Category:Buildings containing meridian lines
Pages in category "Buildings containing meridian lines"
The following 20 pages are in this category, out of 20 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 20 pages are in this category, out of 20 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Santa Maria Novella – Santa Maria Novella is a church in Florence, Italy, situated just across from the main railway station named after it. Chronologically, it is the first great basilica in Florence, and is the citys principal Dominican church, the church, the adjoining cloister, and chapter house contain a multiplicity of art treasures and funerary monuments. Especially famous are frescoes by masters of Gothic and early Renaissance and they were financed by the most important Florentine families, who ensured themselves funerary chapels on consecrated ground. This church was called Novella because it was built on the site of the 9th-century oratory of Santa Maria delle Vigne, when the site was assigned to Dominican Order in 1221, they decided to build a new church and adjoining cloister. The church was designed by two Dominican friars, Fra Sisto Fiorentino and Fra Ristoro da Campi, building began in the mid-13th century, and was finished about 1360 under the supervision of Friar Iacopo Talenti with the completion of the Romanesque-Gothic bell tower and sacristy. At that time, only the part of the Tuscan gothic façade was finished. This same design continues in the wall around the old churchyard. The church was consecrated in 1420, alberti had also designed the façade for the Rucellai Palace in Florence. The four columns with Corinthian capitals on the part of the façade were also added. The pediment and the frieze are clearly inspired by antiquity, but the S-curved scrolls in the part are new. The scrolls, found in all over Italy, all draw their origins from the design of this church. The frieze below the pediment carries the name of the patron, the vast interior is based on a basilica plan, designed as a Latin cross, and is divided into a nave, two aisles with stained-glass windows and a short transept. The large nave is 100 metres long and gives an impression of austerity, there is a trompe loeil effect by which towards the apse the nave seems longer than its actual length. The slender compound piers between the nave and the aisles are progressively closer the deeper the observer moves into the nave, the ceiling in the vault consists of pointed arches with the four diagonal buttresses in black and white. The interior also contains Corinthian columns that were inspired by Greek, the stained-glass windows date from the 14th and 15th century, such as 15th century Madonna and Child and St. John and St. Philip, both in the Filippo Strozzi Chapel. Some stained glass windows have been damaged in the course of centuries and have been replaced, the one on the façade, a depiction of the Coronation of Mary, dates from the 14th century, and is based on a design of Andrea di Bonaiuto da Firenze. The pulpit, commissioned by the Rucellai family in 1443, was designed by Filippo Brunelleschi and this pulpit has a particular historical significance, since it was from this pulpit that the first verbal attack was made on Galileo Galilei, leading eventually to his indictment. The Holy Trinity, situated almost halfway along the aisle, is a pioneering early Renaissance work of Masaccio, showing his new ideas about perspective
2. Bergamo Cathedral – Bergamo Cathedral is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Bergamo, Italy, dedicated to Saint Alexander of Bergamo, patron saint of the city. It is the seat of the Bishop of Bergamo, Bishop Giovanni Barozzi commissioned the re-building of the cathedral of St. Vincent in the mid-15th century, for the plans of which Filarete claimed credit. In 1561 the Venetians demolished the cathedral of St. Alexander for reasons of military expediency, at the beginning of the 17th century Bishop Giovanni Emo unified the canons of the two old cathedrals. In 1689, the structure was refurbished to designs by Carlo Fontana, another major renovation was undertaken in the 19th century, culminating in the completion of the Neo-classical west front in 1889. The cathedral has a Latin cross ground plan with a single nave, the first side-chapel to the right contains a St. Benedict and Saints by Andrea Previtali, and the first side-chapel to the left, the Madonna and child with saints by Giovan Battista Moroni. In the apse is a Martyrdom of Bishop Saint John of Bergamo by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, the main altar was designed by Filippo Juvarra. The choir area has wooden panels by Johann Karl Sanz. Nearby stands the octagonal baptistery, constructed in 1340 by Giovanni da Campione for the Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore, during major building works in 1650 the baptistery was dismantled, but was saved, and in 1856 reassembled in the canons courtyard. It was moved to its present site in 1889, inside are bas-reliefs of episodes of the Life of Christ, a statue of John the Baptist and a font of 1340 by Giovanni da Campione. Round the upper level runs a colonnade, and over it stand eight 14th-century statues representing the Virtues, Bergamo Cathedral official website Bergamo Cathedral official website, virtual tour Cathedral interior Brief description Description
