Category:Burials at Pieterskerk, Leiden
Pages in category "Burials at Pieterskerk, Leiden"
The following 22 pages are in this category, out of 22 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 22 pages are in this category, out of 22 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Pieterskerk, Leiden – The Pieterskerk is a late-Gothic church in Leiden dedicated to Saint Peter. It is best known today as the church of the Pilgrim Fathers where John Robinson was buried, in around 1100 the site held the county chapel of the counts of Holland, rebuilt in 1121. The present building took approximately 180 years to build, starting in 1390, famous Leiden dignitaries are buried there, including the painter Jan Steen and the Leiden professor Herman Boerhaave. The beautiful stained glass windows already took a blow during the Beeldenstorm. The windows were boarded up, and it wasnt until 1880 that a restoration took place. The Pieterskerk used to have a tower, the Westtoren from 1290 on. It was nicknamed Coningh der Zee, and was completed in stages and it collapsed in the night of 5 March 1512. The tower was not restored and the church remained towerless, the building was deconsecrated in 1971 and since 1975 is managed by a foundation and rented for a wide variety of events. Since 2001, with 50% government funding, a restoration project started that rang until 2010. Discoveries made during this and earlier restorations were on permanent display in the church, a mummy is also on display, that the foundation has chosen not to subject to scientific scrutiny. Though the windows have been lost, the grave monuments by prominent Leiden sculptors can still be seen. The building is open to the public, for a listing, see the category Burials at the Pieterskerk, Leiden
2. Herman Boerhaave – Herman Boerhaave was a Dutch botanist, chemist, Christian humanist and physician of European fame. He is best known for demonstrating the relation of symptoms to lesions and, in addition and he was the first physician that put thermometer measurements to clinical practice. His motto was Simplex sigillum veri, The simple is the sign of the true and he is often hailed as the Dutch Hippocrates. Boerhaave was born at Voorhout near Leiden, the son of a Protestant pastor, in his youth Boerhaave studied for a divinity degree and wanted to become a preacher. There he attacked the doctrines of Epicurus, Thomas Hobbes and Spinoza and he then turned to the study of medicine, in which he graduated in 1693 at Harderwijk in present-day Gelderland. On 14 September 1710, Boerhaave married Maria Drolenvaux, the daughter of the rich merchant and they had four children, of whom one daughter, Maria Joanna, lived to adulthood. In 1722, he began to suffer from a case of gout. In 1714, when he was appointed rector of the university, he succeeded Govert Bidloo in the chair of practical medicine, four years later he was appointed to the chair of chemistry as well. In 1728 he was elected into the French Academy of Sciences, in 1729 declining health obliged him to resign the chairs of chemistry and botany, and he died, after a lingering and painful illness, at Leiden. His reputation so increased the fame of the University of Leiden, especially as a school of medicine, all the princes of Europe sent him pupils, who found in this skillful professor not only an indefatigable teacher, but an affectionate guardian. When Peter the Great went to Holland in 1716, he took lessons from Boerhaave. Voltaire traveled to see him, as did Carl Linnaeus, who became a close friend and his reputation was not confined to Europe, a Chinese mandarin sent him a letter addressed to the illustrious Boerhaave, physician in Europe, and it reached him in due course. The operating theatre of the University of Leiden in which he worked as an anatomist is now at the center of a museum named after him. Asteroid 8175 Boerhaave is named after Boerhaave, from 1955 to 1961 Boerhaaves image was printed on Dutch 20-guilder banknotes. The Leiden University Medical Centre organises medical trainings called Boerhaave-courses and he had a prodigious influence on the development of medicine and chemistry in Scotland. British medical schools credit Boerhaave for developing the system of medical education upon which their current institutions are based, every founding member of the Edinburgh Medical School had studied at Leyden and attended Boerhaaves lectures on chemistry including John Rutherford and Francis Home. Boerhaaves Elementa Chemiae is recognized as the first text on chemistry, Boerhaave first described Boerhaave syndrome, which involves tearing of the esophagus, usually a consequence of vigorous vomiting. He notoriously described in 1724 the case of Baron Jan von Wassenaer and this condition was uniformly fatal prior to modern surgical techniques allowing repair of the esophagus
