Category:Burgh Commissioners to the Parliament of Scotland
Pages in category "Burgh Commissioners to the Parliament of Scotland"
The following 34 pages are in this category, out of 34 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 34 pages are in this category, out of 34 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Parliament of Scotland – The Parliament of Scotland, or Estates of Parliament, was the legislature of the Kingdom of Scotland. The parliament, like other such institutions, evolved during the Middle Ages from the council of bishops. It is first identifiable as a parliament in 1235, during the reign of Alexander II, by the early fourteenth century, the attendance of knights and freeholders had become important, and from 1326 commissioners from the burghs attended. Parliamentary business was carried out by sister institutions, such as General Councils or Convention of Estates. These could carry out much business also dealt with by parliament – taxation, legislation and policy-making –, the Parliament of Scotland met for more than four centuries, until it was prorogued sine die at the time of the Acts of Union in 1707. Thereafter the Parliament of Great Britain operated for both England and Scotland, thus creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain, when the Parliament of Ireland was abolished in 1801, its former members were merged into what was now called the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Later, the bishops themselves were removed from the Church of Scotland during the Glorious Revolution, the Second Estate was then split into two to retain the division into three. From the 16th century, the estate was reorganised by the selection of Shire Commissioners. During the 17th century, after the Union of the Crowns and these latter identifications remain highly controversial among parliamentary historians. Regardless, the used for the assembled members continued to be the Three Estates. A Shire Commissioner was the closest equivalent of the English office of Member of Parliament, because the parliament of Scotland was unicameral, all members sat in the same chamber, as opposed to the separate English House of Lords and House of Commons. The Scottish parliament evolved during the Middle Ages from the Kings Council and it is perhaps first identifiable as a parliament in 1235, described as a colloquium and already with a political and judicial role. In 1296 we have the first mention of burgh representatives taking part in decision making, by the early 14th century, the attendance of knights and freeholders had become important, and Robert the Bruce began regularly calling burgh commissioners to his Parliament. Consisting of The Three Estates – of clerics, lay Tenants-in-chief and burgh commissioners – sitting in a single chamber, parliamentary business was also carried out by sister institutions, before c.1500 by General Council and thereafter by the Convention of Estates. These could carry out much business also dealt with by Parliament – taxation, legislation and policy-making –, the Scottish parliament met in a number of different locations throughout its history. In addition to Edinburgh, meetings were held in Perth, Stirling, St Andrews, Dundee, Linlithgow, Dunfermline, Glasgow, Aberdeen, Inverness and Berwick-upon-Tweed. From the early 1450s until 1690, a deal of the legislative business of the Scottish Parliament was usually carried out by a parliamentary committee known as the Lords of the Articles. This was a chosen by the three estates to draft legislation which was then presented to the full assembly to be confirmed
2. James Smith (architect) – James Smith was a Scottish architect, who pioneered the Palladian style in Scotland. He was described by Colen Campbell, in his Vitruvius Britannicus, born in Tarbat, Ross, Smith was the son of James Smith, a mason, who became a burgess of Forres, Moray, in 1659. He had certainly travelled abroad, however, and was well-educated, by December 1677, Smith was in touch with Sir William Bruce, the most prominent architect of the time in Scotland, and the designer of the rebuilt Holyrood Palace, Edinburgh. Here, Smith served as a mason, under the direction of the master mason Robert Mylne, by December 1679 he was married to Mylnes daughter Janet, when he was made a burgess of Edinburgh in right of his father-in-law. He was admitted to the Incorporation of St Marys Chapel, the guild of masons and wrights in Edinburgh, in 1680. In 1683 he was appointed, at the recommendation of the Duke of Queensberry, to the post of Surveyor and Overseer of the Royal Works and he was responsible for maintenance of Holyrood Palace, and refurbished the former Holyrood Abbey as a chapel royal for King James VII. From 1685–86 he sat in the Parliament of Scotland as member for Forres and his Royal appointment was renewed after the Union of England and Scotland in 1707, but he never received further pay. He surveyed some of the built in the Highlands after 1714, for the Board of Ordnance. He complained in a letter to John Clerk of Penicuik that he had been turned out of His Majestys service in the 73rd year of his age. In 1715 he unsuccessfully stood as a candidate for Member of Parliament for Edinburgh, in 1686 he purchased the estate of Whitehill, near Musselburgh. However, an unsuccessful coal-mining venture forced him to part of the estate in 1706. Smith fathered 18 children by his first wife, Janet Mylne and he remarried, and fathered another 14 children by his second wife. Smiths architectural training is not known, architectural historian Howard Colvin has speculated that he was associated with Colen Campbell, the Scots architect who introduced Palladian architecture to England. With his father-in-law, Robert Mylne, Smith worked on Caroline Park in Edinburgh and his Canongate Kirk is a basilica-plan, with a baroque facade. In 1691 Smith designed the mausoleum of Sir George Mackenzie of Rosehaugh and this circular structure is modelled on the Tempietto di San Pietro, designed by Donato Bramante, and illustrated in Palladios Quattro Libri. Smiths country houses follow the established by William Bruce, with hipped roofs and pedimented fronts, in a plain. Hamilton Palace was fronted by giant corinthian columns, and a pedimented entrance and he also designed the nearby estate office, now the Low Parks Museum. Dalkeith Palace was modelled after William of Oranges palace at Het Loo in the Netherlands, other houses included Yester House, works at Alloa Tower for the Earl of Mar, as well as his own home, built around 1690 on his estate at Whitehill
