Close-mid central unrounded vowel
The close-mid central unrounded vowel, or high-mid central unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɘ⟩ and this is a mirrored letter e, and should not be confused with the schwa ⟨ə⟩, which is a turned e. It was added to the IPA in 1993, before that, certain older sources transcribe this vowel ⟨ɤ̈⟩. The ⟨ɘ⟩ letter may be used with a lowering diacritic ⟨ɘ̞⟩, the IPA prefers terms close and open for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms high. To type this symbol on most keyboards and hold the ALT key while typing 600 using the number pad keys and its vowel height is close-mid, known as high-mid, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a close vowel and a mid vowel. Its vowel backness is central, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a front vowel and a back vowel and it is unrounded, which means that the lips are not rounded
Ballyvaughan or Ballyvaghan is a small harbour village in County Clare, Ireland. It is located on the N67 road on the shores of Galway Bay. This position on the coast road and the proximity to many of the areas sights has turned the village into a local center of tourism activity. At the time of the 2011 Census Ballyvaughan had a population of 258, the area was officially classified as part of the West Clare Gaeltacht, an Irish-speaking community, until 1956. The site was occupied by Ballyvaughan Castle, which stood right at the edge of the harbour. It was owned and occupied by the OLoghlen family, except for a period in the 16th century when the OBrians held it. In 1540, a cow was found at the castle, and heavy fines were levied on the OLoghlens—loss of cattle, sheep. In 1569 the castle was attacked by Sir Henry Sidney but the OLoghlens held on to the property, by 1840, the castle was in ruins. On the promontory on which the castle was situated there were late medieval dwellings. According to Westropps survey of Clare antiquities, the area contained three small forts and a much levelled ring of a great Caher, the present village grew around the harbour in the 19th century, when it temporarily was a thriving port.
Three older piers had been built by the villagers, who used them for herring fishing, these piers were almost unusable at high tide and in 1829 the Fishery Board had a new quay constructed. This was designed by Alexander Nimmo, by 1831, turf from Connemara was landed here in great quantities, despite the shallowness of the bay. At that point, the town had 23 houses and 151 inhabitants, in 1837, to facilitate the turf trade, another quay was constructed, apparently based on a design of Nimmos. By 1841 the village had grown to 235 inhabitants and 35 houses, the new quay was of great importance, as it allowed Ballyvaughan to export grain and vegetables and to import supplies from Galway. For a while, Ballyvaughan was the capital of this region of Clare, sporting its own workhouse, coastguard station. Over time, as the improved and the piers fell into disrepair. More construction took place in the 1850s, in 1854 the old National School opened, there was a Church of Ireland, but when this closed it was dismantled and re-erected at Noughaval.
In 1943, it was rededicated and it is now in use as a Catholic place of worship there, in 1872 a reservoir was constructed by Lord Annaly, southeast of the town, to supply water to the farms in the valley
Brugha was born in Dublin of mixed Roman Catholic and Protestant parentage. His father, was a maker and antique dealer who had been disinherited by his family for marrying a Catholic. He was the tenth of fourteen children and was educated at the Jesuit Belvedere College but was forced to leave at the age of sixteen because of the failure of his fathers business. He went on to set up a church candle manufacturing firm with two brothers and Vincent Lalor, and took on the role of travelling salesman, in 1899 Brugha joined the Gaelic League, and he subsequently changed his name from Charles Burgess to Cathal Brugha. He met his wife, Kathleen Kingston, at an Irish class in Birr, County Offaly. They had six children, five girls and one boy, Brugha became actively involved in the Irish Republican Brotherhood and in 1913 he became a lieutenant in the Irish Volunteers. He led a group of twenty Volunteers to receive the arms smuggled into Ireland in the Howth gun-running of 1914 and he was second-in-command at the South Dublin Union under Commandant Éamonn Ceannt in the Easter Rising of 1916.
On the Thursday of Easter Week, being wounded, he was unable to leave when the retreat was ordered. Brugha, weak from loss of blood, continued to fire upon the enemy and was found by Eamonn Ceannt singing God Save Ireland with his still in his hands. He was initially not considered likely to survive and he recovered over the next year, but was left with a permanent limp. Brugha was elected speaker of Dáil Éireann at its first meeting on 21 January 1919, and he read out the Declaration of Independence in Irish, on the following day,22 January, he was appointed president of the ministry pro tempore. He retained this position until 1 April 1919, when de Valera took his place and he proposed a Republican constitution at the 1917 Sinn Féin convention which was unanimously accepted. In October 1917 he became Chief of Staff of the Irish Republican Army and he was elected as a Sinn Féin MP for the County Waterford constituency at the 1918 general election. In January 1919, Sinn Féin MPs refused to recognise the Parliament of the United Kingdom, due to the absence of Éamon de Valera and Arthur Griffith, Brugha presided over the first meeting of Dáil Éireann on 21 January 1919.