3. Willem van Mieris – Willem van Mieris was an 18th-century painter from the Northern Netherlands. Willem van Mieris was a painter, sculptor and etcher active in Leiden and he studied under his father Frans van Mieris I, who was a successful genre painter. Willem had a successful career, being supported by a few patrons who commissioned and collected various of his works. His oeuvre consists mostly of genre and portraiture, with landscape painting. Van Mieris’ style was that of the fijnschilders, and his works, especially later in his career. Willem van Mieris was born in Leiden and spent his whole life and he was the son of the successful genre painter, Frans van Mieris the Elder, under whom Willem studied. At age 19, Willem van Mieris took over the workshop after his father died in 1681. He had barely finished his training in the studio and it would take another 2 years before he entered the Leiden painters’ guild in 1685. He set out to uphold his father’s reputation as a Leiden fijnschilder and he finished what was left incomplete on his father’s demise. One year later, in 1684, he married his only wife Agneta Chapman, besides genre and portrait painting, Willem van Mieris was also a skilled landscape painter, etcher, and draughtsman, moreover, he also tried his hand at history painting with remarkable results. He acted as headman and once as dean of the Leiden Guild of St. Luke in 1693. A year later, in 1694, he founded an academy in Leiden together with the painters Jacob Toorenvliet and Carel de Moor. At that time, Van Mieris stopped working as an artist because he became partially blind, Willem van Mieris was born in a family of Dutch painters. Not only his father, but also his brother and son had a background in art, jan van Mieris studied under his father Frans the Elder, as well as under Gerard de Lairesse, to eventually become a genre and portrait painter. Willem’s son, Frans van Mieris the Younger, was a pupil of his father and he worked as a genre painter and writer, and was considered a distinguished antiquary, who published works of merit on numismatics and history. 2.1 Style & Influences Willem van Mieris was a member of the so-called fijnschilders, however, Willem van Mieris soon parted ways with Frans when it came to subject matter. More specifically, de Lairesse claimed it was necessary to ennoble genre painting, in order to take it to the level of excellence. Van Mieris drew many illustrations after Bossuit’s sculptures, and borrowed some of their poses for his paintings, another distinctive feature of Van Mieris’s oeuvre is the repetition of certain figures and poses in many of his paintings
4. John Robinson (pastor) – John Robinson was the pastor of the Pilgrim Fathers before they left on the Mayflower. He became one of the leaders of the English Separatists and is regarded as one of the founders of the Congregational Church. He was educated at Queen Elizabeths Grammar School, Gainsborough, Lincolnshire and he received his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1596. In May 1598 he was admitted a Fellow of his college and this was followed one year later in 1599 by his Master of Arts degree. Following the attainment of his Masters degree, he obtained two positions at Corpus, Praelector Graecus, a lectureship in Greek, and Decanus, a post involving student oversight, Cambridge was a center of Puritanism. During his years there, Robinson gradually accepted its principles, the leaders of this movement strongly criticized the English Church because they believed its beliefs and rituals were too much like those of the Roman Catholic Church. The reforms they advocated would “purify” the established church from within, some Puritans who despaired of getting the changes they favored in the established Church, decided to leave to form Separatist churches. The monarch, then as now, was the Supreme Governor of the Church of England, Elizabeth I followed a largely tolerant policy toward the Puritans and Separatists. When James I succeeded her in 1603, however, he instituted a policy designed to enforce religious conformity, the Puritans would, he warned, adhere or he would harry them out of the land. It was the Kings belief that his throne depended on the Church hierarchy, No Bishop, James I vigorously enforced The Act Against Puritans,35 Elizabeth, Cap. 1, making it illegal for separatists to hold their own services. ”College fellows