3. Commissioner (Scottish Parliament) – A Commissioner was a legislator appointed or elected to represent a royal burgh or shire in the pre-Union Scottish Parliament and the associated Convention of the Estates. Member of Parliament and Deputy are equivalent terms in other countries, the Scottish Parliament and the Convention of the Estates were unicameral legislatures, so Commissioners sat alongside prelates and members of the nobility. Burgh Commissioners were the estate, and were the longest-established. Burgh commissioners often acted and lobbied collectively, assisted by the fact that the Convention of Royal Burghs often met in association with parliamentary sessions. From the 16th century, the estate of the nobility was reorganised by the selection of Shire Commissioners from the lower nobility. Each shire, stewartry or constabulary sent two Shire Commissioners to parliament, with the exception of the shires of Clackmannan and Kinross which only sent one. However, each shire had only one vote, meaning that the two commissioners had to cooperate and compromise with each other and they appear to have possessed plena potestas, and were not necessarily required to consult their electorates. Early shire commissioners were lesser barons, with the earliest recorded shire election being on 31 January 1596, the powers of the shire commissioners greatly expanded over time, especially with the long-term decline in power of the prelates. In 1640, the Covenanters abolished the episcopates, and each shire commissioner was given their own vote and this arrangement continued upon the Restoration of the Episcopates in 1662
4. Sir John Clerk, 2nd Baronet – Sir John Clerk of Penicuik, 2nd Baronet was a Scottish politician, lawyer, judge and composer. He was Vice-President of the Philosophical Society of Edinburgh, the pre-eminent learned society of the Scottish Enlightenment and he was the father of George Clerk Maxwell and John Clerk of Eldin, both of them friends of James Hutton and the great-great-grandfather of the famous physicist James Clerk Maxwell. John Clerk was son of Sir John Clerk, 1st Baronet by his first wife Elizabeth and he had a legal education first at University of Glasgow and then at Leiden University. During 1697 and 1698 he went on a Grand Tour and in 1700 was admitted to the Scottish Bar and he was appointed a Baron of the Exchequer for Scotland on the constitution of the Exchequer Court,13 May 1708, a position he held for nearly half a century. To give an account to him from time to time how everything past here. He was therefor a spy among us, but not known to be such and he was the author of a tract entitled Dissertatio de quibusdam Monumentis Romanis &c, written in 1730 but not published until 1750. For upwards of twenty years he carried on a learned correspondence with Roger Gale, the English antiquary. Sir John Clerk was one of the friends and patrons of the poet Allan Ramsay who, during his latter years and his son, Sir James Clerk, erected at the family seat an obelisk to Ramsays memory. Sir John was a patron to various artists and architects. One of his humorous songs was O merry may the maid be that marries the miller, Sir John succeeded his father in his title and estates in 1722. He unsuccessfully courted Susanna, daughter of Sir Archibald Kennedy of Culzean, Baronet and she became the third wife of Alexander, 9th Earl of Eglinton. He married, firstly, on 23 February 1701, Lady Margaret, eldest daughter of Alexander Stewart and her son, John, survived, but died unmarried in 1722. Sir John remarried Janet, daughter of Sir John Inglis of Cramond, by whom he had seven sons and he died at Penicuik House on 4 October 1755. Backscheider, Paula R. Colburn and R. Bentley, a biographical dictionary of British architects, 1600-1840, Edition 4, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-12508-9, ISBN 978-0-300-12508-5. Trevelyan, George Macaulay. England under Queen Anne, Volume 2, Longmans, Green, the annals of Penicuik, being a history of the parish and of the village, Priv. Print. by T. & A. Constable, The Clerk Family, Penicuik House Project, attribution This article incorporates text from a work in the public domain, The Scottish Nation by William Anderson Clerk, John, Sir, 1676–1755
5. Sir David Dalrymple, 1st Baronet – Sir David Dalrymple of Hailes, 1st Baronet was a Scottish advocate and politician. He served as Lord Advocate, and eventually Auditor of the Exchequer in Scotland, David Dalrymple was the fifth and youngest son of James Dalrymple, 1st Viscount of Stair. He was educated at the University of Edinburgh, and the University of Utrecht and he was elected to represent Culross in 1698 in the Parliament of Scotland, where he served until 1707. From 1709 to 1711 and then again from 1714 to 1720 he served as Lord Advocate of Scotland, on 4 April 1691 he married Janet, daughter of Sir James Rocheid of Inverleith, the widow of Alexander Murray of Melgund. By her he had three sons and a daughter, His heir, Sir James Dalrymple, 2nd Baronet, of Hailes, Janet, who married Sir John Baird, 2nd Baronet of Newbyth, MP for Edinburghshire 1715-1722, General James St Clair of Dysart, M. P. The Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies of England, Ireland, and Scotland, John and John Bernard Burke, second edition, London,1841, p.620. Leigh Rayments Historical List of MPs Leigh Rayments list of baronets Oxford Dictionary of National Biography