Old Palace Yard. Five people - three pedestrians, one officer, and the attacker - died as a result of the incident. A colleague of the officer was armed and shot the attacker, more than 50 people were injured. An investigation is ongoing by the Metropolitan Police, in the 2002 British horror film 28 Days Later, the protagonist awakes from a coma to find London deserted and walks over an eerily empty Westminster Bridge whilst looking for signs of life. Westminster Bridge is the start and finish point for the Bridges Handicap Race, william Wordsworth wrote the sonnet Composed upon Westminster Bridge, September 3,1802. In the finale of the 24th James Bond film Spectre, Blofelds helicopter crashes into Westminster Bridge, Westminster Bridge at Structurae Westminster Bridge at Structurae Interactive Panorama, Westminster Bridge
Hammersmith Bridge is a suspension bridge that crosses the River Thames in west London. The current bridge, which is Grade II* listed and was designed by the civil engineer Sir Joseph Bazalgette, is the second permanent bridge on the site. The construction of a bridge was first sanctioned by an Act of Parliament in 1824 and it was the first suspension bridge over the River Thames and was designed by William Tierney Clark. The bridge had a clear water-way of 688 feet 8 inches and its suspension towers were 48 feet above the level of the roadway, where they were 22 feet thick. The roadway was slightly curved upwards,16 feet above water. There were eight chains, composed of wrought-iron bars, each five inches deep, four of these had six bars in each chain, and four had only three, making thirty-six bars, which form a dip in the centre of about 29 feet. From these, vertical rods were suspended, which supported the roadway, the width of the carriageway was 20 feet, with two footways of 5 feet. The chains passed over the towers, and were secured to the piers on each shore.
The suspension towers were of stone, and designed as archways of the Tuscan order, the approaches were provided with octagonal lodges, or toll-houses, with appropriate lamps and parapet walls, terminating with stone pillars, surmounted with ornamental caps. Construction of the bridge cost some £80,000 and it was operated as a toll bridge. In 1884 a temporary bridge was put up to allow a more limited cross-river traffic while a replacement was constructed, the current Hammersmith Bridge was designed by Sir Joseph Bazalgette and rests on the same pier foundations constructed for Tierney Clarks original structure. The new bridge was built by Dixon, Appleby & Thorne and was opened by the Prince of Wales on 11 June 1887, with much of the supporting structure built of wrought iron, it is 700 feet long and 43 feet wide and cost £82,117 to build. The bridge was refurbished in 1973 with replacement steel trusses, improvements to the mid-span hangers, new deck timbers were installed and surfacing was changed from wooden blocks to coated plywood panels.
These panels were replaced in 1987. In 1984 the Barnes-side tower bearings failed under a load and had to be replaced. In February 1997 the bridge was closed to all traffic except buses, motorcycles, emergency vehicles, structural elements of the bridge had been found to be corroded or worn, in particular cross girders and deck surfacing, as well as some areas of masonry. The bridge re-opened in July 1998 to all users, subject to a 7. 5-tonne weight restriction. Local bus flow was controlled by lights, and routes were required to convert from double-decker buses to smaller single-deckers to reduce the load on the bridge
Tower Bridge is a combined bascule and suspension bridge in London built in 1886–1894. The bridge crosses the River Thames close to the Tower of London and has become a symbol of London. Tower Bridge is one of five London bridges now owned and maintained by the Bridge House Estates and it is the only one of the Trusts bridges not to connect the City of London directly to the Southwark bank, as its northern landfall is in Tower Hamlets. The vertical components of the forces in the sections and the vertical reactions of the two walkways are carried by the two robust towers. The bascule pivots and operating machinery are housed in the base of each tower, before its restoration in the 2010s, the bridges colour scheme dated from 1977, when it was painted red and blue for Queen Elizabeth IIs Silver Jubilee. Its colours were restored to blue and white. The nearest National Rail stations are at Fenchurch Street and London Bridge, in the second half of the 19th century, an advertisement in the East End of London led to a hiring for a new river crossing downstream of London Bridge.
A Special Bridge or Subway Committee was formed in 1877, chaired by Sir Albert Joseph Altman and it opened the design of the crossing to public competition. Over 50 designs were submitted, including one from civil engineer Sir Joseph Bazalgette, an Act of Parliament was pasesd in 1885 authorising the bridges construction. It specified the opening span must give a clear width of 61 metres, construction had to be in a Gothic style. Barry designed a bridge with two bridge towers built on piers. The central span was split into two equal bascules or leaves, which could be raised to allow traffic to pass. The two side-spans were suspension bridges, with the suspension rods anchored both at the abutments and through rods contained within the bridges upper walkways, E W Crutwell was the resident engineer for the construction. Two massive piers, containing over 70,000 tons of concrete, were sunk into the riverbed to support the construction, over 11,000 tons of steel provided the framework for the towers and walkways.