3. Bourges Cathedral – Bourges Cathedral is a Roman Catholic church located in Bourges, France. It is dedicated to Saint Stephen, and is the seat of the Archbishop of Bourges, the present Cathedral was built as a replacement for a mid-11th-century structure, traces of which survive in the crypt. The date when construction began is unknown, although a document of 1195 recording expenditure on rebuilding works suggests that construction was underway by that date. The main phase of construction is therefore roughly contemporaneous with Chartres Cathedral, as with most Early- and High-Gothic cathedrals, the identity of the architect or master-mason is unknown. The choir was in use by 1214 and the nave was finished by 1255, the building was finally consecrated in 1324. Most of the west façade was finished by 1270, though work on the towers proceeded more slowly, partly due to the rock strata beneath the site. Structural problems with the South tower led to the building of the adjoining buttress tower in the mid-14th century, the North tower was completed around the end of the 15th century but collapsed in 1506, destroying the Northern portion of the façade in the process. The North tower and its portal were subsequently rebuilt in a contemporary style. Generally the cathedral suffered far less than some of its peers during the French Wars of Religion and its location meant it was also relatively safe from the ravages of both World Wars. The cathedral was added to the list of the World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 1992, Bourges Cathedral covers a surface of 5,900 square meters. The cathedrals nave is 15 m wide by 37m high, its arcade is 20m high, the aisle is 21.3 m. The use of flying buttresses was employed to help the structure of the building, however, since this was a fairly new technique, one can easily see the walls were still made quite thick to take the force. Sexpartite vaults are used to span the nave, the double aisles continue without interruption beyond the position of the screen to form a double ambulatory around the choir. This design, with its distinctive cross section, was subsequently copied at Toledo Cathedral. The flying buttresses surrounding the cathedral are relatively slender and efficient, particularly compared to the contemporary and their steep angle helps to channel the thrust from the nave vaults and the wind loading on the roof to the outer buttress piers more effectively. The west façade is on a grand scale when compared to earlier cathedrals. The four side aisles and central nave each have their own portal reflecting the scale of the spaces beyond, the north portals were destroyed when the tower collapsed but surviving fragments indicate that their sculptural programmes were dedicated to the life and death of the Virgin. Unifying all five portals is a screen of gabled niches which stretches the whole width of the façade
4. Bramshill House – Bramshill House, in Bramshill, northeast Hampshire, England, is one of the largest and most important Jacobean prodigy house mansions in England. It was built in the early 17th century by Baron Edward la Zouche of Harringworth, the design shows the influence of the Italian Renaissance, which became popular in England during the late 16th century. The house was designated a Grade I listed building in 1952, the mansions southern façade is notable for its decorative architecture, which includes at its centre a large oriel window above the principal entrance. Interior features include a great hall displaying 92 coats of arms on a Jacobean screen, a drawing room. Numerous columns and friezes are found throughout the mansion, while several rooms have large tapestries depicting historical figures, the house is set in 262-acre of grounds containing an 18-acre lake. The grounds, which received a Grade II* listing in 1984, are part of a Registered Historic Park that includes about 25 acres of early 17th-century formal gardens near the house, the wider medieval park was landscaped from the 17th to the 20th century and contains woodland. Bramshill appears to have been a sporting and social venue since the 16th century. The cricket ground at the house played host to a match in 1823 when an early Hampshire team played an England XI. During the Second World War, the mansion was used as a Red Cross maternity home, before becoming the residence of the exiled King Michael and it became the location of the Police Staff College in 1960, and was later home to the European Police College. As a result, many buildings have been added to the estate. Owing to escalating maintenance costs the property was sold to the property developers City & Country in August 2014. Among the 14 ghosts reputed to haunt the house is that of a bride who accidentally locked herself in a chest on her night and was not found until 50 years later. Bramshill House is at the centre of a triangular shape formed by Reading, Basingstoke and Farnborough. It lies to the northeast of Hartley Wintney, east of Hazeley off the B3349 road, southeast of the village of Bramshill, which lies on the B3011 road. There is also a lane within the grounds, known as Lower Pool Road. The latitudinal and longitudinal location is 51°1957. 9N 0°5443. 2W or also,51.332759, the 1086 Domesday Book lists one of the two manors of Bromeselle as held by Hugh de Port, whose family were in possession of it for nine generations. The last of the de Port line, William de Port, in the early 14th century, Sir John Foxley, Baron of the Exchequer, built and endowed a chapel in the village of Bramshill. His first wife, Constance de Bramshill, may have been the heiress of the Bramshill family and their son, Thomas Foxley, became MP for Berkshire in 1325, and was appointed constable of Windsor Castle in 1328, soon after the accession of the 14-year-old Edward III
5. Bromley House Library – The Bromley House Library is a subscription library in the United Kingdom. The library is housed in Bromley House, a Georgian townhouse in the centre of Nottingham and this building is grade II* listed and retains many original features. It was built in 1752 as a house for George Smith, grandson of the founder of Smiths Bank. The longcase clock in the room is set to Nottingham time,4 minutes and 33 seconds slower than Greenwich. The library was founded in 1816 at Carlton Street, in April 1820, Bromley House was offered for sale by auction and purchased by the library for £2,750. The library moved in in 1825, in the 19th century the library had around a hundred subscribers, including George Green and Edward Bromhead. Historically, the first name on the list of subscribers was the Duke of Newcastle as Lord Lieutenant of the county, as of January 2015 the library has over 1,300 members who pay an annual subscription. Items on loan are still recorded using a manual ledger system where each member has their own page, the library has a stock of over 40,000 books which includes a good selection of interest to local historians, and a wide selection of 19th and 20th century novels. It also contains more items such as audiobooks and CDs. The Heritage Lottery Fund contributed towards a project to create the librarys computer catalogue Bromcat and this involved a team of staff and volunteers cataloguing the entire contents over a two year period, completing the work in 2013. Four essays celebrating the 175th Anniversary of the foundation of the Nottingham Subscription Library