Brugha opposed the oath of allegiance required for membership of the IRB and, in 1919, his proposition that all Volunteers should swear allegiance to the Irish Republic, Brugha had the idea of moving the front line of the war to England but was opposed by Collins. On 7 January 1922, Brugha voted against the Anglo-Irish Treaty and it has been argued that, by turning the issue into a vote on Collins popularity, Brugha swung the majority against his own side. Frank OConnor, in his biography of Collins, states that two delegates who had intended to vote against the Treaty changed sides in sympathy with Collins and he left the Dáil and was replaced as Minister for Defence by Richard Mulcahy. When the IRA occupied the Four Courts, he and Oscar Traynor called on them to abandon their position
Blue Flag beach
The Blue Flag is a certification by the Foundation for Environmental Education that a beach, marina or sustainable boating tourism operator meets its stringent standards. FEEs Blue Flag criteria include standards for quality, environmental education and information. The Blue Flag is sought for beaches and sustainable boating tourism operators as an indication of their high environmental, which FEE refers to as awards, are issued on an annual basis to beaches and marinas of FEE member countries. In the European Union, the quality standards are incorporated in the EC Water Framework Directive. As a result of the 2015 awards, a total of 4,154 Blue Flags are waving around the world, the table below lists the Blue Flags awarded and in force in 2015. The table can be sorted to show the number of Blue Flags per country and the number of Blue Flags per population. Note, Scotland and Ireland have always treated as individual countries e. g. in 2013 Ireland had 73 Blue Flag beaches and marinas, England had 55 Wales had 38.
1987 was the European Year of the Environment and the European Commission was responsible for developing the European Community activities of that year. The French concept of the Blue Flag was developed on European level to other areas of environmental management, such as waste management and coastal planning. Besides beaches marinas became eligible for the Blue Flag, in 1987,244 beaches and 208 marinas from 10 countries were awarded the Blue Flag. There have been increases in the numbers of Blue Flags awarded each year, the criteria have during these years been changed to more strict criteria. Several organisations and authorities outside the European Union have joined FEE, FEE has been cooperating with UNEP and UN WTO on extending the Programme to areas outside Europe. South Africa, Morocco, New Zealand, FEE standards allow for regional variations in beach criteria to reflect specific environmental conditions of a region. As of 2006 an international set of criteria is being used with some variations, in 2016, Blue Flag extended its programme boat-based tourism activities like nature watching, recreational fishing and crewed charter tours.
Certified tour operators have to comply with criteria regarding the operation of their boats. In 2015 over 4,154 beaches and marinas globally were awarded the Blue Flag, code of environmental conduct is posted in the marina. Information about the Blue Flag Marina Programme and/or the Blue Flag Marina Criteria are posted in the marina, production of an environmental policy and plan at the marina. The plan should include references to water and energy consumption and safety issues and properly identified and segregated containers for the storage of hazardous wastes
Castleknock is a suburb of Dublin and a civil parish in Fingal, Ireland. It is located 8 km west of the centre of Dublin, the N3 Navan Road serves the area. The Royal Canal and the Dublin-Sligo railway line pass through the area from east to west, the village of Castleknock is in the Dublin 15 postal area. The Dublin Suburban Rail the Western Suburban Railway Line or Maynooth Line running from Dublin Connolly to Maynooth, Castleknock railway station opened on 2 July 1990. As part of the governments Transport 21 strategy, a Metro line was planned, from the suburb of Tallaght, through the neighbourhood of Castleknock. Another stop will be provided at the Millennium Park with the line going around the perimeter rather than cutting through it as had originally been envisaged. It will proceed around by McDonalds before its major stop in Dublin 15 adjacent to Draíocht, the Civic Offices, and the shopping centre. Its path will continue around the Westend side of the centre, past Westpoint where it will cross the Navan Road.
Public transport in Castleknock is provided by Dublin Bus routes 37 and 38, the 37 bus runs from Blanchardstown Town Centre to Wilton Terrace, Baggot Street. Also, The 38 bus runs from Burlington Rd. Towards Damastown, St. Brigid is the patron saint of the village. Cnucha, the daughter of Concadh Cas, From the land of Luimncach broad and green, the woman was buried, a grief it was. In the very middle of the hill, So that from that on Cnucha Is its name until the judgment, the Barony of Castleknock was originally a feudal lordship created in the 12th century for the Tyrell family, it passed by inheritance to the Burnell family. The first Baron, Hugh Tyrrel, gave lands in the barony at Kilmainham to the Knights of St. John who continue in the today in the form of St. John Ambulance. Later, civil parishes, based on the boundaries of the Ecclesiastical parishes of the Established church were used to sub-divide the barony and this table lists the nine civil parishes of the barony. Note 1, the entire barony lies north of the River Liffey, the parish of St Judes, which consists of six townlands, is situated on both banks of the Liffey.