were prohibited from marrying so Robinson resigned his fellowship to wed Bridget White, on 15 February 1604 at St. Marys Church, Greasley in western Nottinghamshire. Bridget was the daughter of Alexander and Eleanor White, formerly prosperous yeoman farmers at Sturton-Le-Steeple, at her marriage, Bridget was residing near Greasley on land held under a 99 year lease by her older brother Charles, who had inherited the lease by their fathers will. In August 1603, Robinson became associate pastor of St. Andrews Church in the center of Norwich. This city had contacts on the continent with Holland and Flanders and had a number of foreign workers. In addition, the most influential leaders and merchants in Norwich were Puritans. Soon after he assumed his duties in St. Andrews, James I issued a proclamation requiring that all ministers conform to a new book of canons, the deadline to conform was set for the end of November. Robinson left the church but remained a resident of Norwich, where he was unsuccessful in gaining the mastership of the Great Hospital and he subsequently preached privately at various locations in northern Nottinghamshire, including in the Spring of 1605 at his home village of Sturton-Le-Steeple. Though vigorously persecuted, Separatist congregations had been active, especially in London, later that year, a group of Puritans at the village of Scrooby in northwest Nottinghamshire formed a Separatist congregation that came to number about one hundred members
5. Jan Steen – Jan Havickszoon Steen was a Dutch genre painter of the 17th century. His works are known for their insight, sense of humour. Steen was born in Leiden, where his well-to-do, Catholic family were brewers who ran the tavern The Red Halbert for two generations and he was the eldest of eight or more children. Like his even more famous contemporary Rembrandt van Rijn, Jan Steen attended the Latin school and he received his painterly education from Nicolaes Knupfer, a German painter of historical and figurative scenes in Utrecht. Influences of Knupfer can be found in Steens use of composition, other sources of inspiration were Adriaen van Ostade and Isaac van Ostade, painters of rural scenes, who lived in Haarlem. Whether Steen actually studied with Ostade is not known, in 1648 Jan Steen and Gabriël Metsu founded the painters Guild of Saint Luke at Leiden. Soon after he became an assistant to the landscape painter Jan van Goyen. On Oct 3,1649 he married van Goyens daughter Margriet, Steen worked with his father-in-law until 1654, when he moved to Delft, where he ran the brewery De Slang for three years without much success. After the explosion in Delft in 1654 the art market was depressed and it does not seem to be clear if this painting should be called a portrait or a genre work. Steen lived in Warmond, just north of Leiden, from 1656 till 1660 and in Haarlem from 1660 till 1670 and in both periods he was especially productive. In 1670, after the death of his wife in 1669 and his father in 1670, Steen moved back to Leiden, when the art market collapsed in 1672, called the Year of Disaster, Steen opened a tavern. In April 1673 he married Maria van Egmont, who gave him another child, in 1674 he became president of the Saint Lucas Guild. Frans van Mieris became one of his drinking companions and he died in Leiden in 1679 and was interred in a family grave in the Pieterskerk. Daily life was Jan Steens main pictorial theme, subtle hints in his paintings seem to suggest that Steen meant to warn the viewer rather than invite him to copy this behaviour. Many of Steens paintings bear references to old Dutch proverbs or literature and he often used members of his family as models, and painted quite a few self-portraits in which he showed no tendency of vanity. Steen did not shy from other themes, he painted historical, mythological and religious scenes, portraits, still lifes and his portraits of children are famous. He is also known for his mastery of light and attention to detail, most notably in Persian rugs. Steen was prolific, producing about 800 paintings, of which roughly 350 survive and his work was valued much by contemporaries and as a result he was reasonably well paid for his work