6. Cathedral of St. Michael and St. Gudula – The Cathedral of St. Michael and St. Gudula is a Roman Catholic church in Brussels, Belgium. The church was given cathedral status in 1962 and has since been the co-cathedral of the Archdiocese of Mechelen-Brussels, a chapel dedicated to St. Michael was probably built on the Treurenberg hill as early as the 9th century. In the 11th century it was replaced by a Romanesque church, the patron saints of the church, St. Michael and St. Gudula, are also the patron saints of the city of Brussels. In the thirteenth century, Henry I, Duke of Brabant ordered two round towers to be added to the church, Henry II, Duke of Brabant instructed the building of a Gothic collegiate church in 1226. The choir was constructed between 1226 and 1276 and it took about 300 years to complete the entire church. It was completed just before the reign of the emperor Charles V commenced in 1519, the dimensions of the building are, exterior length 114 metres, interior length 109 metres, exterior width at the choir 57 metres, interior width 54 metres and height of towers 64 metres. The cathedral is built of stone from the Gobertange quarry which is located approximately 45 km south-east of the site of the Cathedral. The two towers, the parts of which are arranged in terraces, are attributed to the Flemish architect Jan Van Ruysbroeck. The south tower contains a 49-bell carillon by the Royal Eijsbouts bell foundry on which Sunday concerts are often given, the Salvator bell was cast by Peter van den Gheyn. The choir is gothic and contains the mausoleums of the Dukes of Brabant, left of the choir is the Chapel of the Blessed Sacrament of the Miracle built in a flamboyant Gothic style. It now houses the Treasure of the Cathedral, where the famous Drahmal Cross, right of the choir is the Chapel of Our Lady of Deliverance which is built in a late Gothic style and has a Baroque altar by Jan Voorspoel. Behind the choir is a Baroque chapel dedicated to St. Mary Magdalen dated 1675, statues of the 12 apostles are attached to the columns. These statues date from the 17th century and were created by sculptors Lucas Faydherbe, Jerôme Duquesnoy the Younger, Johannes van Mildert and Tobias de Lelis, the statues replaced those destroyed by iconoclasts in 1566. The nave has a Baroque pulpit from the 17th century, made by Antwerp sculptor Hendrik Frans Verbruggen in 1699, the base represents Adam and Eve expelled from the Garden of Eden after plucking the forbidden fruit. At the top, the Virgin and Child piercing the serpent symbolize redemption, the big organ in the nave was inaugurated in October 2000. The organ has 4300 pipes,63 stops, four manuals and this instrument is the work of the German organ builder Gerhard Grenzing and his Spanish assistants from Barcelona. The northern and southern transepts have a window by Jean Haeck from Antwerp made in 1537 after drawings by Bernard van Orley. The side aisles contain 17th-century confessional-boxes in oak by Jan van Delen, at the end of the nineties, Brussels ornithologists discovered a couple of peregrine falcons hibernating on top of the towers of the St. Michael and St. Gudula Cathedral in the centre of Brussels
7. Durham Cathedral – The bishopric dates from 995, with the present cathedral being founded in AD1093. The present cathedral replaced the 10th century White Church, built as part of a foundation to house the shrine of Saint Cuthbert of Lindisfarne. The treasures of Durham Cathedral include relics of St Cuthbert, the head of St Oswald of Northumbria, in addition, its Library contains one of the most complete sets of early printed books in England, the pre-Dissolution monastic accounts, and three copies of the Magna Carta. Durham Cathedral occupies a position on a promontory high above the River Wear. From 1080 until the 19th century the bishopric enjoyed the powers of a Bishop Palatine, having military as well as religious leadership, Durham Castle was built as the residence for the Bishop of Durham. The seat of the Bishop of Durham is the fourth most significant in the Church of England hierarchy, signposts for the modern day County Durham are subtitled Land of the Prince Bishops. There are daily Church of England services at the cathedral, with the Durham Cathedral Choir singing daily except Mondays, the cathedral is a major tourist attraction within the region, the central tower of 217 feet giving views of Durham and the surrounding area. The see of Durham takes its origins from the Diocese of Lindisfarne, the see lasted until AD664, at which point it was translated to York. The see was then reinstated at Lindisfarne in AD678 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, after repeated Viking raids, the monks fled Lindisfarne in AD875, carrying St Cuthberts relics with them. The diocese of Lindisfarne remained itinerant until 882, when a community was re-established in Chester-le-Street, the see had its seat here until AD995, when further incursions once again caused the monks to move with the relics. According to local legend, the monks followed two milk maids who were searching for a dun cow and were led into a formed by a loop in the River Wear. At this point Cuthberts coffin became immovable and this trope of hagiography was offered for a sign that the new shrine should be built here. Nevertheless, the leading from The Bailey past the Cathedrals eastern towers up to Palace Green is named Dun Cow Lane due to the miniature cows that used to graze in the pastures nearby. Initially, a simple temporary structure was built from local timber to house the relics of Cuthbert. The shrine was transferred to a sturdier, probably wooden. This church was replaced three years later in 998 by a stone building also known as the White Church, which was complete apart from its tower by 1018. Durham soon became a site of pilgrimage, encouraged by the cult of Saint Cuthbert. King Canute was one early pilgrim, granting privileges and much land to the Durham community
