Pages in category "Christian humanists"
The following 52 pages are in this category, out of 52 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 52 pages are in this category, out of 52 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Gentile de' Becchi – Gentile de Becchi was an Italian bishop, diplomat, orator and writer. He was a member of the Platonic Academy of the Medici of Florence and tutor of Lorenzo the Magnificent and his son Giovanni de Medici, of his writings there exist many letters, poems in Latin, and prayers which are praised by historian Cecil Grayson as his finest works. Gentile de Becchi was born in Urbino, the son of Giorgio Becchi, both the year of his birth and the place of his early studies are unknown. As a priest, in 1450, with the support of the Medici, in 1473, Lorenzo de Medici, as ’de facto’ ruler of Florence, proposed him as Bishop of Arezzo. Despite his close association with Florence and the Medici family, de Becchi did not neglect his obligations to Arezzo. He supported the founding of a convent of Poor Clares in the city, licensed the Olivetans to build a church and monastery, in 1454, Gentile was chosen by Piero di Cosimo de Medici as tutor to his sons, the future Lorenzo the Magnificent and his brother Giuliano. In 1466, he accompanied Lorenzo de Medici on a mission to Pope Paul II. Gentile de Becchi then returned to Rome in April 1469, to accompany Clarice to Florence for her marriage, Gentile became a prominent member of the Medici Academy, alongside the philosophers Marsilio Ficino, Cristoforo Landino and later, Agnolo Poliziano and Pico della Mirandola. He was known as a poet, as well as a theologian and orator, and communicated with other poets and humanists including Cardinal Jacopo Piccolomini-Ammannati, Francesco Filelfo, Agnolo Poliziano dedicated his ode Del Lungo, written in the wake of the Pazzi conspiracy, to de Becchi. In 1489, Lorenzo chose Gentile as tutor of his son, Giovanni de Medici. Giovanni was made a cardinal at thirteen and at thirty-eight succeeded Pope Julius II as Pope Leo X, the Pope responded by arresting the Florentine ambassador, excommunicating Lorenzo de Medici and the Signoria and forbidding the Florentine clergy from practising. Gentile de Becchi, as Bishop of Arezzo, stood by the Medici, with the archbishop Rinaldo Orsini, he convened a synod of the local clergy and succeeded in returning the normal spiritual and ecclesiastical life to the City of Florence. The speech was printed by Niccolò della Magna and circulated. It is probable that for this reason Gentile de Becchis proposal as cardinal was rejected by the Pope, in 1481, Sixtus commissioned a team of painters including Florentines Botticelli and Domenico Ghirlandaio to take part in the painting of a series of narrative frescos in the Sistine Chapel. This was part of healing the breach between Florence and the Vatican, Gentile de Becchis oratorial skills made him the chosen representative of the Republic of Florence on a number of diplomatic missions, besides his role in making peace after the Pazzi conspiracy. He occupied this role both under Lorenzo and his son Piero di Lorenzo de Medici who succeeded his father on his death in March 1492, in 1483 Gentile went to France to bear greetings to Charles VIII after his coronation. In 1485 he went on behalf of Florence to negotiate with Pope Innocent VIII over hostilities with Ferdinand II of Aragon, in 1492 he was sent by Piero to bear greetings to the newly elected Pope Alexander VI. In 1493 and 1494 he was in France with Piero Soderini negotiating peace between Florence and Charles VIII who was planning to invade Italy, Gentile did not return to Florence after the exile of the Medici
2. Christian Beyer – Christian Beyer, a Saxon Chancellor and international lawyer. In documents partially different names and spellings can be found, Christian Beyer was born in 1482 Kleinlangheim in Lower Franconia, now part of Bavaria the son of the town bailiff Hans Beyer. He enrolled in winter semester 1500/1501 at the University of Erfurt, in the summer of 1503 the young Franken was accredited as Cristoferus Bauari de Lanckhem to the free University of Wittenberg in the former spa town of Wittenberg in Saxony. According to the collection of Wittenberg University, he became one of the first students at the newly founded free establishment with a fast gaining reputation. In 1505 he obtained the degree and in 1507 they called the highly talented young man as a teacher at the “Artistic Faculty”. Three years later, he received his doctorate from the new Faculty of Law as Doctorado in both law disciplines and he also got married in the same year to Magdalena Gertitz, daughter of Wittenberg Mayor Ambrosius Gertitz. Already in 1512 his house was victim of a fire outbreak, because he suffered so much in construction costs, he later asked the Elector of Saxony to increase his annual salary by 30 florins. This building