6. Gerrit Dou – Gerrit Dou, also known as Gerard and Douw or Dow, was a Dutch Golden Age painter, whose small, highly polished paintings are typical of the Leiden fijnschilders. He specialised in genre scenes and is noted for his trompe loeil niche paintings and he was a student of Rembrandt. Dou was born in Leiden, where his father was a manufacturer of stained-glass and he studied drawing under Bartholomeus Dolendo, and then trained in the stained-glass workshop of Pieter Couwenhorn. In February 1628, at the age of fourteen, his father sent him to painting in the studio of Rembrandt who lived nearby. At a comparatively early point in his career, however, he developed a manner of his own which diverged considerably from Rembrandts. He is said to have spent five days in painting a hand, notwithstanding the minuteness of his touch, the general effect was harmonious and free from stiffness, and his colour was always fresh and transparent. He often represented subjects in lantern or candle light, the effects of which he reproduced with an unparalleled fidelity and he often painted with the aid of a concave mirror, and to obtain exactness looked at his subject through a frame crossed with squares of silk thread. His practice as a painter, which was at first considerable, gradually declined. His pictures were small in size. More than 200 are attributed to him, and examples are to be found in most of the public collections of Europe. His chef-doeuvre is generally considered to be The dropsical woman, and The Dutch Housewife, the Evening School, in the Amsterdam Rijksmuseum, is the best example of the candlelight scenes in which he excelled. In the National Gallery, London, favorable specimens are to be seen in the Poulterers Shop, and a self-portrait. Queen Christina of Sweden owned eleven paintings by Dou, and Cosimo III de Medici visited his house, the Dutch royal court itself, however, preferred work of a more classical tendency. His most noted pupils were Frans van Mieris the Elder. angels also stresses how Dou’s paintings expressed the paragone debate current around that time. The debate was a competition between painting, sculpture and poetry as to which was the best representation of nature. It was especially popular in Leiden where the painters were seeking to obtain the rights of a guild from the council in order to have laws for their economic protection. The paragone debate is not only addressed in writings from that time but is reflected in the subject matter of several of Dou’s paintings. An example of this is the Old Painter at work, in which an old painter is shown working on a canvas behind a table displaying objects that show his capabilities of imitation
7. Rembert Dodoens – Rembert Dodoens was a Flemish physician and botanist, also known under his Latinized name Rembertus Dodonaeus. In 1530 he began his studies in medicine, cosmography and geography at the University of Leuven and he established himself as a physician in Mechelen in 1538. He married Kathelijne De Bruyn in 1539 and he had a short stay in Basel. He turned down a chair at the University of Leuven in 1557 and he equally turned down an offer to become court physician of king Philip II of Spain. He became the physician of the Austrian emperor Rudolph II in Vienna. He then became professor in medicine at the University of Leiden in 1582, Dodoens herbal Cruydeboeck with 715 images was influenced by that of Leonhart Fuchs. He divided the plant kingdom in six groups and it treated in detail especially the medicinal herbs, which made this work, in the eyes of many, a pharmacopoeia. It was translated first into French in 1557 by Charles de LEcluse, into English in 1578 by Henry Lyte, in his times, it was the most translated book after the Bible. It became a work of renown, used as a reference book for two centuries. Dodoenss last book, Stirpium historiae pemptades sex was the Latin translation of his Cruydeboeck and it was used as a source by John Gerard for his Herball. Dodoens is commemorated in the plant genus Dodonaea, which was named after him by Carl Linnaeus, Stirpium historiae pemptades sex, sive libri XXX. Stirpium historiae pemptades sex, sive libri XXX, varie ab Auctore, paullo ante Mortem, antverpiae, Moretus / Plantin,1616 Digital edition of the University and State Library Düsseldorf. Environmental History of the Rhine Meuse Delta
8. Frans van Mieris the Elder – Frans van Mieris, the elder, was a Dutch Golden Age genre and portrait painter. The leading member of a Leiden family of painters, his sons Jan and Willem, Frans was born and died in Leiden, where his father Jan Bastiaans van Mieris was a goldsmith, carver of rubies and diamond setter. His father wished to train him to his own business, but Frans preferred drawing, and studied with Jacob Toorenvliets father, Abraham Toorenvliet, from his own fathers shop he became familiar with the ways and dress of people of distinction. Unlike Dou when he first left Rembrandt, or Jan Steen when he started on an independent career, characteristic of his art in its minute proportions