8. Florence Cathedral – The Cattedrale di Santa Maria del Fiore is the main church of Florence, Italy. The exterior of the basilica is faced with marble panels in various shades of green. The cathedral complex, located in Piazza del Duomo, includes the Baptistery and these three buildings are part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site covering the historic centre of Florence and are a major attraction to tourists visiting Tuscany. The basilica is one of Italys largest churches, and until development of new materials in the modern era. It remains the largest brick dome ever constructed, the cathedral is the mother church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Florence, whose archbishop is currently Giuseppe Betori. Santa Maria del Fiore was built on the site of a cathedral dedicated to Saint Reparata. The new church was designed by Arnolfo di Cambio and approved by city council in 1294, di Cambio was also architect of the church of Santa Croce and the Palazzo Vecchio. He designed three wide naves ending under the dome, with the middle nave covering the area of Santa Reparata. The first stone was laid on September 9,1296, by Cardinal Valeriana, the building of this vast project was to last 140 years, Arnolfos plan for the eastern end, although maintained in concept, was greatly expanded in size. After Arnolfo died in 1310, work on the cathedral slowed for thirty years, when the relics of Saint Zenobius were discovered in 1330 in Santa Reparata, the project gained a new impetus. In 1331, the Arte della Lana, the guild of merchants, took over patronage for the construction of the cathedral. Assisted by Andrea Pisano, Giotto continued di Cambios design and his major accomplishment was the building of the campanile. When Giotto died in 1337, Andrea Pisano continued the building work was halted due to the Black Death in 1348. In 1359, Talenti was succeeded by Giovanni di Lapo Ghini who divided the nave in four square bays. Other architects were Alberto Arnoldi, Giovanni dAmbrogio, Neri di Fioravante, by 1375, the old church Santa Reparata was pulled down. The nave was finished by 1380, and by 1418, only the dome remained incomplete, on 18 August 1418, the Arte della Lana announced an architectural design competition for erecting Neris dome. The two main competitors were two master goldsmiths, Lorenzo Ghiberti and Filippo Brunelleschi, the latter of whom was supported by Cosimo de Medici. Ghiberti had been the winner of a competition for a pair of doors for the Baptistery in 1401
9. Hither Green railway station – Hither Green is a railway station located in Hither Green in the London Borough of Lewisham, south-east London. It is 7 miles 16 chains down-line from London Charing Cross and is situated between Lewisham and either Grove Park or Lee depending on the route. It is a commuter station with services to several London termini and destinations to other parts of south-east London. It is in Travelcard Zone 3 and very close to Hither Green Traction Maintenance Depot, Grove Park Traction and Rolling Stock Maintenance Depot, the station straddles the Prime Meridian, which is marked across the roof of the pedestrian tunnel forming the main entrance. The station and all trains are operated by Southeastern, Hither Green station was opened on 1 June 1895, by the South Eastern Railway. It was built at Hither Green junction which had formed some thirty years earlier. Originally there was a hall in Springbank Road which was built to serve the St. Germans Estate. The red brick gateposts are still visible outside the site, which was occupied by a merchant for many years. The original stationmasters house survives, at 69 Springbank Road, the main station building was built in Staplehurst Road. Since 1974, access to the new booking hall, located between platforms 4 and 5, has been up a ramp from a tunnel which runs between Staplehurst Road and Maythorne Cottages. In 1899 the SER entered a relationship known as the South Eastern and Chatham Railway, which managed the station until 1 January 1923. The Southern Region of British Rail was responsible from nationalisation in 1948 until the regions were abolished at the end of 1992. On 4 September 1934, two trains collided at Hither Green. On 5 November 1967, the Hither Green rail crash occurred, an express train from Hastings to Charing Cross derailed between Grove Park and Hither Green station, close to where the railway crosses St. Mildreds Road, due to a broken rail. There are two exits from Hither Green Station, Fernbrook Road and Springbank Road, the Fernbrook Road exit may be used to reach Hither Green village. There is also a passageway leading out to Maythorne Cottages, which links with Nightingale Grove, the Springbank Road exit may be used for roads to the west of the station including Hither Green Lane. The exit towards the south east end of platform 4 is an exit for authorised personnel only via Hither Green Traction Maintenance Depot, while the station has a ticket office, it is not open at all times. Ticket machines are available at all times at the Fernbrook Road exit, there is a coffee shop on platform 5, and a newsagent near the main ticket office, but again these are not open at all times
10. Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri – The Basilica of St. Mary of the Angels and the Martyrs is a titular basilica church in Rome, Italy built inside the frigidarium of the Baths of Diocletian in the Piazza della Repubblica. The most recent Cardinal priest of the Titulus S. Mariae Angelorum in Thermis is William Henry Keeler, the basilica is dedicated to the Christian martyrs, known and unknown. By a brief dated 27 July 1561, Pius IV ordered the church built, a story that these Martyrs were Christian slave labourers who had been set to constructing the Baths is modern. It was also a monument of Pope Pius IV, whose tomb is in the apsidal tribune that culminates the series of spaces. The thermae of Diocletian dominated the Quirinal Hill with their mass and had successfully resisted Christianization. Michelangelo Buonarroti worked from 1563 to 1564 to adapt a section of the structure of the baths to enclose a church. Some later construction directed by Luigi Vanvitelli in 1749 only superficially distracts from the grand, at Santa Maria degli Angeli, Michelangelo achieved an unexampled sequence of shaped architectural spaces with few precedents or followers. There is no true facade, the entrance is set within one of the coved apses of a main space of the thermae. The plan is developed from a Greek cross, with a transept so dominant, with its chapels at each end. Of the Saint Bruno, Pope Clement XIV said that he would speak, were it not for the vow of silence of the order he founded, raising the floor truncated the red granite Roman columns that articulate the transept and its flanking spaces. Michelangelo made the transept 27 meters wide, thus providing vast cubical spaces at each end of the transept, in 2006, Polish-born sculptor Igor Mitoraj created new bronze doors as well as a statue of John the Baptist for the basilica. In April 2010, a five metre high statue of Galileo Galilei Divine Man was unveiled in a courtyard within the complex. The statue was a donation from CCAST and WFS, Santa Maria degli Angeli was the official state church during the Kingdom of Italy. More recently, national burials have been held in the church, the church hosts the tombs of General Armando Diaz and Admiral Paolo Thaon di Revel, who were the commanders responsible for winning World War I on the Italian front. Also today the Basilica is used for ceremonies, included the funeral of soldiers killed abroad. Alan Cook remarked, The disposition, the stability and the precision are much better than those of the famous meridian. in Bologna, bianchinis sundial was built along the meridian that crosses Rome, at longitude 12°30 E. At solar noon, which according to the equation of time from around 10,54 a. m. UTC in late October to 11.24 a. m, UTC in February, the sun shines through a small hole in the wall to cast its light on this line each day
11. Milan Cathedral – Milan Cathedral is the cathedral church of Milan, Italy. Dedicated to St Mary of the Nativity, it is the seat of the Archbishop of Milan, the Gothic cathedral took nearly six centuries to complete. It is the largest church in Italy and the fifth largest in the world, the first cathedral, the new basilica dedicated to St Thecla, was completed by 355. It seems to share, on a smaller scale, the plan of the contemporaneous church recently rediscovered beneath Tower Hill in London. An adjoining basilica was erected in 836, the old octagonal baptistery, the Battistero Paleocristiano, dates to 335 and still can be visited under the Milan Cathedral. When a fire damaged the cathedral and basilica in 1075, they were rebuilt as the Duomo, in 1386, Archbishop Antonio da Saluzzo began construction of the cathedral. Before actual work began, three buildings were demolished, the palace of the Archbishop, the Ordinari Palace and the Baptistry of St. Stephen at the Spring. Maria Maggiore was exploited as a stone quarry, enthusiasm for the immense new building soon spread among the population, and the shrewd Gian Galeazzo, together with his cousin the archbishop, collected large donations for the work-in-progress. The construction program was strictly regulated under the Fabbrica del Duomo, Orsenigo initially planned to build the cathedral from brick in Lombard Gothic style. Visconti had ambitions to follow the newest trends in European architecture, in 1389, a French chief engineer, Nicolas de Bonaventure, was appointed, adding to the church its Rayonnant Gothic, a French style not typical for Italy. He decided that the structure should be panelled with marble. Galeazzo gave the Fabbrica del Duomo exclusive use of the marble from the Candoglia quarry and exempted it from taxes. Ten years later another French architect, Jean Mignot, was called from Paris to judge and improve upon the work done, Mignot declared all the work done up till then as in pericolo di ruina, as it had been done sine scienzia. In the following years Mignots forecasts proved untrue, but they spurred Galeazzos engineers to improve their instruments, work proceeded quickly, and at the death of Gian Galeazzo in 1402, almost half the cathedral was complete. John the Evangelist, by Cristoforo de Mottis, and Saint Eligius and San John of Damascus, in 1452, under Francesco Sforza, the nave and the aisles were completed up to the sixth bay. The exterior long remained without any decoration, except for the Guglietto dellAmadeo and this is a Renaissance masterwork which nevertheless harmonized well with the general Gothic appearance of the church. During the subsequent Spanish domination, the new church proved usable, even though the interior remained unfinished, and some bays of the nave. In 1552 Giacomo Antegnati was commissioned to build an organ for the north side of the choir
