Category:Burials at Munich Frauenkirche
Pages in category "Burials at Munich Frauenkirche"
The following 23 pages are in this category, out of 23 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 23 pages are in this category, out of 23 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Burial – Burial or interment is the ritual act of placing a dead person or animal, sometimes with objects, into the ground. This is accomplished by excavating a pit or trench, placing the deceased and objects in it, humans have been burying their dead for at least 100,000 years. Burial is often seen as indicating respect for the dead, sometimes objects or grave goods are buried with the body, which may be dressed in fancy or ceremonial garb. Depending on the culture, the way the body is positioned may have great significance, the location of the burial may be determined taking into account concerns surrounding health and sanitation, religious concerns, and cultural practices. Some cultures keep the close to provide guidance to the living. Some religions consecrate special ground to bury the dead, and some families build private family cemeteries, most modern cultures document the location of graves with headstones, which may be inscribed with information and tributes to the deceased. However, some people are buried in anonymous or secret graves for various reasons, sometimes multiple bodies are buried in a single grave either by choice, due to space concerns, or in the case of mass graves as a way to deal with many bodies at once. Alternatives to burial may include cremation, burial at sea, promession, cryopreservation, some human cultures may bury the remains of beloved animals. Humans are not the species which bury their dead, the practice has been observed in chimpanzees, elephants. Evidence suggests that the Neanderthals were the first human species to practice burial behavior and intentionally bury their dead, doing so in shallow graves along with stone tools, exemplary sites include Shanidar in Iraq, Kebara Cave in Israel and Krapina in Croatia. Some scholars, however, argue that these bodies may have been disposed of for secular reasons, the earliest undisputed human burial dates back 100,000 years. Human skeletal remains stained with red ochre were discovered in the Skhul cave at Qafzeh, a variety of grave goods were present at the site, including the mandible of a wild boar in the arms of one of the skeletons. Prehistoric cemeteries are referred to by the neutral term grave field. After death, a body will decay, Burial is not necessarily a public health requirement. Contrary to conventional wisdom, the WHO advises that only corpses carrying an infectious disease strictly require burial, human burial practices are the manifestation of the human desire to demonstrate respect for the dead. Cultures vary in their mode of respect, some reasons follow, Respect for the physical remains. If left lying on top of the ground, scavengers may eat the corpse, in Tibet, Sky burials return the remains to the cycle of life and acknowledge the body as food, a core tenet of some Buddhist practices. Burial can be seen as an attempt to bring closure to the deceaseds family, psychologists in some Western Judeo-Christian quarters, as well as the US funeral industry, claim that by interring a body away from plain view the pain of losing a loved one can be lessened
2. Munich Frauenkirche – The Frauenkirche is a church in the Bavarian city of Munich that serves as the cathedral of the Archdiocese of Munich and Freising and seat of its Archbishop. It is a landmark and is considered a symbol of the Bavarian capital city, although called Münchner Dom on its website and URL, the church is always referred to as Frauenkirche by locals. The church towers are visible because of local height limits. According to the outcome of a local plebiscite, city administration prohibits buildings with a height exceeding 99 m in the city center. Since November 2004, this prohibition has been extended outward and as a result. The south tower which is open to those wishing to climb the stairs, will, on completion of its current renovation, offer a unique view of Munich. The current construction replaced this church and was commissioned by Duke Sigismund. The cathedral was erected in only 20 years time by Jörg von Halsbach, for financial reasons and due to the lack of a nearby stone pit, brick was chosen as building material. Since the cash resources were exhausted in 1479, Pope Sixtus IV granted an indulgence, the two towers were completed in 1488 and the church was consecrated in 1494. However, due to lack of funds, the planned, tall, open-work spires typical of the Gothic style could not be built, hartmann Schedel printed a view of Munich including the uncovered towers in his famous Nuremberg Chronicle, also