Illinois is a state in the midwestern region of the United States, achieving statehood in 1818. It is the 6th most populous state and 25th largest state in terms of land area, the word Illinois comes from a French rendering of a native Algonquin word. For decades, OHare International Airport has been ranked as one of the worlds busiest airports, Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and politics. With the War of 1812 Illinois growth slowed as both Native Americans and Canadian forces often raided the American Frontier, mineral finds and timber stands had spurred immigration—by the 1810s, the Eastern U. S. Railroads arose and matured in the 1840s, and soon carried immigrants to new homes in Illinois, as well as being a resource to ship their commodity crops out to markets. Railroads freed most of the land of Illinois and other states from the tyranny of water transport. By 1900, the growth of jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted a new group of immigrants.
Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars, the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in Chicago, who created the citys famous jazz and blues cultures. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois, Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was the only U. S. president born and raised in Illinois. Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official slogan, Land of Lincoln. The Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum is located in the capital of Springfield. Illinois is the spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers name for the Illinois Native Americans. American scholars previously thought the name Illinois meant man or men in the Miami-Illinois language and this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for man is ireniwa and plural men is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has said to mean tribe of superior men.
The name Illinois derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa he speaks the regular way and this was taken into the Ojibwe language, perhaps in the Ottawa dialect, and modified into ilinwe·. The French borrowed these forms, changing the ending to spell it as -ois. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, the Illinois name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans, the Koster Site has been excavated and demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third-most populous city in the United States. With over 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the state of Illinois, and it is the county seat of Cook County. In 2012, Chicago was listed as a global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Chicago has the third-largest gross metropolitan product in the United States—about $640 billion according to 2015 estimates, the city has one of the worlds largest and most diversified economies with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce. In 2016, Chicago hosted over 54 million domestic and international visitors, landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Museum of Science and Industry, and Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicagos culture includes the arts, film, especially improvisational comedy. Chicago has sports teams in each of the major professional leagues. The city has many nicknames, the best-known being the Windy City, the name Chicago is derived from a French rendering of the Native American word shikaakwa, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum, from the Miami-Illinois language.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as Checagou was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir, henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the wild garlic, called chicagoua, grew abundantly in the area. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable was of African and French descent and arrived in the 1780s and he is commonly known as the Founder of Chicago. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, which was destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn, the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis. The Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833, on August 12,1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people, on June 15,1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S.
The City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4,1837, as the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States. Chicagos first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, and the Illinois, the canal allowed steamboats and sailing ships on the Great Lakes to connect to the Mississippi River. A flourishing economy brought residents from rural communities and immigrants from abroad and retail and finance sectors became dominant, influencing the American economy. The Chicago Board of Trade listed the first ever standardized exchange traded forward contracts and these issues helped propel another Illinoisan, Abraham Lincoln, to the national stage
Chicago metropolitan area
The Chicago metropolitan area, or Chicagoland, is the metropolitan area associated with the city of Chicago and its suburbs. With an estimated population of 9.4 million people, it is the third largest metropolitan area in the United States, Chicagoland is the area that is closely linked to the city through geographic, social and cultural ties. The Chicago metropolitan area is one of the world’s largest and most diversified economies, with more than four million employees, the region is home to more than 400 major corporate headquarters, including 31 in the Fortune 500. The Chicago Metropolitan Statistical Area was originally designated by the United States Census Bureau in 1950 and it comprised the Illinois counties of Cook, DuPage, Kane and Will, along with Lake County in Indiana. As surrounding counties saw an increase in their population densities and the number of their residents employed within Cook County, the Chicago MSA, now defined as the Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area, is the third largest MSA by population in the United States.
The 2015 census estimate for the MSA was 9,427,676 and this loss of population has been attributed to taxes, political issues, and other factors. A breakdown of the 2009 estimated populations of the three Metropolitan Divisions of the MSA are as follows, The OMB defines a larger region as a Combined Statistical Area. The Chicago-Naperville, IL-IN-WI Combined Statistical Area combines the areas of Chicago, Michigan City. This area represents the extent of the market pool for the entire region. The CSA has a population of 9,928,312, the Chicago urban agglomeration, according to the United Nations World Urbanization Prospects report, lists a population of 9,545,000. The term “urban agglomeration” refers to the contained within the contours of a contiguous territory inhabited at urban density levels. It usually incorporates the population in a city plus that in the surrounding area, Chicagoland is an informal name for the Chicago metropolitan area. The term Chicagoland has no definition, and the region is often considered to include areas beyond the corresponding MSA.