was like most of the buildings of the time also lodging for students. Payments for boarding and lodging of the students were an important source of income for the town’s citizens and it is well known even in the houses of Martin Luther and Philipp Melanchthons students was staying and living. Christian Beyer the legal councillor of Frederick III, Elector of Saxony and he served as Mayor for further periods in the years 1516,1519,1522 and 1525 and served in the years 1520,1523 and 1526 as a consulting former Mayor, the Council of Wittenberg. In the years of advancing the Reformation, so he turned his endeavours for the town of Wittenberg towards fulfilling his teaching post at the university. Nevertheless Martin Luther criticized him initially because he did not immediately renounced the papal principles and he soon altered his opinion and strode in the aftermath to a conversion to the Reformed faith. In October 1520, Christian Beyer and other members of the Electoral Councils the advice to Frederick III and they argued that the issue should be treated the matter as harmless and dilatory”. In 1521, the “Wittenberg movement” began among the Augustinian monks of the monastery of Wittenberg, the first church services in accordance to the Popes way was abolished in the Castle and Town Church in Wittenberg. Luther held at time a hiding place on the Wartburg Castle. When he heard this, he wrote them a letter, in which, he congratulated them and wished that the “project happy operations were carried out”. This letter shows, however, that the monks were not unanimous or undiversified, George Spalatin, the Saxon Elector’s theological adviser, had restrained them to moderation, out of concern that Martin Luther could gain even more resentment of his adversaries. However, this process had reached the ears of the Prior of the Augustinians and he did not agree with what had occurred, and made a strong notion towards an abolition of the strides
3. A. J. Cronin – Archibald Joseph Cronin, MBChB, MD, DPH, MRCP was a Scottish novelist and physician. His best-known novel was The Citadel, about a doctor in a Welsh mining village who quickly moves up the ladder in London. Cronin had observed this scene closely as a Medical Inspector of Mines and this book promoted controversial new ideas about medical ethics which largely inspired the launch of the National Health Service. Another popular mining novel, set in the North East of England, was The Stars Look Down, both these novels were adapted for film, as were Hatters Castle, The Keys of the Kingdom and The Green Years. His novella Country Doctor was adapted for a long-running BBC radio and TV series Dr Finlays Casebook and his paternal grandparents emigrated from County Armagh, Ireland and were glass and china merchants in Alexandria. Owen Cronin, his grandfather, had his surname changed from Cronague in 1870 and his maternal grandfather, Archibald Montgomerie, was a hatter who owned a shop in Dumbarton. After their marriage, Cronins parents moved to Helensburgh, where he attended Grant Street School, when he was seven years old, his father, an insurance agent and commercial traveler, died from tuberculosis. From an early age, he was a golfer, a sport he enjoyed throughout his life. The family later moved to Yorkhill, Glasgow, where he attended St Aloysius College in the Garnethill area of the city and he played football for the First XI there, an experience he included in one of his last novels, The Minstrel Boy. A family decision that he should study for either the church or medicine was settled by Cronin himself and he won a Carnegie scholarship to study medicine at the University of Glasgow in 1914. He was absent during the 1916–1917 session for naval service, in 1919 he graduated with highest honours, with the degree of MBChB. Later that year he made a trip to India as ships surgeon on a liner, Cronin went on to earn additional degrees, including a Diploma in Public Health and his MRCP. In 1925, he was awarded an M. D. from the University of Glasgow for his dissertation, during World War I, Cronin served as a Surgeon Sub-Lieutenant in the Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve before graduating from medical school. After the war, he trained at various hospitals including Bellahouston and Lightburn Hospitals in Glasgow and he undertook general practice work in a small village on the Clyde, Garelochhead, as well as in Tredegar, a mining town in South Wales. He was involved in the disaster at Ystfad Colliery in Pengelly, where miners were drowned. He subsequently moved to London, where he practised in Harley Street before opening his own thriving medical practice in Notting Hill, Cronin was also the medical officer for Whiteleys at this time and was becoming increasingly interested in ophthalmology. In 1930, after being diagnosed with a duodenal ulcer. At Dalchenna Farm by Loch Fyne, he was able to indulge his lifelong desire to write a novel, having previously written nothing but prescriptions