12. National Archaeological Museum, Naples – The Naples National Archaeological Museum is a museum in Naples, southern Italy, at the northwest corner of the original Greek wall of the city of Neapolis. The museum contains a collection of Roman artifacts from Pompeii, Stabiae. The collection includes works of the highest quality produced in Greek, Roman and it is the most important Italian archaeological museum and is considered one of the most important in the world. Charles of Bourbon founded the museum in the 1750s, the building he used for it had been erected as a cavalry barracks and during its time as the seat of the University of Naples was extended, in the late 18th century. The museum hosts extensive collections of Greek and Roman antiquities and their core is from the Farnese Collection, which includes a collection of engraved gems and the Farnese Marbles. Among the notable works found in the museum are the Herculaneum papyri, carbonized by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius, many of these works, especially the larger ones, have been moved to the Museo di Capodimonte for display in recent years. The Farnese Hercules, which fixed the image of Hercules in the European imagination, a major collection of ancient Roman bronzes from the Villa of the Papyri is housed at the museum. These include the Seated Hermes, a sprawling Drunken Satyr, a bust of Thespis, another variously identified as Seneca or Hesiod, the museums Mosaic Collection includes a number of important mosaics recovered from the ruins of Pompeii and the other Vesuvian cities. This includes the Alexander Mosaic, dating from circa 100 BC and it depicts a battle between the armies of Alexander the Great and Darius III of Persia. Another mosaic found is that of the gladiatorial fighter depicted in a found from the Villa of the Figured Capitals in Pompeii. With 2,500 objects, the museum has one of the largest collection of Egyptian artifacts in Italy after the Turin, Florence and Bologna ones. It is made up primarily of works from two collections, assembled by Cardinal Stefano Borgia in the second half of the 18th century. In its new layout the collection provides both an important record of Egyptian civilization from the Old Kingdom up to the Ptolemaic-Roman era, access was limited to only persons of mature age and known morals. The rooms were also called Cabinets of matters reserved or obscene or pornographic, the highlight of the censorship occurred in 1851 when even nude Venus statues were locked up, and the entrance walled up in the hope that the collection would vanish from memory. In September 1860, when the forces of Garibaldi occupied Naples, since the Royal Butler was no longer available, they broke into the collection. Limiting viewership and censorship have always been part of the history of the collection, censorship was restored during the era of the Kingdom of Italy, and peaked during the Fascist period, when visitors to the rooms needed the permission of the Minister of National Education in Rome. Censorship persisted in the period up to 1967, abating only after 1971 when the Ministry was given the new rules to regulate requests for visits. Completely rebuilt a few years ago with all of the new criteria, visitors under the age of 14 can tour the exhibit only with an adult
13. Palermo Cathedral – Palermo Cathedral is the cathedral church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Palermo, located in Palermo, Sicily, southern Italy. It is dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, as an architectural complex, it is characterized by the presence of different styles, due to a long history of additions, alterations and restorations, the last of which occurred in the 18th century. The church was erected in 1185 by Walter Ophamil, the Anglo-Norman archbishop of Palermo and King William IIs minister, on the area of an earlier Byzantine basilica. By all accounts this earlier church was founded by Pope Gregory I and was turned into a mosque by the Saracens after their conquest of the city in the 9th century. Ophamil is buried in a sarcophagus in the churchs crypt, the medieval edifice had a basilica plan with three apses, of which only some minor architectural elements survive today. The upper orders of the towers were built between the 14th and the 15th centuries, while in the early Renaissance period the southern porch was added. The present neoclassical appearance dates from the carried out over the two decades 1781 to 1801, and supervised by Ferdinando Fuga. During this period the great retable by Gagini, decorated with statues, friezes and reliefs, was destroyed, also by Fuga are the great dome emerging from the main body of the building, and the smaller domes covering the aisles ceilings. The main façade is on the Western side, on the current Via Bonello and it is flanked by two towers and has a Gothic portal surmounted by a niche with a precious 15th-century Madonna. Two lintelled ogival arcades, stepping over the street, connect the façade to the tower in the front. This has a squared appearance adorned in the part by a fine crown of smaller belfries. The right side has outstretching turrets and a portico in Gothic-Catalan style. The first column on the left belonged to the original basilica, the carved portal of this entrance was executed in the period 1426 to 1430 by Antonio Gambara, while the magnificent wooden leaves are by Francesco Miranda. The South-Western façade, looking at the Archbishop Palace, dates from the 14th to 15th centuries, the interior has a Latin cross plan, with a nave and two aisles divided by pilasters. In the first two chapels of the aisle are the tomb of emperors and royal figures moved here in the 18th century from their original sites. Here are the remains of Emperor Henry VI, his son Frederick II, a Roman sarcophagus is the tomb of Constance of Aragon, Fredericks wife. Under the mosaic baldachins are the tombs of Roger II, the first King of Sicily, the last two were once located in the transept of the Cathedral of Cefalù. The Sacrament chapel, at the end of the aisles, is decorated with precious stones