Colonel Robert R. McCormick and publisher of the Chicago Tribune, mcCormicks conception of Chicagoland stretched all the way to nearby parts of four states. The first usage was in the Tribunes July 27,1926 front page headline, Chicagolands Shrines, A Tour of Discoveries and he stated that Chicagoland comprised everything in a 200-mile radius in every direction and reported on many different places in the area. The Tribune was the dominant newspaper in a vast area stretching to the west of the city, the Chicago Tribunes usage includes the city of Chicago, the rest of Cook County, eight nearby Illinois counties, and the two Indiana counties of Lake and Porter. Illinois Department of Tourism literature uses Chicagoland for suburbs in Cook, Lake, DuPage, the Chicagoland Chamber of Commerce defines it as all of Cook, DuPage, Lake, McHenry, and Will counties. For example, many residents who live in some of the more distant satellite counties nonetheless refer to themselves as being from Chicago or Chicagoans
Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America and the only one located entirely within the United States. The other four Great Lakes are shared by the U. S. and it is the second-largest of the Great Lakes by volume and the third-largest by surface area, after Lake Superior and Lake Huron. Lake Michigan is shared, from west to east, by the U. S. states of Wisconsin, Indiana, ports along its shores include Chicago, Green Bay, Gary and Benton Harbor, Michigan. The word Michigan originally referred to the lake itself, and is believed to come from the Ojibwa word mishigami meaning great water, some of the earliest human inhabitants of the Lake Michigan region were the Hopewell Indians. Their culture declined after 800 AD, and for the few hundred years. The French explorer Jean Nicolet is believed to have been the first European to reach Lake Michigan, in the earliest European maps of the region, the name of Lake Illinois has been found in addition to that of Michigan, named for the Illinois Confederation of tribes.
Lake Michigan is joined via the narrow, open-water Straits of Mackinac with Lake Huron, the Straits of Mackinac were an important Native American and fur trade route. The eastern end of the Straits was controlled by Fort Mackinac on Mackinac Island, French coureurs des bois and voyageurs established small ports and trading communities, such as Green Bay, on the lake during the late 17th and early 18th centuries. In the 19th century, Lake Michigan played a role in the development of Chicago. The first person to reach the bottom of Lake Michigan was J. Val Klump. Klump reached the bottom via submersible as part of a 1985 research expedition, in 2007, a row of stones paralleling an ancient shoreline was discovered by Mark Holley, professor of underwater archeology at Northwestern Michigan College. This formation lies 40 feet below the surface of the lake, One of the stones is said to have a carving resembling a mastodon. So far the formation has not been authenticated, Lake Michigan is the only one of the Great Lakes wholly within the borders of the United States, the others are shared with Canada.
It lies in the known as the American Midwest. Lake Michigan has an area of 22,404 sq. mi, making it the largest lake entirely within one country by surface area. It is the half of Lake Michigan–Huron, which is the largest body of fresh water in the world. It is 307 miles long by 118 miles wide with a shoreline 1,640 miles long, the lakes average depth is 46 fathoms 3 feet, while its greatest depth is 153 fathoms 5 feet. It contains a volume of 1,180 cubic miles of water, Green Bay in the northwest is its largest bay
White Rabbits (sculptors)
White Rabbits was the name given to a group of women sculptors who worked with Lorado Taft at the Worlds Columbian Exposition in 1893. As the date of the fairs opening grew closer Taft realized that he would not be able to complete the decorations, so he asked Daniel Burnham if he could use women assistants, an occurrence that was virtually unheard of at that time. Burnhams reply was that Taft could, Hire anyone, even white rabbits, from the ranks of the White Rabbits were to emerge some of the most talented and successful women sculptors of the next generation. Janet Scudder, Modeling My Life, New York, Harcourt and Company,1925
Cook County, Illinois
Cook County is a county in the U. S. state of Illinois. It is the second-most populous county in the United States after Los Angeles County, as of 2015, the population was 5,238,216. Its county seat is Chicago, the largest city in Illinois, more than 40% of all residents of Illinois live in Cook County. Cook Countys population is larger than that of 29 individual U. S. states, there are 135 incorporated municipalities partially or wholly within Cook County, the largest of which is Chicago, which is home to approximately 54% of the population of the county. That part of the county which lies outside of the Chicago city limits is divided into 29 townships, the county is the sixth-largest in Illinois by land area. It shares the states Lake Michigan shoreline with Lake County, including its lake area, the county has a total area of 1,635 square miles, the largest county in Illinois, of which 945 square miles is land and 690 square miles is water. Land-use in Cook County is mainly urban and densely populated, Cook County is included in the Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area.
It is surrounded by what are known as the five collar counties, Cook County was created on January 15,1831, out of Putnam County by an act of the Illinois General Assembly. It was the 54th county established in Illinois and was named after Daniel Cook and he served as the second U. S. Representative from Illinois and the states first Attorney General, in 1839, DuPage County was carved out of Cook County. Cook County is the home rule county in Illinois. The Cook County Code is the codification of Cook Countys local ordinances, Cook Countys current County Board president is Toni Preckwinkle. The Circuit Court of Cook County, which is a State agency funded, in part, by Cook County, the Cook County Department of Corrections, known as the Cook County Jail, is the largest single-site jail in the nation. The Cook County Juvenile Detention Center, under the authority of the Chief Judge of the State court, is the first juvenile center in the nation, the Cook County Law Library is the second-largest county law library in the nation.