4. Erasmus – Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus, known as Erasmus or Erasmus of Rotterdam, was a Dutch/Netherlandish Renaissance humanist, Catholic priest, social critic, teacher, and theologian. Erasmus was a scholar and wrote in a pure Latin style. Among humanists he enjoyed the sobriquet Prince of the Humanists, and has called the crowning glory of the Christian humanists. He also wrote On Free Will, The Praise of Folly, Handbook of a Christian Knight, On Civility in Children, Copia, Foundations of the Abundant Style, Julius Exclusus, and many other works. Erasmus remained a member of the Roman Catholic Church all his life, remaining committed to reforming the Church and he also held to the Catholic doctrine of free will, which some Reformers rejected in favor of the doctrine of predestination. His middle road approach disappointed and even angered scholars in both camps, Erasmus died suddenly in Basel in 1536 while preparing to return to Brabant, and was buried in Basel Minster, the former cathedral of the city. A bronze statue of him was erected in his city of birth in 1622, Desiderius Erasmus is reported to have been born in Rotterdam on 28 October in the late 1460s. He was named after Saint Erasmus of Formiae, whom Erasmuss father Gerard personally favored, a 17th-century legend has it that Erasmus was first named Geert Geerts, but this is unfounded. He was born in Rotterdam, but there are insufficient records to confirm that, a well-known wooden picture indicates, Goudæ conceptus, Roterodami natus. According to an article by historian Renier Snooy, Erasmus was born in Gouda, the exact year of his birth is debated, with most biographers citing the year as 1466. Some evidence confirming 1466 can be found in Erasmuss own words, of twenty-three statements Erasmus made about his age, all and he was christened Erasmus after the saint of that name. Although associated closely with Rotterdam, he lived there for four years. Information on his family and early life comes mainly from vague references in his writings and his parents were not legally married. His father, Gerard, was a Catholic priest and curate in Gouda, little is known of his mother other than that her name was Margaretha Rogerius and she was the daughter of a physician from Zevenbergen, she may have been Gerards housekeeper. Erasmus was given the highest education available to a man of his day. During his stay there the curriculum was renewed by the principal of the school, for the first time ever Greek was taught at a lower level than a university in Europe, and this is where he began learning it. He also gleaned there the importance of a relationship with God but eschewed the harsh rules. His education there ended when plague struck the city about 1483, and his mother, in 1492, poverty forced Erasmus into the consecrated life
5. Marsilio Ficino – Marsilio Ficino was an Italian scholar and Catholic priest who was one of the most influential humanist philosophers of the early Italian Renaissance. He was an astrologer, a reviver of Neoplatonism in touch with every major academic thinker and writer of his day and his Florentine Academy, an attempt to revive Platos Academy, influenced the direction and tenor of the Italian Renaissance and the development of European philosophy. Ficino was born at Figline Valdarno, Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, the Italian humanist philosopher and scholar was another of his students. In 1459 John Argyropoulos was lecturing on Greek language and literature at Florence, when Cosimo decided to refound Platos Academy at Florence he chose Ficino as its head. In 1462, Cosimo supplied Ficino with Greek manuscripts of Platos work, among his many students was Francesco Cattani da Diacceto, who was considered by Ficino to be his successor as the head of the Florentine Platonic Academy. Diaccetos student, Giovanni di Bardo Corsi, produced a biography of Ficino in 1506. A physician and a vegetarian, Ficino became a priest in 1473, in 1474 Ficino completed his treatise on the immortality of the soul, Theologia Platonica de immortalitate animae. In the rush of enthusiasm for every rediscovery from Antiquity, he exhibited a great interest in the arts of astrology, in 1489 he was accused of magic before Pope Innocent VIII and needed strong defense to preserve him from the condemnation of heresy. This century appears to have perfected astrology, Ficinos letters, extending over the years 1474–1494, survive and have been published. Now if those little men grant life to the smallest particles of the world, neither to know that the Whole, in which we live and move and have our being, is itself alive, nor to wish this to be so. One metaphor for this integrated aliveness is Ficinos astrology, in the Book of Life, he details the interlinks between behavior and consequence. It talks about a list of