Category:Cantons of the Helvetic Republic
Pages in category "Cantons of the Helvetic Republic"
The following 23 pages are in this category, out of 23 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 23 pages are in this category, out of 23 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The canton of St. Gallen is a canton of Switzerland. Located in Northeastern Switzerland, the canton has an area of 2,026 km² and it was formed in 1803 as a conflation of the city of St. Gallen, the territories of the Abbey of St. Gall and various former subject territories of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The canton of St. Gallen is a construct of various historical territories. About half of the area corresponds to the acquisitions of the abbey of St. Gallen over centuries. The city of St. Gallen became independent of the Abbey in 1405, at the same time, the Abbey lost control of the Appenzell. Conversely, the Toggenburg was acquired by the Abbey in 1468, both the City and the Abbey were associates of the Old Swiss Confederacy, but unlike Appenzell never joined as full members. The territories at Lake Zürich and Rheintal remained independent until 1798, in the Helvetic Republic, the northern parts of the modern canton together with Appenzell became the Canton of Säntis, while its southern parts together with Glarus became the canton of Linth.
The founding of St. Gallen is based on the Irish monk Gallus, around 720, one hundred years after Galluss death, the Alemannic priest Othmar built an abbey and gave it the name Abbey of St. Gallen. In 926 Hungarian raiders attacked the abbey and surrounding town, about 1205 the abbot became a prince of the church in the Holy Roman Empire. In 1311 St. Gallen became a Free imperial city, by about 1353 the guilds, headed by the cloth-weavers guild, gained control of the civic government. In 1415 the city bought its liberty from the German king Sigismund, in 1405 the Appenzell estates of the abbot successfully rebelled and in 1411 they became allies of the Old Swiss Confederation. A few months the town of St. Gallen became allies and they joined the everlasting alliance as full members of the Confederation in 1454 and in 1457 became completely free from the abbot. However, in 1451 the abbey became an ally of Zürich, Schwyz, in early 1490 the four cantons supported the Abbot against the rebellious city and the Appenzell.
Following their victory the Confederation took ownership of the city of St. Gallen, starting in 1526 then-mayor and humanist Joachim von Watt introduced the reformation in the city of St. Gallen. The town converted to the new reformed religion while the Abbey remained Roman Catholic, while iconoclastic riots forced the monks to flee the city and removed images from the citys churches, the fortified Abbey remained untouched. The Abbey would remain a Catholic stronghold in the Protestant city until 1803, in April 1798, the territories of the canton of St. Gallen were divided between the Cantons of Säntis and Linth of the Helvetic Republic (along with Appenzell and parts of Schwyz. However, the two new Cantons had immediate financial problems and were forced to institute a number of unpopular taxes, the Abbey was secularized on 17 September 1798 and the Prince-Abbot Pankraz Vorster fled to Vienna. The unpopular laws and the closing of the Abbey caused unrest throughout the area, when the War of the Second Coalition broke out in 1799, an Austrian army marched into eastern Switzerland and returned the Prince-Abbot to his throne at the Abbey
The canton of Lucerne is a canton of Switzerland. It is located in the centre of Switzerland, the population of the canton is 398,762. As of 2007, the population included 57,268 foreigners, the canton of Lucerne comprises territories acquired by its capital Lucerne, either by treaty, armed occupation or purchase. The oldest traces of humans in the Lucerne area are stone artifacts, other animal bones including mammoth and giant deer from the local glacial maximum have been found in the canton. Around 17,000 BC the glaciers disappeared from the Swiss plateau, the first Paleolithic and Mesolithic settlement discovered in the canton is in the Wauwilermoos, which is now a Swiss heritage site of national significance. A number of settlements have since been found, mainly on sandy. The settlements of Egolzwil 3 in Wauwilermoos in Egolzwil, Seematte at Hitzkirch, the Wauwilermoos houses had wooden or bark floors and hearths of clay. The villages had ceramic vessels and wood, antler, copper ax blades and knives provide the first evidence of metal use in Switzerland.
Imported mollusks show that there were connections to the Mediterranean. The bones at Egolzwil 3 are over two thirds from domestic animals with the remainder from wild animals, the main domesticated animals were sheep and pigs with only a few domestic cattle. The animals hunted included deer, roe deer, wild boar, during the Bronze Age the canton was quite settled. There were a number of settlements on the shores of Lake Sempach and Lake Baldegg along with settlements, graves. At Hochdorf-Baldegg a fenced village from the early Bronze Age was uncovered, the single-story houses all had clay or stone hearths. During the Middle Bronze Age most of the villages were not located directly on the lake shores, the Late Bronze Age settlement at Sursee-Zellmoos on Lake Sempach featured houses arranged in rows with mortared stone. The walls were lined with clay. Another Late Bronze Age settlement near the village of Schötz was densely populated between 1350 and 800 BC, while numerous individual Iron Age items have been found, almost no settlements have been discovered.