In the 1980s, Cook County was ground zero to an extensive FBI investigation called Operation Greylord, ninety-two officials were indicted, including 17 judges,48 lawyers,8 policemen,10 deputy sheriffs,8 court officials, and a state legislator. The Bureau of Health Services administers the public health services and is the third-largest public health system in the nation. Three hospitals are part of system, John H. Stroger. Hospital of Cook County, Provident Hospital, and Oak Forest Hospital of Cook County, the Cook County Department of Transportation is responsible for the design and maintenance of roadways in the county
Barack Obama Presidential Center
The Barack Obama Presidential Center is the planned presidential library of Barack Obama, the 44th President of the United States. The center will be hosted by the University of Chicago, and will be located in Jackson Park on the South Side of Chicago, once completed, it will become the 14th site in the National Archives and Records Administrations presidential library system. The nonprofit Barack Obama Foundation was set up to oversee the creation of the Center, the Barack Obama Foundation board consists of, Chairman Marty Nesbitt, a close friend from Chicago, J. Barack Obama has a home in Hyde Park. The foundation was established in January 2014. The University of Chicago, the University of Illinois at Chicago, the University of Hawaii, a design advisory committee assisted in the selection of the architects. Two firms, New York-based Tod Williams Billie Tsien Architects and Chicago-based Interactive Design Architects, were chosen in June 2016 to jointly lead the design and engineering of the center.
For the exhibition design, Ralph Appelbaum Associates, which worked on the National Museum of African American History, will lead a team including, Civic Projects, two parks near the University of Chicagos South Side campus, Jackson Park and Washington Park, were considered. On July 29,2016, the Foundation announced the selection of the Jackson Park site, the park, designed by landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted for the 1893 Worlds Columbian Exposition, already houses the Museum of Science and Industry. Construction of the center is expected to be completed in 2020 or 2021, the architects said in February 2017 that construction of the centers library and museum would likely approach $300 million, and that the center would likely need an endowment of $1.5 billion. Until the site is ready and artifacts from the Obama administration are being stored inside a facility in Hoffman Estates, Obama did not do major fundraising for the center while still in office. In 2017, Obama reportedly was set to engage in a fundraising effort for the center.
Presidential Records Act Official website University of Chicago library announcement with videos National Archives and Records Administration website for the library
Flag of Chicago
Between the two blue stripes are four red, six-pointed stars arranged in a horizontal row. The flag, designed by Wallace Rice, was adopted in 1917 after Rice won the competition for the flag. The historic events are Fort Dearborn, the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, the Worlds Columbian Exposition of 1893, the three white background areas of the flag represent, from top to bottom, the North and South sides of the city. The top blue stripe represents Lake Michigan and the North Branch of the Chicago River, the bottom blue stripe represents the South Branch of the river and the Great Canal, over the Chicago Portage. The lighter blue on the flag is called sky blue or pale blue, in a 1917 article of a speech by Rice. There are four red six-pointed stars on the white stripe. From left to right, The first star represents Fort Dearborn and it was added to the flag in 1939. Its six points symbolize transportation, commerce, populousness, the second star stands for the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, and is original to the 1917 design of the flag.
Its six points represent the virtues of religion, aesthetics, beneficence, the third star symbolizes the Worlds Columbian Exposition of 1893, and is original to the 1917 design. The fourth star represents the Century of Progress Exposition, and was added in 1933, a possible fifth star has been proposed for the city flag on more than one occasion. The first occasion occurred in the 1940s, when a letter to the Chicago Tribune asked that a star be added to the city flag in honor of the citys place in the history of the nuclear age. On another occasion, a star was proposed in honor of Harold Washington, a fifth star was discussed following the Chicago Flood of 1992. Another fifth star was in the works from a group of Chicago real estate professionals to represent Chicagos entrepreneurial spirit in the early 1990s. In a more facetious vein, a star has been proposed if the Chicago Cubs should win the World Series. Six-pointed stars are used because five-pointed stars represent sovereign states, in 1915, Mayor William Hale Thompson appointed a municipal flag commission, chaired by Alderman James A.
Kearnes. Among the commission members were wealthy industrialist Charles Deering and impressionist painter Lawton S. Parker, Parker asked lecturer and poet Wallace Rice to develop the rules for an open public competition for the best flag design. Over a thousand entries were received, in the end, the commission chose the design by Wallace Rice himself. On April 4,1917, the recommendation was accepted by the city council