According to the 6 inch historical maps from the Ordnance Survey of Ireland that were created in 1829, only the map of 1889, at a scale of 25 inches, displays the parish. Within the civil parish of Castleknock, there are 22 townlands per the table below, like all civil parishes in Ireland, this civil parish is derived from, and co-extensive with, a pre-existing parish of the Church of Ireland. In 1837, Lewis directory reported that the living was a vicarage in the diocese of Dublin which was
Conradh na Gaeilge
Conradh na Gaeilge is a social and cultural organisation which promotes the Irish language in Ireland and worldwide. The organisation was founded in 1893 with Douglas Hyde as its first president, the organisation would be the spearhead of the Gaelic revival and Gaeilgeoir activism. Originally the organisation intended to be apolitical, but many of its participants became involved in Irish nationalism, bruce Stewart suggests that an address by Douglas Hyde led to the formation of the Gaelic League with Hyde as the president. The address titled ‘The Necessity for De-Anglicising Ireland’ was delivered by Hyde to the Irish National Literary Society, the organisation developed from Ulick Bourkes earlier Gaelic Union and became the leading institution promoting the Gaelic Revival, carrying on efforts like the publishing of the Gaelic Journal. The Leagues first newspaper was An Claidheamh Soluis and its most noted editor was Patrick Pearse, the motto of the League was Sinn Féin, Sinn Féin amháin.
The League encouraged female participation from the start and a number of women played a prominent role and they were not restricted to subordinate roles, but played an active part in leadership, although males were in the overwhelming majority. At the annual convention in 1906 women were elected to seven of the forty-five positions on the Gaelic League executive. Executive members included Máire Ní Chinnéide, Úna Ní Fhaircheallaigh, Bean an Doc Uí Choisdealbha, Máire Ní hAodáin, Máire de Buitléir, Nellie OBrien, Eibhlín Ní Dhonnabháin, though apolitical, the organisation attracted many Irish nationalists of different persuasions, much like the Gaelic Athletic Association. It was through the League that many political leaders and rebels first met. Most of the signatories of the 1916 Proclamation were members and it still continued to attract many Irish Republicans. Sean MacStiofain, the first chief of staff of the Provisional IRA was a prominent member in his life. After the foundation of the Irish Free State in 1922, the organisation had a prominent role in public life as Irish was made a compulsory subject in state-funded schools.
It did unexpectedly badly in the Irish Seanad election,1925, conradh na Gaeilge was among the principal organisations responsible for co-ordinating the successful campaign to make Irish an official language of the European Union. Conradh na Gaeilge have responded by asking voters in the general election to vote only for candidates who are in favour of Irishs required position remaining. The organisation has branches in parts of Ireland and abroad and is closely involved in the development of the Seachtain na Gaeilge promotional campaign. Conradh na Gaeilge has recently opened free legal advice centres in Dublin, the Gaelic League publishes a magazine called Feasta, founded in 1948. This magazine, while it promotes the aims of the League, 1893–1915, Douglas Hyde 1916–1919, Eoin Mac Néill 1919–1922, Seán Ua Ceallaigh 1922–1925, Peadar Mac Fhionnlaoich 1925–1926, Seán P
City status in Ireland
In Ireland, the term city has somewhat differing meanings in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Historically, city status in the United Kingdom, and before that in the Kingdom of Ireland, was a ceremonial designation and it carried more prestige than the alternative municipal titles borough and township, but gave no extra legal powers. This remains the case in Northern Ireland, which is part of the United Kingdom. In the Republic of Ireland, city has a designation in local government. Before the Partition of Ireland in 1920–22, the island formed a single jurisdiction in which city had a common history. The first edition of the Oxford English Dictionary s. v. city, explains that in England, from the time of Henry VIII and it goes on to say, The history of the word in Ireland is somewhat parallel. Thoms Directory applies it to Dublin, Derry, Limerick and Waterford, to Armagh and Cashel, Belfast was, in 1888, created a city by Royal Letters Patent. In most European languages, there is no distinction between city and town, with the same word translating both English words, for example, ville in French, or Stadt in German.