From the Hallstatt period mainly graves have been discovered, very little is known about the La Tène period in Lucerne. Some iron tools, gold coins, ceramic vessels and a glass bangle as well as a ground with at least four graves have been found
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’
Basel was a canton of Switzerland that was in existence between 1501 and 1833, when it was split into the two half-cantons of Basel-City and Basel-Country. Before the Protestant Reformation, Basel was ruled by prince-bishops, in the 15th century, in the wake of the Council of Basel, the city of Basel grew in wealth and importance. The University of Basel was established in 1459, and the city became a center of the German Renaissance in the years leading up to the Reformation. Erasmus of Rotterdam taught in Basel, and early printshops were set up by Johannes Petri, in 1495, Basel was incorporated in the Upper Rhenish Imperial Circle, the bishop sitting on the Bench of the Ecclesiastical Princes. Even though the bishops of Basel no longer held secular authority over the city of Basel, in 1503, the new bishop Christoph von Utenheim refused to give Basel a new constitution whereupon, to show its power, the city began the construction of a new city hall. The reformation was brought to Basel by Johannes Oecolampadius cathedral preacher under von Utenheim, von Utenheim resigned on 19 February 1527.
He was succeeded by Philippe von Gundelsheim, canon at Basel Münster since 1510, in 1529, the city became Protestant under Oecolampadius and the bishops seat was moved to Porrentruy. In 1530, Laufental rebelled against the bishop, but were suppressed using forces from Solothurn, because of insolvency, the prince-bishopric grew increasingly dependent on the city of Basel, with the city granting him a mortgage on Birseck Castle in 1542,1544, and 1545. In 1547, the bishop formally agreed to allow the city to choose its own religion, the Basel patriciate now played a pivotal role in city affairs as they gradually established themselves as a de facto city aristocracy. The Bernoulli family, which included important 17th- and 18th-century mathematicians such as Jakob Bernoulli, Johann Bernoulli, the 18th-century mathematician Leonhard Euler was born in Basel and studied under Johann Bernoulli. Intended as a defence of Huguenots persecuted in France, Calvins Institutes, the first edition of Christianae religionis institutio was published at Basel in March 1536.
In 1543, De humani corporis fabrica, the first book on anatomy, was published and printed in Basel by Andreas Vesalius. Until 1830, Basel was a canton, with citizens from both the city and the municipalities of the countryside sitting in the Kantonsparlament. The cantonal parliament was dominated by members from the city, though its population was less than that of the combined countryside and this had not previously been a source of grievance, but in 1830 the Baselbieter, or citizens from the countryside, grew increasingly distrustful of the city. When the city rejected this demand, resentment from the region grew still larger to the extent that the city feared an attack. In Liestal a few men of the countryside formed a new provincial government protected by an army of 3,000, the government was however short-lived as on 16 January 1831 a force from Basel occupied Liestal, driving out the new government. A number of villages, such as Gelterkinden, Reigoldswil and Bubendorf remained loyal to Basel, the unrest in the countryside persisted into 1832 and both sides committed injustices upon the other.
Their route back to the city was ambushed and the city took heavy losses
The canton contained approximately 78,500 inhabitants. Like all the cantons of the Helvetic Republic, Linth was established and administered on a French Revolutionary model and was divided administratively into seven districts Werdenberg, capital Werdenberg,30 electors, approx. 10,500 inhabitants Neu St. Johann, capital Neu St. Johann,30 electors,11,600 inhabitants Mels, capital Mels,25 electors, approx. 9,800 inhabitants Schwanden, capital Schwanden,29 electors, the canton sided only very reluctantly with the French Revolutionary Army. Initial fervour for public education waned as the pressure from the government was relaxed. Upper Toggenburg was transferred to the canton of Säntis in 1801, canton of Linth in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
The Canton of Baden was a canton of the Helvetic Republic. Its capital was the town of Baden, the canton was created in 1798 from the merger of the County of Baden with the Freie Ämter and Kelleramt, all of which had until been condominiums of the Old Swiss Confederation. The canton was divided into five districts — Baden, Muri, the canton, like the others of the Helvetic Republic, was administered by a governor and an administrative chamber, a vice-governor in each district, as well as agents in the municipalities. In 1799, there were 45,982 residents, though the Jewish population was not counted in the census, since the majority of Roman Catholic, conservative population were indifferent to the new state and politicians had to be imported from neighboring cantons. The canton was not politically viable, notably due to its lack of an economic base, in both 1801 and 1802, it was decided to merge the canton into Aargau, but the move was not completed. Some parts of the canton of Baden at this point were transferred to other cantons, in return, Lucernes Amt of Merenschwand was transferred to Aargau.