things that hold sway over a mans destiny and those works, which were very popular at the time, dealt with astrological and alchemical concepts. Thus Ficino came under the suspicion of heresy, especially after the publication of the book in 1489. Ficino introduced the term and concept of love in the West. It first appeared in a letter to Alamanno Donati in 1476, after his death his biographers had a difficult task trying to refute those who spoke of his homosexual tendencies. But his sincere and deep faith, and membership of the clergy, put him beyond the reach of gossip, Ficino died on 1 October 1499 at Careggi. In 1521 his memory was honored with a bust sculpted by Andrea Ferrucci, harvard University Press, Latin with English translation. ISBN 0-674-01986-5 The Letters of Marsilio Ficino, English translation with extensive notes, the Language Department of the School of Economic Science
6. Pope Francis – Pope Francis is the 266th and current Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, a title he holds ex officio as Bishop of Rome, and sovereign of Vatican City. He chose Francis as his name in honor of Saint Francis of Assisi. Born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, Bergoglio worked briefly as a chemical technologist and he was ordained a Catholic priest in 1969, and from 1973 to 1979 was Argentinas provincial superior of the Society of Jesus. He became the Archbishop of Buenos Aires in 1998 and was created a cardinal in 2001 by Pope John Paul II and he led the Argentine Church during the December 2001 riots in Argentina, and the administrations of Néstor Kirchner and Cristina Fernández de Kirchner considered him a political rival. Following the resignation of Pope Benedict XVI on 28 February 2013, throughout his public life, Pope Francis has been noted for his humility, emphasis on Gods mercy, concern for the poor, populist causes and commitment to interfaith dialogue. He maintains that the church should be open and welcoming. He does not support unbridled capitalism, Marxism, or Marxist versions of liberation theology, Francis maintains the traditional views of the church regarding abortion, euthanasia, contraception, homosexuality, ordination of women, and priestly celibacy. He opposes consumerism, irresponsible development, and supports taking action on climate change, in international diplomacy, he helped to restore full diplomatic relations between the U. S. and Cuba. Jorge Mario Bergoglio was born on 17 December 1936 in Flores and he was the eldest of five children of Mario José Bergoglio and Regina María Sívori. Mario Bergoglio was an Italian immigrant accountant born in Portacomaro in Italys Piedmont region, Regina Sívori was a housewife born in Buenos Aires to a family of northern Italian origin. Mario Josés family left Italy in 1929, to escape the fascist rule of Benito Mussolini, María Elena Bergoglio, the Popes only living sibling, confirmed that their emigration was not for economic reasons. His other siblings were Alberto Horacio, Oscar Adrián and Marta Regina, two great-nephews, Antonio and Joseph, died in a traffic collision. In the sixth grade, Bergoglio attended Wilfrid Barón de los Santos Ángeles and he attended the technical secondary school Escuela Técnica Industrial N°27 Hipólito Yrigoyen, named after a past President of Argentina, and graduated with a chemical technicians diploma. He worked for a few years in that capacity in the section at Hickethier-Bachmann Laboratory where his boss was Esther Ballestrino. Before joining the Jesuits, Bergoglio worked as a bar bouncer and as a janitor sweeping floors, in the only known health crisis of his youth, at the age of 21 he suffered from life-threatening pneumonia and three cysts. He had part of a lung excised shortly afterwards, Bergoglio has been a lifelong supporter of San Lorenzo de Almagro football club. Bergoglio is also a fan of the films of Tita Merello, neorealism, Bergoglio found his vocation to the priesthood while he was on his way to celebrate the Spring Day. He passed by a church to go to confession, and was inspired by the priest
7. Pope John Paul II – Pope Saint John Paul II, born Karol Józef Wojtyła, was Pope from 1978 to 2005. He is called by some Catholics Saint John Paul the Great and he was elected by the second Papal conclave of 1978, which was called after Pope John Paul I, who had been elected in August after the death of Pope Paul VI, died after thirty-three days. Cardinal Wojtyła was elected on the day of the conclave. John Paul II is recognised as helping to end Communist rule in his native Poland, John Paul II significantly improved the Catholic Churchs relations with Judaism, Islam, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the Anglican Communion. He upheld the Churchs teachings on such matters as artificial contraception and the ordination of women and he was one of the most travelled world leaders in history, visiting 129 countries during