This was clad in Cornish granite and Portland stone, both to protect the steelwork and to give the bridge a pleasing appearance. Jones died in 1886 and George D. Stevenson took over the project, the total cost of construction was £1,184,000. The bridge was opened on 30 June 1894 by The Prince of Wales. The bridge connected Iron Gate, on the bank of the river, with Horselydown Lane, on the south – now known as Tower Bridge Approach and Tower Bridge Road
Twickenham Bridge crosses the River Thames in southwest London, England. Twickenham Bridge gets its name from the fact that it is on the road to the town of Twickenham, the bridge forms part of todays A316, which links Central and West London with the M3 motorway at Sunbury-on-Thames. The bridges architect was Maxwell Ayrton and the engineer was Alfred Dryland. The proposed design of the bridge envisaged four 70 foot towers to be constructed on the riverbanks with retaining walls of 20 feet above road level. The plans were opposed and a local petition was organised by the Daily Telegraph against the design on the grounds that it was inappropriate to the setting in Richmond. The final design of the bridge was of three arches supported on concrete piers with Art Deco embellishments. The bridge incorporates three permanent hinges enabling the structure to adjust to changes in temperature, the first reinforced concrete structure in the UK to use such an innovation. The arch springings, as well as the crowns, have decorative bronze cover plates.
Ribbed shuttering was used in the casting of the piers and abutments. The approach viaduct and retaining walls were constructed in precast blocks that were wire brushed to create a rough finish, the balustrades and lamps were constructed of open bronzework. In 1992, the first Gatso speed camera in the United Kingdom was launched on Twickenham Bridge, the bridge was declared a Grade II* listed structure in 2008, providing protection to preserve its special character from unsympathetic development
Blackfriars Bridge is a road and foot traffic bridge over the River Thames in London, between Waterloo Bridge and Blackfriars Railway Bridge, carrying the A201 road. The north end is near the Inns of Court and Temple Church, the south end is near the Tate Modern art gallery and the Oxo Tower. The first fixed crossing at Blackfriars was a 995 feet long toll bridge designed in an Italianate style by Robert Mylne, beating designs by John Gwynn and George Dance, it took nine years to build, opening to the public in 1769. It was the bridge across the Thames in the built-up area of London, supplementing the ancient London Bridge, which dated from several centuries earlier. It was made toll free, the Fleet can be seen discharging into the Thames at its north side. This created the junction at St Georges Circus between Westminster Bridge Road, Borough Road and the named Blackfriars Road which crossed the largely open parish of Christchurch Surrey, the continuation to the south at the major junction at Elephant and Castle is therefore named London Road.
Although it was built of Portland stone the workmanship was very faulty and this is the present bridge which in 1869 was opened by Queen Victoria. The present bridge is 923 feet long, consisting of five wrought iron arches built to a design by Joseph Cubitt, Cubitt designed the adjacent rail bridge and it was a condition that the spans and piers of the two bridges be aligned. It was built by P. A. Thom & Co, like its predecessor it is owned and maintained by the Bridge House Estates, a charitable trust overseen by the City of London Corporation. Like London Bridge the full length and its end is within the Citys borders. Due to the volume of traffic over the bridge, it was widened between 1907–10, from 70 feet to its present 105 feet. In 2005, five suspected members of the Mafia were tried in a Rome court for Calvis murder, on the piers of the bridge are stone carvings of water birds by sculptor John Birnie Philip. On the East side, the carvings show marine life and seabirds, on the north side of the bridge is a statue of Queen Victoria, to whom the bridge was dedicated.
The ends of the bridge are shaped like a pulpit in a reference to Black Friars, Blackfriars Bridge station continued as a goods stop until 1964 when it was completely demolished, and much of it redeveloped into offices. The River Fleet empties into the Thames under the end of Blackfriars Bridge. The structure was given Grade II listed status in 1972, in 1774 the new bridge was mentioned in a popular song in Charles Dibdins opera The Waterman, referring to the boatmen who used to carry fashionable folks to Vauxhall Gardens and Ranelagh Gardens. And did you not hear of the jolly young waterman, Who at Blackfriars Bridge used for to ply, and he feathered his oars with such skill and dexterity, Winning each heart and delighting each eye. The name was given to one of the Bailey Bridges over the Rhine River in 1945, in Neil Gaimans Neverwhere, Blackfriars Bridge was named as the home of an unknown order of monks who held the key to an angelic prison
Wandsworth Bridge crosses the River Thames in west London. The railway terminus was not built, and problems with drainage on the road made access to the bridge difficult for vehicles. Wandsworth Bridge was commercially unsuccessful, and in 1880 it was taken into public ownership, Tolmés bridge was narrow and too weak to carry buses, and in 1926 a Royal Commission recommended its replacement. In 1937 Tolmés bridge was demolished, the present bridge, an unadorned steel cantilever bridge designed by Sir Thomas Peirson Frank, was opened in 1940. At the time of its opening it was painted in shades of blue as camouflage against air raids. Although Wandsworth Bridge is one of the busiest bridges in London, carrying over 50,000 vehicles daily, the fast flowing but narrow River Wandle at Wandsworth was well-situated for driving watermills, leading to the rapid spread of industry in the area during the 19th century. In 1864, it was expected that the newly formed Hammersmith, rowland Mason Ordish designed an Ordish–Lefeuvre Principle bridge to comply with the Acts specifications, of a similar design to his nearby Albert Bridge.