The French invaded Switzerland and turned it into an ally known as the Helvetic Republic. The interference with localism and traditional liberties was deeply resented, although some modernizing reforms took place, resistance was strongest in the more traditional Catholic bastions, with armed uprisings breaking out in spring 1798 in the central part of Switzerland. During the French Revolutionary Wars of the 1790s, the French Republican armies expanded eastward, the French Republican armies enveloped Switzerland on the grounds of liberating the Swiss people, whose own system of government was deemed as feudal, especially for annexed territories such as Vaud. Some Swiss nationals, including Frédéric-César de La Harpe, had called for French intervention on these grounds, the invasion proceeded largely peacefully, since the Swiss people failed to respond to the calls of their politicians to take up arms. On 5 March 1798, French troops completely overran Switzerland and the Old Swiss Confederation collapsed, on 12 April 1798,121 cantonal deputies proclaimed the Helvetic Republic and Indivisible.
On 14 April 1798, an assembly was called in the canton of Zürich. The new régime abolished cantonal sovereignty and feudal rights, the occupying forces established a centralised state based on the ideas of the French Revolution. Many Swiss citizens resisted these ideas, particularly in the central areas of the country. Some of the controversial aspects of the new regime limited freedom of worship. In response, the Cantons of Uri and Nidwalden raised an army of about 10,000 men led by Alois von Reding to fight the French and this army was deployed along the defensive line from Napf to Rapperswil. Reding besieged French-controlled Lucerne and marched across the Brünig pass into the Berner Oberland to support the armies of Bern, at the same time, the French General Balthasar Alexis Henri Antoine of Schauenburg marched out of occupied Zürich to attack Zug and the Sattel pass. Even though Redings army won victories at Rothenthurm and Morgarten, Schauenburgs victory near Sattel allowed him to threaten the town of Schwyz, on 4 May 1798, the town council of Schwyz surrendered.
On 13 May and Schauenburg agreed to a cease-fire, no general agreement existed about the future of Switzerland. Leading groups split into the Unitaires, who wanted a republic, and the Federalists. Coup-attempts became frequent, and the new régime had to rely on the French to survive, the occupying forces insisted that the accommodation and feeding of the soldiers be paid for by the local populace, which drained the economy. The treaty of alliance with France broke the tradition of neutrality established by the Confederation, all this made it difficult to establish a new working state. Instability in the Republic reached its peak in 1802–1803, which included the Bourla-papey uprising, by then, it was 12 million francs in debt having started with a treasury of 6 million francs. This together with local resistance caused the Helvetic Republic to collapse, at that time, Napoleon Bonaparte, First Consul of France, summoned representatives of both sides to Paris in order to negotiate a solution
The Canton of Schaffhausen is a canton of Switzerland. The principal city and capital of the canton is Schaffhausen, Schaffhausen was a city-state in the Middle Ages, it is documented that it struck its own coins starting in 1045. It was documented as Villa Scafhusun, around 1049 Count Eberhard von Nellenburg founded a Benedictine monastery which led to the development of a community. This community achieved independence in 1190, in 1330 the town lost not only all its lands but its independence to the Habsburgs. In 1415 the Habsburg Duke Frederick IV of Austria sided with the Antipope John XXIII at the Council of Constance, as a result of the ban and Fredericks need of money, Schaffhausen was able to buy its independence from the Habsburgs in 1418. The city allied with six of the Swiss confederates in 1454, Schaffhausen became a full member of the Old Swiss Confederation in 1501. The first railroad came to Schaffhausen in 1857, in 1944 Schaffhausen suffered from a bombing raid by United States Army Air Forces planes that accidentally strayed from Germany into neutral Switzerland.
The cantonal constitution was written in 1876 and revised in 1895, the distinctive coat of arms bears the Schaffhauser Bock. Schaffhausen is the northernmost canton of Switzerland and lies almost entirely on the bank of the Rhine. It lies west of Lake Constance and has an area of 298 km2, much of the canton is productive agricultural land, with 134.4 km2 of the canton used for agriculture while an additional 128.7 km2 is wooded. Most of the rest of the canton,31.8 km2, is developed, the cantons territory is divided into three non-contiguous segments where German territory reaches the Rhine. The large central part, which includes the capital Schaffhausen, in turn separates the German exclave of Büsingen am Hochrhein from the rest of Germany, the small exclave of Rüdlingen-Buchberg lies to the southwest, and the third part contains Ramsen and Stein am Rhein to the east. With the exception of Vor der Brugg, part of Stein am Rhein, the canton of Schaffhausen is bordered by the Swiss cantons of Zurich and Thurgau, as well as the German districts of Waldshut, Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis and Konstanz, Baden-Württemberg.
Most of the lies on a plateau dominated by the Hoher Randen. The summit of mountain is at 912 m. The slopes of the mountain are gentle towards the south where it reaches the Rhine valley and narrow valleys intersect these gentle slopes. The Klettgau is one such valley, the Rhine Falls are the largest waterfalls in Europe and lie on the border of the cantons of Schaffhausen and Zürich. There are 27 municipalities in the canton as of January 2009, the population of the canton is 79,836