known as Schedels World Chronicle. However, because rainwater was regularly penetrating the temporary roofing in the towers ceilings and this is how the building got its famous domes atop each tower and the church became such a non-interchangeable landmark. Their design was modelled on the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, the building has a volume of about 200,000 m³. It is said to having had capacity to house 20,000 standing people, major restoration efforts began after the war and were carried out in several stages, the last of which came to an end in 1994. The Frauenkirche was constructed from red brick in the late Gothic style within only 20 years, the building is designed very plainly, without rich Gothic ornaments and its buttresses moved into and hidden in the interior. This, together with the two towers special design, lets the construction, mighty anyway, look even more enormous, the Late Gothic brick building with chapels surrounding the apse is 109 metres long,40 metres wide, and 37 metres high. The original design called for pointed spires to top the towers, much like Cologne Cathedral, instead, the two domes were constructed during the Renaissance and do not match the architectural style of the building, however they have become a distinctive landmark of Munich. With an enclosed space of about 200,000 m³, with 150,000 m³ up to the height of the vault, it is the largest hall church in general, catholic Mass is held regularly in the cathedral, which still serves as a parish church. It is among the largest hall churches in southern Germany, the interior does not overwhelm despite its size
3. Albert V, Duke of Bavaria – Albert V was Duke of Bavaria from 1550 until his death. He was born in Munich to William IV and Maria Jacobäa of Baden, Albert was educated at Ingolstadt by Catholic teachers. The union was designed to end the rivalry between Austria and Bavaria. In 1550, Albert succeeded his father as duke of Bavaria, Albert was now free to devote himself to the task of establishing Catholic conformity in his dominions. A strict Catholic by upbringing, Albert was a leader of the German Counter-Reformation, the latter took an important part in the events leading up to the Peace of Passau and the Peace of Augsburg. Duke Albert made strenuous efforts to procure for his son, Ernest of Bavaria and these efforts would not pay off until after Alberts death, however, a member of the Wittelsbach house of Bavaria would be Archbishop of Cologne for almost two centuries thereafter. His personal library founded in 1558 has come to the Bavarian State Library in Munich, in 1552, Albert commissioned an inventory of the jewelry which he and his wife owned. The resulting manuscript, still held by the Bavarian State Library, was the Jewel Book of the Duchess Anna of Bavaria, in 1559 Albert founded the Paedagogium in Munich. To house his antiquities he commissioned the Antiquarium in the Munich Residenz, Albert appointed Orlando di Lasso to a court post and patronized many other artists, this led to a huge burden of debts. Albert died in 1579 in Munich and was succeeded by his son William and he is buried in the Frauenkirche in Munich. Hofkleiderbuch des Herzogs Wilhelm IV. und Albrecht V. 1508–1551, at the Bavarian State Library This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Jackson, Samuel Macauley, ed. article name needed. New Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, london and New York, Funk and Wagnalls
4. Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria – Duke Albert IV of Bavaria-Munich, from 1467 Duke of Bavaria-Munich, from 1503 Duke of the reunited Bavaria. Albert was a son of Albert III, Duke of Bavaria, after the death of his older brother John IV, Duke of Bavaria he gave up his spiritual career and returned from Pavia to Munich. When his brothers Christoph and Wolfgang had resigned Albert became sole duke, after Sigismunds death in 1501, it reverted to Bavaria-Munich. The marriage of Kunigunde of Austria to Albert IV, was a result of intrigues and deception, Albert illegally took control of some imperial fiefs and then asked to marry Kunigunde, offering to give her the fiefs as a dowry. Frederick agreed at first, but after Albert took over yet another fief, Regensburg, on January 2,1487, however, before Fredericks change of heart could be communicated to his daughter, Kunigunde married Albert. A war was prevented only by intermediation by the Emperors son, for Alberts wedding the Grünwald castle was extended in 1486/87 by Jörg von Weikertshausen. Albert finally decided to return territorial acquisitions in Swabia in 1492 to avoid a war with the Habsburg and the Swabian League. He then also had to release Regensburg which had been reunited with Bavaria in 1486 and had to renounce Further Austria when Sigismund, for the Palatinate branch a new duchy of Palatinate-Neuburg was created. To avoid any future division of Bavaria, Albert decreed the everlasting succession of the prince in 1506. Nevertheless, his oldest son and successor William IV, Duke of Bavaria had to share his power from 1516 onwards with his younger brother Louis X, after the death of Louis in 1545, the edict became effective until the end of Bavarian monarchy in 1918. Albert is buried in the Frauenkirche in Munich, on 3 January 1487 he married to Archiduchess Kunigunde of Austria, daughter of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor and his wife Eleonore of Portugal