Wandsworth Bridge and Albert Bridge were authorised on the same day, Ordish was asked to design a cheaper bridge to the new specifications but refused to change the design, so Julian Tolmé was appointed designer in his place. Tolmé designed a starkly functional lattice truss bridge of wrought iron and it cost £40,000 to build, and consisted of five identical spans, supported by four pairs of concrete-filled iron piers, each of the cylindrical piers was sunk 14 feet into the riverbed. Wandsworth Bridge was formally opened in a ceremony in 1873. A 1⁄2d toll was charged on pedestrians, and carts were charged 6d, in 1867 the formerly independent Hammersmith and City Railway was absorbed by the Metropolitan Railway and the Great Western Railway, and was operated from on by Metropolitan Railway trains. The plan for a terminus in Fulham was abandoned, and the line turned west at Hammersmith to run over London. Tolmés design was not sturdy enough to carry vehicles. Wandsworth Bridge never raised enough toll revenue to cover the costs of repairs, in 1877 the Metropolis Toll Bridges Act was passed, and in 1880 Wandsworth Bridge, along with other London bridges, was taken into the public ownership of the Metropolitan Board of Works.
Despite having run at a loss throughout its lifetime, the Board of Works paid £53,313 for the bridge, on 26 June 1880 Edward, Prince of Wales, and Alexandra, Princess of Wales, presided over a ceremony abolishing tolls over the three bridges. By the time it was taken into ownership, the bridge was in very poor condition. In 1891 a weight limit of 5 tons was introduced, with its narrowness and weight restrictions, by this point it was effectively a footbridge. In 1928 it was decided instead to give priority to widening the much busier Putney Bridge, the design featured distinctive low curves, intended to reflect the low riverbanks in the area
Waterloo Bridge is a road and foot traffic bridge crossing the River Thames in London, between Blackfriars Bridge and Hungerford Bridge. Its name commemorates the victory of the British, the Dutch, thanks to its location at a strategic bend in the river, the views from the bridge are widely held to be the finest from any spot in London at ground level. The first bridge on the site was designed in 1809–10 by John Rennie for the Strand Bridge Company, before its opening it was known as the Strand Bridge. During the 1840s the bridge gained a reputation as a place for suicide attempts. In 1841 the American daredevil Samuel Gilbert Scott was killed performing a act in which he hung by a rope from a scaffold on the bridge. In 1844 Thomas Hood wrote the poem The Bridge of Sighs, paintings of the bridge were created by the French Impressionist Claude Monet and the English Romantic John Constable. The bridge was nationalised in 1878 and placed under the control of the Metropolitan Board of Works, Michael Faraday tried in 1832 to measure the potential difference between each side of the bridge caused by the ebbing salt water flowing through the Earths magnetic field.
From 1884 serious problems were found in Rennies bridge piers, after scour from the river flow after Old London Bridge was demolished damaged their foundations. In 1925, a steel framework was built on top of the existing bridge. London County Council decided to demolish the bridge and replace it with a new designed by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott. The engineers were Ernest Buckton and John Cuerel of Rendel Palmer & Tritton, Scott, by his own admission, was no engineer and his design, with reinforced concrete beams under the footways, leaving the road to be supported by transverse slabs, was difficult to implement. The beams were shaped to look as much like arches as and they are clad in Portland stone, which cleans itself whenever it rains. To guard against the possibility of further subsidence from scour each pier was given a number of jacks that can be used to level the structure, the new bridge was partially opened on Tuesday 11 March 1942 and was completed in 1945. It is the only Thames bridge to have been damaged by German bombers during the Second World War, the building contractor was Peter Lind & Company Limited.
It is frequently asserted that the force was largely female. Granite stones from the bridge were subsequently presented to various parts of the British world to further historic links in the British Commonwealth of Nations. The monument, built in 1945, is on Queens Wharf and it includes a bronze likeness of Paddy, a drinking fountain and drinking bowls below for dogs. The north end of the bridge passes above the Victoria Embankment where the road joins the Strand and this end housed the southern portal of the Kingsway Tramway Subway until the late 1950s