his pontificate. By the time of his death, he had named most of the College of Cardinals, consecrated or co-consecrated a large number of the worlds bishops, a key goal of his papacy was to transform and reposition the Catholic Church. His wish was to place his Church at the heart of a new alliance that would bring together Jews, Muslims. He was the second longest-serving pope in history after Pope Pius IX. Born in Poland, John Paul II was the first non-Italian pope since the Dutch Pope Adrian VI, John Paul IIs cause for canonisation commenced in 2005 one month after his death with the traditional five-year waiting period waived. A second miracle attributed to John Paul IIs intercession was approved on 2 July 2013, John Paul II was canonised on 27 April 2014, together with Pope John XXIII. On 11 September 2014, Pope Francis added John Paul IIs optional memorial feast day to the worldwide General Roman Calendar of saints, in response to worldwide requests. It is traditional to celebrate saints feast days on the anniversary of their deaths, Karol Józef Wojtyła was born in the Polish town of Wadowice. He was the youngest of three born to Karol Wojtyła, an ethnic Pole, and Emilia Kaczorowska, whose mothers maiden surname was Scholz. Emilia, who was a schoolteacher, died in childbirth in 1929 when Wojtyła was eight years old and his elder sister Olga had died before his birth, but he was close to his brother Edmund, nicknamed Mundek, who was 13 years his senior. Edmunds work as a physician led to his death from scarlet fever. As a boy, Wojtyła was athletic, often playing football as goalkeeper, during his childhood, Wojtyła had contact with Wadowices large Jewish community. School football games were organised between teams of Jews and Catholics, and Wojtyła often played on the Jewish side. I remember that at least a third of my classmates at school in Wadowice were Jews
8. Justus Lipsius – Justus Lipsius was a Flemish/Dutch/Netherlandish philologist, philosopher and humanist. Lipsius wrote a series of works designed to revive ancient Stoicism in a form that would be compatible with Christianity, the most famous of these is De Constantia. His form of Stoicism influenced a number of thinkers, creating the intellectual movement of Neostoicism. He taught at the universities in Jena, Leiden and Leuven, Lipsius was born in Overijse, Brabant. The publication of his Variarum Lectionum Libri Tres, which he dedicated to Cardinal Granvelle, earned him an appointment as a Latin secretary, and a visit to Rome in the retinue of the cardinal. Here Lipsius remained for two years, devoting his time to the study of the Latin classics, collecting inscriptions. On his way back to Leuven, he stopped some time in Cologne and he held the position of rector of the university for four terms and was a driving force behind the growth and innovation in the early years. The eleven years that Lipsius spent in Leiden were the period of his greatest productivity and it was during this time that he prepared his Seneca, and perfected, in successive editions, his Tacitus, and brought out a series of other works. Some were pure scholarship, some were collections from classical authors and he wrote that a government should recognize only one religion, and extirpate dissent by fire and sword. In the spring of 1590, leaving Leiden under pretext of taking the waters in Spa, he went to Mainz and this event deeply interested the Catholic world, and invitations from the courts and universities of Italy, Austria and Spain poured in on Lipsius. But he preferred to remain in his own country, and he settled in Leuven. He was not expected to teach, and appointments as privy councillor and he continued to publish dissertations as before, the chief being his De militia romana and his Lovanium, intended as an introduction to a general history of Brabant. For years, a street off the Wetstraat in the Schumann quarter of Brussels, in the 1990s, construction for the new home of the Council of the European Union built over the road. The Justus-Lipsius name was attributed to a new nearby street, the honorific remains, the EU headquarters now resides in the Justus Lipsius building. The name of Justus Lipsius drew new attention in 1995 when it was chosen for the new Brussels headquarters building of the Council of the European Union. This was because the new complex was constructed where the Justus Lipsius street had been and he was also recently selected to appear on the 10 euro Justus Lipsius Silver commemorative Coin, minted by Belgium in 2006. The reverse side of the coin shows his portrait together with the years of his life, the principles would have laid the foundation for military revolution that transformed first European warfare and then the internal organisation of the European states themselves. Variarum Lectionum Libri Tres De Constantia Libri Duo, Qui alloquium praecipue continent in Publicis malis On Constancy / De Constantia, edited by John Sellars and translated by John Stradling