5. Franziskus von Bettinger – Franziskus von Bettinger was a German Cardinal and Roman Catholic Archbishop of Munich from 1909 to 1917. Bettinger was born in Landstuhl in the Palatinate, the eldest of the six children of Franz Michael Bettinger, a blacksmith, and his wife, Maria Josephine Weber. He studied philosophy, theology and canon law at the Lyceum of Speyer, the University of Innsbruck, the University of Würzburg, and he was ordained to the priesthood August 17,1873, in Speyer. In 1895 he was named a canon of the cathedral chapter, in 1909 he was promoted to the office of dean of the cathedral chapter. Shortly afterwards he was ennobled by Prince Regent Luitpold of Bavaria, on June 6,1909 Bettinger was elected archbishop of Munich and Freising. He was ordained a bishop on August 15,1909, in Münich, by Andreas Früwirth, Titular Archbishop of Eraclea, in the consistory of May 24,1914, Pope Pius X named Bettinger a cardinal. On May 28 he received the red hat and the title of Cardinal Priest of San Marcello and he participated in the 1914 conclave. Bettinger died suddenly of an attack in Munich, aged 66. His remains are buried in the crypt of the cathedral
6. Michael von Faulhaber – Michael von Faulhaber was a Roman Catholic Cardinal who was Archbishop of Munich for 35 years, from 1917 to his death in 1952. He ordained Joseph Ratzinger as a priest in 1951, and was the last surviving Cardinal appointed by Pope Benedict XV, Michael Faulhaber was born as the third of seven children of the baker Michael Faulhaber and his wife Margarete. He was educated at gymnasiums in Schweinfurt and Würzburg, in 1887-88 he was a soldier and non-commissioned officer in the Bavarian army. In 1889 he entered the Kilianeum Seminary in Würzburg and was ordained on August 1,1892, Faulhaber was a priest in Würzburg from 1892 until 1910, serving there for six years. His studies included a specialisation in the early Christian writer Tertullian, in 1895 he graduated from his studies with a doctorate in theology. From 1894 to 1896, he was prefect of the Kilianeum Seminary, from 1896 to 1899, he was engaged in studying manuscripts at the Vatican and other Italian museums. From 1899 to 1903, he was privatdocent in Greek palaeography, Biblical archaeology, homiletics, exegesis of the Psalms, in 1900 he visited England to study manuscripts of early Christian literature, spending one semester at Oxford. In 1902 he visited Spain for a similar purpose, in 1903 he became professor of theology at the University of Strasbourg. In 1910, Faulhaber was appointed Bishop of Speyer and invested as such on February 19,1911, in 1916 he won the Iron Cross at the Western Front for his frontline support of troops by acting as a military chaplain. In 1917, his appointment as Archbishop of Munich followed, in 1921 he became a Cardinal, with the title of Cardinal-Priest of Santa Anastasia, and at his death was the last surviving Cardinal appointed by Pope Benedict XV. Faulhaber felt little loyalty to the Weimar Republic, the declaration disturbed Catholics who were committed to the Weimar Republic. Faulhaber had praised the monarchy a few months earlier at the funeral of King Ludwig, Faulhaber publicised, and supported by creating an institutional link for the association, the work of Amici Israël. It was dissolved in March 1928 on the decree of the Vaticans Congregation of the Holy Office on the grounds that its perspectives were not in keeping with the spirit of the Church. Faulhaber was a key figure in the negotiations between the Roman Catholic Church and the Hitler regime and is cited in works dealing with the Roman Catholic Church. Faulhaber helped persuade Gustav von Kahr not to support Hitler during the Beer Hall Putsch, in 1923 Faulhaber declared in a sermon that every human life was precious, including that of a Jew. In February 1924 Faulhaber spoke of Hitler and his movement to a meeting of Roman Catholic students and he spoke of the originally pure spring that had been poisoned by later tributaries and by Kulturkampf. But Hitler, he asserted, knew better than his minions, on April 1,1933, the government supported a nationwide boycott of all Jewish stores and businesses. In the days preceding the boycott Cardinal Bertram asked for the opinion of brother bishops on whether the Church should protest, Faulhaber telegrammed Bertram that any such protest would be hopeless