For example, long the metropolis of the island, has been called Baile Átha Cliath since the fifteenth century, while its earliest city charter is from 1172. The Irish text of the Constitution of Ireland translates city of Dublin as cathair Bhaile Átha Chliath, the original Irish names of such smaller settlements as Cahir, Caherdaniel, or Westport use cathair in the older sense. In the Roman Empire, the Latin civitas referred originally to the jurisdiction of a capital town, it came to mean the capital town itself. When Christianity was organised in Gaul, each diocese was the territory of a tribe, thus civitas came to mean the site of a cathedral. This usage carried over generally to Anglo-Norman cité and English city in England, in any case it was moot whether the association of city with dioceses applied to Ireland. A1331 writ of Edward III is addressed, among others, to Civibus civitatis Dublin, —de Droghda, – de Waterford, de Cork, – de Limrik implying civitas status for Drogheda. Some credence to the connection was given by the 1835 Report of the Commissioners into Municipal Corporations in Ireland.
The Roman Catholic church in Ireland had no cathedrals during the Protestant Ascendancy, downpatrick is noted as the City of Down is a 1403 record, although no granting instrument is known. The Corporation was defunct by 1661, when Charles II initiated plans to revive it, although the charter of Clogher did not describe it as a city, the borough constituency in the Irish House of Commons was officially called City of Clogher. It was a borough of the Bishop of Clogher, disestablished by the Acts of Union 1800
Aghaviller National Monument, is a church and round tower in County Kilkenny, Ireland. Aghaviller gives its name to the townland, civil parish. Located south-east of Kilkenny, about six miles south of Thomastown near Knocktopher, the Annals of the Four Masters call it Achadh-biorair, meaning the field of watercresses. Tighe refers to Agha-oillir, meaning field of the pilgrim, a few yards distant from the site of the old church, is the remains of the lower part of an ancient round tower composed of breccia. The Statistical Survey of 1802, makes reference to the tower and it is one of five round towers located around the county, others include St. Canices, Tullohern and Fertagh. The tower is different from many towers as it has two doors. Nearby is a well and Castlemorres Demesne. Part of civil parish of Aghaviller is in the Roman Catholic Parish of Aghaviller and it was included within the union of Knocktopher, or Ballyhale. Ballyhale was part of Aghaviller Catholic parish prior to September 1847, List of National Monuments in County Kilkenny List of National Monuments in Ireland Brown, Thomas.
Union Gazetteer for Great Britain & Ireland, the origin and history of Irish names of places. Transactions of the Kilkenny Archaeological Society 1852-1853, the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy. Statistical Survey of the County of Kilkenny
Close-mid central rounded vowel
The close-mid central rounded vowel, or high-mid central rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound. It was added to the IPA in 1993, before that, the IPA prefers terms close and open for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms high. The character ɵ has been used in several Latin-derived alphabets such as the one for Yañalif, the character is homographic with Cyrillic Ө. The Unicode code point is U+019F Ɵ LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH MIDDLE TILDE and this sound rarely contrasts with the near-close near-front rounded vowel. For this reason, it may be transcribed with the symbol ⟨ʏ⟩. An example of a language contrasting /ɵ/ with /ʏ/ is the Hamont dialect of Limburgish, but in phonemic transcription, other possible transcriptions are ⟨ɘ͡β̞⟩⟩ and. Its vowel height is close-mid, known as high-mid, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a vowel and a mid vowel. Its vowel backness is central, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a front vowel and a back vowel and its roundedness is protruded, which means that the corners of the lips are drawn together, and the inner surfaces exposed.
The vowel transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɵ⟩ in Central Standard Swedish is actually mid
The Connaught Rangers was an Irish line infantry regiment of the British Army formed by the amalgamation of the 88th Regiment of Foot and the 94th Regiment of Foot in July 1881. Between the time of its formation and Irish independence, it was one of eight Irish regiments raised largely in Ireland, the regiment was formed by the amalgamation of the 88th Regiment of Foot and the 94th Regiment of Foot in July 1881. It was one of eight Irish regiments raised largely in Ireland, the regiment recruited mainly in the province of Connacht. Militarily, the whole of Ireland was administered as a command within the United Kingdom with Command Headquarters at Parkgate in Dublin. The 88th were based in Bengal, British India, when they were amalgamated into the new regiment. The 2nd Battalion deployed to the Sudan in 1896 for the Dongola Expeditionary Force under the command of Lord Kitchener as part of the reconquest of the Sudan before moving to India in 1897. The Brigade suffered heavily during their participation in the battle, the Boers inflicting heavy casualties, the Rangers fought at Spion Kop in January 1900 and the Tugela Heights in February 1900 during further attempts by General Sir Redvers Buller to relieve the besieged town of Ladysmith.