14. Paris Observatory – The Paris Observatory is the foremost astronomical observatory of France, and one of the largest astronomical centers in the world. Its historic building is to be found on the Left Bank of the Seine in central Paris, administratively, it is a grand établissement of the French Ministry of National Education, with a status close to that of a public university. Its missions include, research in astronomy and astrophysics, education, diffusion of knowledge to the public and it maintains a solar observatory at Meudon and a radio astronomy observatory at Nançay. It was also the home to the International Time Bureau until its dissolution in 1987 and its foundation lies in the ambitions of Jean-Baptiste Colbert to extend Frances maritime power and international trade in the 17th century. Louis XIV promoted its construction, which was started in 1667 and it thus predates by a few years the Royal Greenwich Observatory in England, which was founded in 1675. The architect of the Paris Observatory was Claude Perrault whose brother, Charles, was secretary to Colbert, optical instruments were supplied by Giuseppe Campani. The buildings were extended in 1730,1810,1834,1850, the last extension incorporates the spectacular Meridian Room designed by Jean Prouvé. The worlds first national almanac, the Connaissance des temps, was published by the observatory in 1679, in 1863, the observatory published the first modern weather maps. In 1882, a 33 cm astrographic lens was constructed, an instrument that catalysed what proved to be the over-ambitious international Carte du Ciel project. The Meudon great refractor was a 83 cm aperture refractor, which with September 20,1909 observations by E. M. Antoniadi helped disprove the Mars canals theory and it was a double telescope completed in 1891, with secondary having 62 cm aperture lens for photography. It was one of the largest active telescopes in Europe, the title of Director of the Observatory was officially given for the first time to César-François Cassini de Thury by a Royal brevet dated November 12,1771. However, the important role played by his grandfather and father in this institution during its first century actually gives them somewhat the role of director, a coronograph was in operation there for ten years, the dome was moved there from the Perrault building of the Observatoire de Paris. Nowadays, the AstroQueyras amateur astronomy association operates the facility, using a 60 cm telescope on loan from the Observatoire de Haute Provence, numerous asteroids have been discovered there. Paris Observatory, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Deluxe CDROM edition Aubin, D, the fading star of the Paris Observatory in the nineteenth century, astronomers urban culture of circulation and observation. History of the Bureau International de lHeure, polar Motion, Historical and Scientific problems. Paris Observatory Paris Observatory History Location in Paris Publications of the Observatoire de Paris in Gallica, the digital library of the BnF
15. Ramsgate Maritime Museum – Ramsgate Maritime Museum is a maritime museum in Ramsgate, Kent, England, that describes the maritime history of East Kent. The museum is situated in the Clock House on the quayside of the Royal Harbour at Ramsgate, Ramsgate Maritime Museum is run by the Steam Museum Trust, a registered charity. The museum is housed in buildings leased from Thanet District Council, the Clock House was built in 1817 by Benjamen Wyatt and George Louch. It was later altered by John Rennie and has now designated as a Grade II* listed building. There are four permanent galleries covering the development of the harbour, navigation, fishing, lifeboats, a fifth exhibition space houses a 17th-century 32-pounder demi-cannon raised from the wreck of HMS Stirling Castle. A number of artefacts come from the nearby Goodwin Sands which is responsible for numerous shipwrecks, exhibits include two museum ships, the 1946 steam tug Cervia and Sundowner, a 1912 Dunkirk little ship. The museum reopened on 5 May 2012, having been closed for several years, port of Ramsgate Ramsgate Lifeboat Station Official website The Steam Museum Trust website
16. Royal Observatory, Greenwich – The Royal Observatory, Greenwich is an observatory situated on a hill in Greenwich Park, overlooking the River Thames. It played a role in the history of astronomy and navigation. The observatory was commissioned in 1675 by King Charles II, with the stone being laid on 10 August. The site was chosen by Sir Christopher Wren and he appointed John Flamsteed as the first Astronomer Royal. The building was completed in the summer of 1676, the building was often called Flamsteed House, in reference to its first occupant. The scientific work of the observatory was relocated elsewhere in stages in the first half of the 20th century,1675 –22 June, Royal Observatory founded. 1675 –10 August, construction began,1714 Longitude Act established the Board of Longitude and Longitude rewards. The Astronomer Royal was, until the Board was dissolved in 1828,1767 Astronomer Royal Nevil Maskelyne began publication of the Nautical Almanac, based on observations made at the Observatory. 1833 Daily time signals began, marked by dropping a Time ball,1899 The New Physical Observatory was completed. 1924 Hourly time signals from the Royal Observatory were first broadcast on 5 February,1948 Office of the Astronomer Royal was moved to Herstmonceux. 1957 Royal Observatory completed its move to Herstmonceux, becoming the Royal Greenwich Observatory, the Greenwich site is renamed the Old Royal Observatory. Greenwich site is returned to its name, the Royal Observatory. The Ordnance Office was given responsibility for building the Observatory, with Moore providing the key instruments, Moore donated two clocks, built by Thomas Tompion, which were installed in the 20 foot high Octagon Room, the principal room of the building. They were of unusual design, each with a pendulum 13 feet in length mounted above the face, giving a period of four seconds. British astronomers have used the Royal Observatory as a basis for measurement. Four separate meridians have passed through the buildings, defined by successive instruments, subsequently, nations across the world used it as their standard for mapping and timekeeping. When the Airy circle became the reference for the meridian, the difference resulting from the change was considered enough to be neglected. When a new triangulation was done between 1936 and 1962, scientists determined that in the Ordnance Survey system the longitude of the international Greenwich meridian was not 0° and this old astronomical prime meridian has been replaced by a more precise prime meridian