7. Johann Michael Fischer – Johann Michael Fischer was a German architect in the late Baroque period. Fischer was born in Burglengenfeld, Upper Palatinate and he is a major representative of south German Baroque architects. He studied in Bohemia and combined Bohemian elements with Bavarian Baroque traditions, Fischer died, aged 74, in Munich, and is buried in the Munich Frauenkirche. Fischer designed 32 churches and 23 monasteries in southern Germany, among these, the best-known are the following
8. Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor – Louis IV, called the Bavarian, of the house of Wittelsbach, was King of the Romans from 1314, King of Italy from 1327, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1328. He obtained the titles Count of Hainaut, Holland, Zeeland, Louis was born in Munich, the son of Louis II, Duke of Upper Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine, and Matilda, a daughter of King Rudolph I. A civil war against his brother Rudolf due to new disputes on the partition of their lands was ended in 1313, in the same year, on November 9, Louis defeated his Habsburg cousin Frederick the Fair who was further aided by duke Leopold I. Originally, he was a friend of Frederick, with whom he had been raised. However, armed conflict arose when the guardianship over the young Dukes of Lower Bavaria was entrusted to Frederick, even though the late Duke Otto III, on 9 November 1313, Frederick was defeated by Louis in the Battle of Gamelsdorf and had to renounce the tutelage. This victory caused a stir within the Holy Roman Empire and increased the reputation of the Bavarian Duke, the death of Holy Roman Emperor Henry VII in August 1313 necessitated the election of a successor. Henrys son John, King of Bohemia since 1310, seemed too powerful to most prince-electors, the most likely choice was Frederick the Fair, the son of Henrys predecessor, Albert I, of the House of Habsburg. In reaction, the party among the prince electors settled on Louis as its candidate to prevent Fredericks election. On 19 October 1314, Archbishop Henry II Cologne chaired an assembly of four electors assembled at Sachsenhausen and these four elector chose Frederick as King. The Luxemburg party did not accept this election and the day a second election was held. Upon the instigation of Peter of Aspelt, Archbishop of Mainz, five different electors convened at Frankfurt, in the following conflict between the kings, Louis recognized in 1316 the independence of Switzerland from the Habsburg dynasty. After several years of war, victory finally seemed within the grasp of Frederick. However, Fredericks army was defeated in the Battle of Mühldorf on 28 September 1322 on the Ampfing Heath. In this agreement, Frederick recognized Louis as legitimate ruler and undertook to return to captivity if he did not succeed in convincing his brothers to submit to Louis. As he did not manage to overcome Leopolds obstinacy, Frederick returned to Munich as a prisoner, Louis, who was impressed by such nobility, renewed the old friendship with Frederick, and they agreed to rule the Empire jointly. However, after Leopolds death in 1326, Frederick withdrew from the regency of the Empire and he died on 13 January 1330. After the reconciliation with the Habsburgs in 1326, Louis marched to Italy and was crowned King of Italy in Milan in 1327. Already in 1323 Louis had sent an army to Italy to protect Milan against the Kingdom of Naples, but now the Lord of Milan Galeazzo I Visconti was deposed since he was suspected of conspiring with the pope
9. Louis V, Duke of Bavaria – Louis V, Duke of Bavaria, called the Brandenburger was Duke of Bavaria and as Louis I also Margrave of Brandenburg and Count of Tyrol. Louis V was the eldest son of Emperor Louis IV and his first wife Beatrix of Świdnica and he was a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty. Louis V was Margrave of Brandenburg from 1323 when he received the territory as a fiefdom from his father, as such, Louis contributed to the Declaration at Rhense in 1338. Wittelsbach rule in Brandenburg never earned much popular support, as a consequence of the murder of Provost Nikolaus von Bernau by Berlin citizens in 1325, the town was punished with a papal interdict. From 1328 onwards Louis was in war against the Duchy of Pomerania, the conflict did not end before 1333, when he gave up his claims. In order to acquire Tyrol for the Wittelsbach family, Louis V married Margarete Maultasch in 1342 before she was divorced from her previous husband, John Henry was a son of John the Blind, who had deposed Margaretes