is a shiny brightness and metallic polish. He repeatedly painted the satin skirt which Ter Borch brought into fashion and it questionable whether Houbraken has accurately recorded this masters birthday. One of his pieces, a party of ladies and gentlemen at an oyster luncheon, in the Hermitage at St Petersburg. Celebrated alike for composition and finish, it would prove that Mieris had reached his prime at the age of fifteen. In 1657 Mieris was married at Leiden in the presence of Jan Potheuck, a painter, Mieris had numerous and distinguished patrons. He received valuable commissions from Archduke Leopold, the elector-palatine, and Cosimo III de Medici and his practice was large and lucrative, but never engendered in him either carelessness or neglect. If there be a difference between the earlier and later work, it is that the former was clearer and more delicate in flesh, whilst the latter was often darker. When he died his clients naturally went over to his son Willem, but neither Willem nor Frans van Mieris the Younger equalled Frans the elder. The pictures of all the generations of the Mieris family were successfully imitated by A. D. Snaphaan, to those who would study his deceptive form of art a visit to the collection of Wörlitz near Dessau may afford instruction. In early June 2007, A Cavalier, dated to 1657-1659, was stolen from the Art Gallery of New South Wales in Sydney, the 20 cm by 16 cm painting had been donated to the Art Gallery of NSW in 1993 by media figure and philanthropist, James Fairfax. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh. Selfportrait with cittern Art Gallery of New South Wales - collection search Works and literature
9. Isaac Claesz. van Swanenburg – Isaak Nicolai or Isaac Claesz van Swanenburg was a Dutch Renaissance painter and glazier active in Leiden and Gouda. He was a city council member from 1576 and became mayor of Leiden five times, according to Houbraken, Swanenburg was a very good painter, whose paintings hung in various council buildings of Leiden. Houbraken was surprised that Swanenburg was never mentioned in Karel van Manders Schilder-boeck, Houbraken was however mistaken, because Swanenburg is mentioned as one of more than 20 disciples of Frans Floris in Van Manders long list of pupils. According to the Netherlands Institute for Art History, Swanenburg was in Antwerp studying with Floris for 6–8 years in his youth and he briefly fled to Hamburg for a year during the Siege of Leiden, but had returned by 1574. He kept a large and respected workshop in Leiden, for oil- and his pupils were Jan van Goyen, Coenraet van Schilperoort, Otto van Veen, and his three sons. He was buried in the Pieterskerk, Leiden, Swanenburg created the cartoons for the stained glass windows no.25 and 26 from Leiden to the Janskerk in Gouda. This Clock was a probable relative, swanenburgs oldest son, Jacob Isaacsz Swanenburg, became a painter and a master of the young Rembrandt. Claes Isaacsz Swanenburg also became a painter and lived and worked in the Hague, the youngest son, Willem Isaacsz Swanenburg, became an engraver. Ute Elisabeth Flieger, Bürgerstolz und Wollgewerbe, der Bilderzyklus des Isaac Claesz. van Swanenburg in der Lakenhal von Leiden. ISBN 978-3-8309-2256-8 Rudolf E. O. Ekkart, Isaac Claesz. van Swanenburg, ISBN 90-400-9282-63 Painting by or after Isaac Claesz. van Swanenburg at the Art UK site site of the St. Janskerk with virtual tour
10. Johannes Cocceius – Johannes Cocceius, was a Dutch theologian born at Bremen. After studying at Hamburg and the University of Franeker, where Sixtinus Amama was one of his teachers and his chief services as an oriental scholar were in the department of Hebrew philology and exegesis. He taught that before as much as after the fall of man, the first covenant was a Covenant of Works. For this was substituted, after the Fall, the Covenant of Grace and he held millenarian views, and was the founder of a school of theologians who were called Cocceians. His most distinguished pupil was Campeius Vitringa and his major work was his Lexicon et commentarius sermonis hebraici et chaldaici, which has been frequently republished. His theology is fully expounded in his Summa Doctrinae de Foedere et Testamento Dei, as an exponent of federal theology he was tacitly influenced by his teachers in Bremen, Matthias Martinius and Ludwig Crocius. His collected works were published in 12 folio volumes, sybilline oracles This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Cocceius, Johannes. In, Theologische Realenzyklopädie 8, pp. 132–140, die beiden neuentdeckten Auktionskataloge für die Privatbibliothek des Vorpietisten Johannes Coccejus, des bedeutendsten reformierten Theologen des 17. In, Bücherkataloge als buchgeschichtliche Quellen in der frühen Neuzeit, the Correspondence of Johannes Coccejus in EMLO Works by Johannes Cocceius at Post-Reformation Digital Library