17. Church of Saint-Sulpice, Paris – Saint-Sulpice is a Roman Catholic church in Paris, France, on the east side of the Place Saint-Sulpice within the rue Bonaparte, in the Luxembourg Quarter of the 6th arrondissement. At 113 metres long,58 metres in width and 34 metres tall, it is slightly smaller than Notre-Dame. It is dedicated to Sulpitius the Pious, construction of the present building, the second church on the site, began in 1646. During the 18th century, a gnomon, the Gnomon of Saint-Sulpice, was constructed in the church. The present church is the building on the site, erected over a Romanesque church originally constructed during the 13th century. Additions were made over the centuries, up to 1631, the new building was founded in 1646 by parish priest Jean-Jacques Olier who had established the Society of Saint-Sulpice, a clerical congregation, and a seminary attached to the church. Anne of Austria laid the first stone, gittard completed the sanctuary, ambulatory, apsidal chapels, transept, and north portal, after which construction was halted for lack of funds. Gilles-Marie Oppenord and Giovanni Servandoni, adhering closely to Gittards designs, the decoration was executed by the brothers Sébastien-Antoine Slodtz and Paul-Ambroise Slodtz. He also built a bell-tower on top of the transept crossing and this miscalculation may account for the fact that Oppenord was then relieved of his duties as an architect and restricted to designing decoration. In 1732 a competition was held for the design of the west facade, won by Servandoni, the 1739 Turgot map of Paris shows the church without Oppenords crossing bell-tower, but with Servandonis pedimented facade mostly complete, still lacking however its two towers. Unfinished at the time of his death in 1766, the work was continued by others, primarily the obscure Oudot de Maclaurin, Chalgrin also designed the decoration of the chapels under the towers. The principal facade now exists in altered form. Large arched windows fill the vast interior with natural light, the result is a simple two-storey west front with three tiers of elegant columns. The overall harmony of the building is, some say, only marred by the two mismatched towers, one can still barely make out the printed words ‘’Le Peuple Francais Reconnoit L’Etre Suprême Et L’Immortalité de L’Âme’’. Further questions of interest are the fate of the frieze that this must have replaced, the responsible for placing this manifesto. Inside the church to either side of the entrance are the two halves of a shell given to King Francis I by the Venetian Republic. They function as holy water fonts and rest on rock-like bases sculpted by Jean-Baptiste Pigalle, Pigalle also designed the large white marble statue of Mary in the Lady Chapel at the far end of the church. The stucco decoration surrounding it is by Louis-Philippe Mouchy, pigalles work replaced a solid-silver statue by Edmé Bouchardon, which vanished at the time of the Revolution
18. San Petronio Basilica – The Basilica of San Petronio is the main church of Bologna, Emilia Romagna, northern Italy. It is the tenth-largest church in the world by volume,132 metres long and 66 metres wide, with its volume of 258,000 m³, it is the largest church built of bricks of the world. The basilica is dedicated to the saint of the city, Saint Petronius. It has been the seat of the relics of Bolognas patron saint only since 2000, following a council decree of 1388, the first stone of construction was laid June 7,1390, when the town council entrusted Antonio di Vincenzo with raising a Gothic cathedral. Works lasted for centuries, after the completion of the first version of the facade. The series were completed only in 1479, according to tradition, Pope Pius IV halted such a majestic project. The facing of the facade remains unfinished, many architects were commissioned to propose solutions for it. The heroic nudes of Adam and other figures in the rectangular panels were an inspiration to artists of the Renaissance. The 65-metre-tall campanile was built at the end of the 1400s, the interior houses a Madonna with Saints by Lorenzo Costa the Younger and a Pietà by Amico Aspertini. Also the colours of the walls and the glass windows are noteworthy. The choir was made in the 15th century by Agostino de Marchi, Jacopo Barozzi da Vignola was chief architect of the fabbrica, his is the design of the ciborium over the altar. The vaulting and decoration of the nave is by Girolamo Rainaldi. The twenty-two chapels are the following, I, Chapel of St. Abbondio, formerly of the Dieci di Balia - restored in neo-Gothic style in 1865. In this chapel, in the year 1530, Emperor Charles V was crowned by Pope Clement VII, Chapel of St. Petronio, once of the Cospi and Aldrovandi families, designed by Alfonso Torreggiani, designed to contain the relic of the head of San Petronio. On the pillar, two clocks, one of the first made in Italy with the correction of the pendulum. Chapel of the Magi, once of Bolognini family, its marble Gothic balustrade designed by Antonio di Vincenzo, Chapel of St. Sebastian, once of Vaselli family. Chapel of St. Vincent Ferrer, formerly of the Griffoni, Chapel of St. James, formerly of the Rossi and Baciocchi families, the Madonna Enthroned on the altar was painted by Lorenzo Costa, to the same author attributed the designs of the stain glass. Funeral monument containing the remains of Prince Felix Baciocchi and his wife Elisa Bonaparte, Chapel of St. Rocco, formerly of the Ranuzzi family, it contains a ‘’San Rocco’’ by Parmigianino