father, Henry of Gorizia-Tyrol as King of Bohemia in 1310. William of Ockham and Marsilius of Padua defended this first civil marriage in the Middle Ages, the Pope, however, excommunicated the couple and the scandal was known across Europe. Tyrol was punished with a papal interdict, when his father died in 1347, Louis succeeded him as Duke of Bavaria and Count of Holland and Hainaut together with his five brothers. In 1349, Bavaria and the Wittelsbach possessions in the Netherlands were partitioned, he and his younger brothers Louis VI the Roman and his brothers Stephen II, William I and Albert I received Lower Bavaria, Holland and Hainaut. Louis then negotiated with his fathers ally Edward III of England to compete against the new German king Charles IV, Edward was elected 10 January 1348 at Lahnstein, but resigned just four months later. Finally the Wittelsbach party elected Günther von Schwarzburg as anti-king in 1349, Louis V successfully resisted Charles IV even though Günther von Schwarzburgs kingship failed. He managed to keep all possessions for the Wittelsbach dynasty until his death, first Louis successfully repulsed an attack of Charles IV against Tyrol in 1347. The civil war caused a huge devastation in Brandenburg, with the Treaty of Bautzen Louis finally came to terms with Charles IV and the conflict ended. In 1349 and 1351 Louis issued two decrees to relieve the consequences of the plague, Louis released Brandenburg in December 1351 to his brothers Louis VI the Roman and Otto V the Bavarian in exchange for the sole rule of Upper Bavaria. Louis then combined the administration of Upper Bavaria and Tyrol, Louis had good relations with his Habsburg relatives and helped arbitrate conflicts of Albert II, Duke of Austria, with Switzerland. With the support of the Habsburg family, Louis and his consort Margarete were absolved from their excommunication in 1359, Louis suddenly died in September 1361 in Zorneding near Munich during a ride from Tyrol to Munich and was succeeded by his son Meinhard. He is buried at the Frauenkirche in Munich
10. Ludwig III of Bavaria – Ludwig III, was the last King of Bavaria, reigning from 1913 to 1918. Ludwig was born in Munich, the eldest son of Prince Luitpold of Bavaria and of his wife and he was a descendant of both Louis XIV of France and William the Conqueror. Hailing from Florence, Augusta always spoke in Italian to her four children, Ludwig was named after his grandfather, King Ludwig I of Bavaria. Ludwig spent his first years living in the Electoral rooms of the Munich Residenz, from 1852 to 1863, he was tutored by Ferdinand von Malaisé. When he was ten years old, the moved to the Leuchtenberg Palace. In 1861 at the age of sixteen, Ludwig began his career when his uncle, King Maximilian II of Bavaria. A year later, he entered the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, when he was eighteen, he automatically became a member of the Senate of the Bavarian Legislature as a prince of the royal house. In 1866, Bavaria was allied with the Austrian Empire in the Austro-Prussian War, Ludwig held the rank of Oberleutnant. He was wounded at the Battle of Helmstedt, taking a bullet in his thigh, the incident contributed to the fact that he was rather averse to the military. He received the Knights Cross 1st Class of the Bavarian Military Merit Order In June 1867, Ludwig visited Vienna to attend the funeral of his cousin, while there, Ludwig met Mathildes eighteen-year-old step-cousin Maria Theresia, Archduchess of Austria-Este. On 20 February 1868, at St. Augustines Church in Vienna and she was the only daughter of the late Archduke Ferdinand Karl Viktor of Austria-Este and of his wife Archduchess Elisabeth Franziska of Austria. Until 1862, Ludwigs uncle had reigned as King Otto I of Greece, although Otto had been deposed, Ludwig was still in line of succession to the Greek throne. Had he ever succeeded, this would have required that he renounce his Roman Catholic faith, Maria Theresas uncle, Duke Francis V of Modena, was a staunch Roman Catholic. He required that as part of the marriage agreement Ludwig renounce his rights to the throne of Greece, in addition, the 1843 Greek Constitution forbade the Greek sovereign to be simultaneously ruler of another country. Consequently, Ludwigs younger brother Leopold technically succeeded upon their fathers death to the rights of the deposed Otto I, by his marriage, Ludwig became a wealthy man. Maria Theresa had inherited large properties from her father and she owned the estate of Sárvár in Hungary and the estate of Eiwanowitz in Moravia. The income from these estates enabled Ludwig to purchase an estate at Leutstetten in Bavaria, over the years, Ludwig expanded the Leutstetten estate until it became one of the largest and most profitable in Bavaria. Ludwig was sometimes derided as Millibauer due to his interest in agriculture, although they maintained a residence in Munich at the Leuchtenberg Palace, Ludwig and Maria Theresa lived mostly at Leutstetten