11. Pieter de Ring – His signature is often a painted ring or with the Latinised form of his name, P. Ab. Annulo. De Ring was born either in Leiden, or in Ypres in Flanders, but there is no trace of his birth in the Leiden archives, Pieter de Ring started as a mason and painted still lifes in the evening. When the hall was filled with paintings he became a pupil of Jan Davidsz. de Heem and his father Daniel died in 1648, in 1657 his mother lived in Amsterdam. De Ring himself lived in a house at Hogewoerd, there are no records in the Leiden Archive on his marriage or children. He appears not to have bought a house there nor wrote a will, if he had his studio there he probably had a view on the Leiden Academy building. If he lived on the east side of the alley he had a view on the Hortus Botanicus of Leiden. Pieter may have had a brother called Jan de Ringh, who became a citizen of Leiden in 1651, Jan originally came from Ypres, his profession was textile worker, just like his sons Daniel, Benjamin, and Pieter and many of the other Flemish immigrants in Leiden. The members of the Ringh family were specialized workers in serge, the painting by Pieter de Ring in the Museum Geelvinck-Hinlopen Huis has a beautiful cloth on the table. He knew how to make it look real, de Rings early work reveals the influence of Willem Claesz Heda. Pieter de Ring on artnet http, //www. ovckunst. nl/html/ckv3_bv/opdrachten/teksten_burg/ring. htm http, //www. fineoldmasters. com/stilllifepainting29. html http, //www. greatbassviol. com/images/ring. jpg
12. Willebrord Snellius – Willebrord Snellius was a Dutch astronomer and mathematician, known in the English-speaking world as Snell. The same law was also investigated by Ptolemy and in the Middle Ages by Witelo, the lunar crater Snellius is named after Willebrord Snellius. The Royal Netherlands Navy has named three ships after Snellius, including a currently-serving vessel. Willebrord Snellius was born in Leiden, Netherlands, in 1613 he succeeded his father, Rudolph Snel van Royen as professor of mathematics at the University of Leiden. He was helped in his measurements by two of his students, the Austrian barons Erasmus and Casparus Sterrenberg, in several cities he also received support of friends among the city leaders. In his work The terrae Ambitus vera quantitate under the authors name Snellius describes the methods he used and he came up with an estimate of 28,500 Rhineland rods - in modern units 107.37 km for one degree of latitude. 360 times 107.37 then gives a circumference of the Earth of 38,653 km, the actual circumference is 40,075 kilometers, so Snellius underestimated the circumference of the earth by 3. 5%. Snellius came to his result by calculating the distances between a number of points in the plain west and southwest of the Netherlands using triangulation. In order to carry out these measurements accurately Snellius had a large quadrant built and this quadrant can still be seen in the Museum Boerhaave in Leiden. In a network of fourteen cities a total of 53 triangulation measurements were made, in his calculations Snellius made use of a solution for what is now called the Snellius–Pothenot problem. By necessity Snellius his high points were nearly all church spires, there were hardly any other tall buildings in Snellius time in the west of the Netherlands. More or less ordered from north to south and/or in successive order of measuring Snellius used a network of fourteen points, Alkmaar. The difference in latitude between Alkmaar and Breda is 1.0436 degree, assuming Snellius corrected for this he must have calculated a distance of 107.37 *1.0436 =112.05 kilometers between the Sint-Laurenskerk in Alkmaar and the Grote Kerk in Breda. Snellius was also a mathematician, producing a new method for calculating π—the first such improvement since ancient times. He rediscovered the law of refraction in 1621, in addition to the Eratosthenes Batavus, he published Cyclometricus, de circuli dimensione, and Tiphys Batavus. He also edited Coeli et siderum in eo errantium observationes Hassiacae, a work on trigonometry authored by Snellius was published a year after his death. Snellius died at Leiden on October 1626, at the age of 46 from an illness diagnosed as colic, oConnor, John J. Robertson, Edmund F. Willebrord van Royen Snell, MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Snell