In late February the siege of Ladysmith finally came to an end after it was relieved by British forces, the 1st Battalion returned to India in 1903. The 2nd Battalion landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer as part of the 5th Brigade in the 2nd Division with the British Expeditionary Force in August 1914 for service on the Western Front and its marching song Its a Long Way to Tipperary became famous. By October, the battalion was involved in the fighting around Ypres, on one occasion Private Grogan rushed seven Germans who had occupied a section of trench. It cost him a cut forehead and four teeth, following severe losses in the battles of 1914, the 2nd Battalion was disbanded, with survivors transferring into the 1st Battalion. In turn, the 1st Battalion was redeployed to the Middle East in 1916, the 3rd Battalion was based in Galway upon the declaration of war and would remain in Ireland until November 1917 when it moved to England. The 4th Battalion had been based in Boyle in August and would remain there until November 1917 when it relocated to Scotland, it was absorbed into the 3rd Battalion in May 1918.
The 6th Battalion, which was formed in County Cork in September 1914, in just over a week’s fighting in the Battle of the Somme in September 1916, the 6th Battalion lost 23 officers and 407 other ranks. On 21 March 1918, the same Battalion was practically annihilated during the German Spring Offensive breakthrough, in one week the battalion lost 22 officers and 618 other ranks. As a result of heavy losses, the survivors were transferred into the 2nd Battalion. In response, the Connaught Rangers and other British Army units were deployed to fight against the revolutionary forces of the Irish Volunteers. None of the Connaught Rangers were killed in action but one was wounded, a 250 strong force of the Connaughts, under the commanded of Major H. M. Hutchinson, marched to Ferns on 4 May 1916, and on to Gorey the next day
A modern Celtic identity emerged in Western Europe following the identification of the native peoples of the Atlantic fringe as Celts by Edward Lhuyd in the 18th century. Lhuyd and others equated the Celts described by Greco-Roman writers with the peoples of France, Great Britain. The Irish and ancient British languages were thus Celtic languages, the descendants of these languages were the Brittonic and Gaelic languages. These peoples were therefore modern Celts, attempts were made to link their distinctive cultures to those of the Ancient Celtic people. The concept of modern Celtic identity evolved during the course of the 19th-century into the Celtic Revival, there were significant Welsh and Breton nationalist movements, giving rise to the concept of Celtic nations. The Celtic revival led to the emergence of musical and artistic styles identified as Celtic, Music typically drew on folk traditions within the Celtic nations. Art drew on decorative styles associated with the ancient Celts and with early medieval Celtic Christianity, cultural events to promote inter-Celtic cultural exchange emerged.
In the late 20th century a number of scholars criticised the idea of modern Celtic identity, sometimes arguing that there never was a common Celtic culture, since the Enlightenment, the term Celtic has been applied to a wide variety of peoples and cultural traits present and past. Today, Celtic is often used to people of the Celtic nations. Except for the Bretons, all groups mentioned have been subject to strong Anglicisation since the Early Modern period, by the same token, the Bretons have been subject to strong Frenchification since the Early Modern period, and can similarly be described as participating in a Franco-Celtic macro-culture. Less common is the assumption of Celticity for European cultures deriving from Continental Celtic roots and these were either Romanised or Germanised much earlier, before the Early Middle Ages. Nevertheless, Celtic origins are many times implied for continental groups such as the Asturians, Portuguese, Swiss, the names of Belgium and the Aquitaine hark back to Gallia Belgica and Gallia Aquitania, respectively, in turn named for the Belgae and the Aquitani.
The Latin name of the Swiss Confederacy, Confoederatio Helvetica, harks back to the Helvetii, the name of Galicia to the Gallaeci, celt has been adopted as a label of self-identification by a variety of peoples at different times. Celticity can refer to the links between them. During the 19th century, French nationalists gave a privileged significance to their descent from the Gauls, the struggles of Vercingetorix were portrayed as a forerunner of the 19th-century struggles in defence of French nationalism, including the wars of both Napoleons. Basic French history textbooks emphasised the ways in which Gauls could be seen as an example of cultural assimilation, in the late Middle Ages, some French writers believed that their language was primarily Celtic, rather than Latin. At the same time, there was a tendency to play up alternative heritages in the British Isles at certain times. For example, in the Isle of Man, in the Victorian era, the Viking heritage was emphasised and this image coloured not only the English perception of their neighbours on the so-called Celtic fringe, but Irish nationalism and its analogues in the other Celtic-speaking countries