11. Conrad Paumann – Conrad Paumann was a German organist, lutenist and composer of the early Renaissance. Even though he was blind, he was one of the most talented musicians of the 15th century. He is grouped among the known as the Colorists. He was born in Nuremberg to a family of craftsmen and his musical ability must have become apparent early, for he received an excellent training with the support of aristocratic patrons. In 1447 he became the town organist of Nuremberg. Munich was officially his home for the remainder of his life, while exact records of his travels do not remain, they were clearly extensive, and everywhere he went he was greeted with astonishment, his renown as a performer and composer grew. Milan and Naples both made him attractive job offers, in Mantua he was knighted, in Landshut he performed for the Burgundian duke Philip the Good, in Ratisbon he performed for Emperor Frederick III. During this time he also had numerous students. S, Paumann, being blind, never wrote down his music, and may have been an improvisor above all. Most of his music is instrumental, and some of it considerably virtuosic, most likely he encountered it on his travels, for instance when he went to Milan. Gustave Reese, Music in the Renaissance, ISBN 0-393-09530-4 Harold Gleason and Warren Becker, Music in the Middle Ages and Renaissance. ISBN 0-89917-034-X Free scores by Conrad Paumann at the International Music Score Library Project
12. Gregor von Scherr – Archbishop Gregor Leonhard Andreas von Scherr, OSB was Archbishop of Munich and Freising from 1856 until 1877. Born on 22 June 1804, Neunburg vorm Wald, he was ordained on 4 August 1829, aged 25 as a priest of Regensburg, on 29 December 1833, aged 29, he joined the Order of Saint Benedict. On 6 January 1856, aged 51, he was appointed Archbishop of Munich and he was confirmed as Archbishop on 19 June 1856, aged 52, and installed two months later. He died on 24 October 1877, aged 73 and he was a priest for 48 years and a bishop for 21 years
13. Antonius von Steichele – Antonius von Steichele was Bishop, and later Archbishop of the Archdiocese of München und Freising from 1878 until 1889. Born 22 January 1816 in Mertingen, he was ordained on 28 August 1838, aged 22 as Priest Priest of Augsburg, on 30 April 1878, aged 62, he was appointed Archbishop of the Archdiocese of München und Freising, confirmed three months later and installed accordingly. On 9 October 1889, aged 73, he died and he had been a priest for 51 years and a bishop for 11 years
14. Franz Joseph von Stein – Franz Joseph von Stein was Archbishop of München und Freising from 1897 until 1909. On 19 October 1878, aged 46, he was appointed Bishop of Würzburg, on 24 December 1897, aged 65, he was appointed Archbishop of München und Freising and installed on 18 April 1898. He died on 4 May 1909, aged 77 and he had been a priest for 53 years and a bishop for 30 years
15. Stephen II, Duke of Bavaria – Duke Stephen II of Bavaria, after 1347 Duke of Bavaria. He was the son of Emperor Louis IV the Bavarian by his first wife Beatrix of Świdnica. During the reign of Emperor Louis IV his son Stephen served as vogt of Swabia, the Emperor had acquired Brandenburg, Tyrol, Holland and Hainaut for his House but he had also released the Upper Palatinate for the Palatinate branch of the Wittelsbach in 1329. When his father died in 1347, Stephen succeeded him as Duke of Bavaria and Count of Holland, Louis IV had reunited Bavaria in 1340 but in 1349 the country was divided for the emperors sons again into Upper Bavaria, Lower Bavaria-Landshut and Bavaria-Straubing. Stephen II ruled from 1349 to 1353 together with his brothers William I and Albert I in Holland and Lower Bavaria-Landshut, since 1353 only in Lower Bavaria-Landshut. After the temporary reconciliation of the Wittelsbach with Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, Stephen II was the last son of Emperor Louis IV who was in 1362 absolved from excommunication. When Duke Meinhard, the son of his older brother Louis V the Brandenburger died in 1363, Stephen II succeeded also in Upper Bavaria, to strengthen his position against Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria he confederated with Bernabò Visconti. Stephen finally renounced Tyrol to the Habsburgs with the Peace of Schärding for a financial compensation after the death of Margarete Maultasch in 1369. However Stephen accepted his brother Otto, the last Wittelsbach regent of Brandenburg, due to the loss of Brandenburg the Bavarian dukes received a financial compensation one more time. Stephen was succeeded by his three sons and he is buried in the Frauenkirche in Munich. First,27 June 1328 to Elisabetta of Sicily, daughter of King Frederick III of Sicily, second, he was married 14 February 1359 to Margarete of Nuremberg, daughter of John II of Nuremberg and Elisabeth of Henneberg. All his children were from his first marriage, including three sons, who finally divided Bavaria among themselves in 1392 and one daughter, Stephen III of Bavaria-Ingolstadt, agnes, married c.1356 King James I of Cyprus. Two of Stephens sons and one grandson were married to daughters of his ally Bernabò Visconti, in 1447 Bavaria-Ingolstadt was united with Bavaria-Landshut, which was seized by Bavaria-Munich in 1503. Map of the Holy Roman Empire in 1347
16. Antonius von Thoma – Antonius von Thoma was Bishop and later Archbishop of the Archdiocese of München und Freising from 1889 until his death in 1897. Born 1 March 1829, Nymphenburg, he was ordained a priest on 29 June 1853 in the Archdiocese of München und Freising and his consecrator was Archbishop Antonius von Steichele. On 24 March 1889, aged 60, he was appointed Bishop of Passau, on 23 October 1889, aged 60, he was appointed as Archbishop of the Archdiocese of München und Freising, confirmed two months later and installed on 21 April 1890. On 24 November 1897, aged 68, he died in Munich and he had been a priest for 44 years and a bishop for 8 years
17. Joseph Wendel – Joseph Wendel was born in Blieskastel, and studied at the seminary in Speyer, and the Pontifical German-Hungarian College and the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome. From the Gregorian he obtained doctorates in philosophy and theology, Wendel was ordained to the priesthood on October 30,1927, and then did pastoral work in Speyer, also serving as director of Caritas, until 1941. On April 4,1941, he was appointed Coadjutor Bishop of Speyer and he received his episcopal consecration on the following June 29 from Bishop Ludwig Sebastian, with Bishops Matthias Ehrenfried and Joseph Kolb serving as co-consecrators. Wendel succeeded Sebastian as Bishop of Speyer on May 20,1943, during World War II, he strongly defended the rights of the Church and humanity. Maria Nuova in the consistory of January 12,1953, on February 4,1956, Wendel became the Apostolic Vicar of the Catholic Military Ordinariate of Germany. He was one of the electors in the 1958 papal conclave. The German prelate also made gestures of ecumenism to Protestants, shortly after delivering his New Years Eve sermon, Wendel died from a heart attack in Munich, at age 59. He is buried in the cathedral of that same city. Archdiocese of Munich and Freising - in German Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church Catholic-Hierarchy
18. William IV, Duke of Bavaria – William IV was Duke of Bavaria from 1508 to 1550, until 1545 together with his younger brother Louis X, Duke of Bavaria. He was born in Munich to Albert IV and Kunigunde of Austria, with support of his mother and the States-General, Louis forced William to accept him as co-regent in 1516. Louis then ruled the districts of Landshut and Straubing, in general in concord with his brother, William initially sympathized with the Reformation but changed his mind as it grew more popular in Bavaria. In 1522 William issued the first Bavarian religion mandate, banning the promulgation of Martin Luthers works, both dukes also suppressed the peasant uprising in South Germany in an alliance with the archbishop of Salzburg in 1525. The conflict with Habsburg ended in 1534 when both dukes reached an agreement with Ferdinand I in Linz, William then supported Charles V in his war against the Schmalkaldic League in 1546, but however did not succeed in preserving the Palatine electoral dignity. Williams chancellor for 35 years was the forceful Leonhard von Eck, William was a significant collector and commissioner of art. Among other works he commissioned an important suite of paintings from various artists and this, like most of Williams collection, is now housed in the Alte Pinakothek in Munich. With his order to expand the Neuveste with the so-called Rundstubenbau, to the history cycle of the garden pavilion belonged Albrecht Altdorfers painting. In 1546 he ordered to upgrade Dachau Palace from a Gothic ruin into a renaissance palace, in 1523 with the appointment of Ludwig Senfl began the rise of the Bavarian State Orchestra. This regulation remained in force until it was abolished as an obligation in 1986 by Paneuropean regulations of the European Union. It is also interesting in terms of linguistics because it is not written in the East German Saxon, William died in 1550 in Munich and was succeeded by his son Albert. He is buried in the Frauenkirche in Munich. Hegnenberg with Margarete Hausner v. Stettberg, hofkleiderbuch des Herzogs Wilhelm IV. und Albrecht V. 1508–1551