9. Thomas Merton – Thomas Merton, O. C. S. O. was an American Catholic writer, theologian and mystic. A Trappist monk of the Abbey of Gethsemani, Kentucky, he was a poet, social activist, in 1949, he was ordained to the priesthood and given the name Father Louis. Merton wrote more than 70 books, mostly on spirituality, social justice, Merton was a keen proponent of interfaith understanding. In the years since his death, Merton has been the subject of several biographies and he was baptized in the Church of England, in accordance with his fathers wishes. Mertons father was absent during his sons upbringing. During World War I, in August 1915, the Merton family left France for the United States and they settled first with Ruths parents on Long Island, New York, and then near them in Douglaston, New York. In 1917, the moved into an old house in Flushing, New York. The family was considering returning to France when Ruth was diagnosed with cancer, from which she died on October 21,1921. In 1922, Owen Merton and Thomas traveled briefly to Bermuda, where Owen fell in love with the American novelist Evelyn Scott, still grieving for his mother, Thomas never quite warmed to Scott. Happy to get away from Scott, Thomas returned to Douglaston in 1923 to live with his mothers family, Owen Merton, Scott, and her husband sailed to Europe and traveled through France, Italy, England and Algeria. During the winter of 1924, while in Algeria, Owen Merton became ill and was thought to be near death, the news of his fathers illness weighed heavily on Thomas Merton. The prospect of losing his sole surviving parent filled him with anxiety, by March 1925, Owen Merton was well enough to organize a show of his paintings at the Leicester Galleries in London. He then returned to New York and took Thomas to live with him in Saint-Antonin, Thomas returned to France with mixed feelings, as he had lived with his grandparents for the last two years and had become attached to them. During their travels, Mertons father and Scott had discussed marriage on occasion, after the trip to New York, Owen Merton realized that Thomas would not be reconciled to Scott and broke off his relationship with her. In 1926, when Merton was eleven, his father enrolled him in a boarding school in Montauban. The stay brought up feelings of loneliness and depression for Merton, during his initial months of schooling, Merton begged his father to remove him. As time passed, however, he became more comfortable with his surroundings there. He made friends with a circle of young and aspiring writers at the Lycée, Sundays at the Lycée offered a nearby Catholic Mass, but Merton never attended, instead often taking an early train home
10. Michel de Montaigne – Michel Eyquem de Montaigne, Lord of Montaigne was one of the most significant philosophers of the French Renaissance, known for popularizing the essay as a literary genre. His work is noted for its merging of casual anecdotes and autobiography with serious intellectual insight, in his own lifetime, Montaigne was admired more as a statesman than as an author. In time, however, Montaigne would come to be recognized as embodying, perhaps better than any other author of his time and he is most famously known for his skeptical remark, Que sçay-je. Much of modern literary non-fiction has found inspiration in Montaigne and writers of all kinds continue to read him for his balance of intellectual knowledge. Montaigne was born in the Aquitaine region of France, on the family estate Château de Montaigne, in a town now called Saint-Michel-de-Montaigne, close to Bordeaux. The family was wealthy, his great-grandfather, Ramon Felipe Eyquem, had made a fortune as a herring merchant and had bought the estate in 1477. His father, Pierre Eyquem, Seigneur of Montaigne, was a French Catholic soldier in Italy for a time and had also been the mayor of Bordeaux. Although there were several families bearing the patronym Eyquem in Guyenne and his mother, Antoinette López de Villanueva, was a convert to Protestantism. His maternal grandfather, Pedro Lopez, from Zaragoza, was from a wealthy Marrano family who had converted to Catholicism and his maternal grandmother, Honorette Dupuy, was from a Catholic family in Gascony, France. His mother lived a part of Montaignes life near him, and even survived him. Montaignes relationship with his father, however, is reflected upon. Montaignes education began in childhood and followed a pedagogical plan that his father had developed, refined by the advice of the latters humanist friends. After these first spartan years, Montaigne was brought back to the château, the objective was for Latin to become his first language. The intellectual education of Montaigne was assigned to a German tutor and his father hired only servants who could speak Latin, and they also were given strict orders always to speak to the boy in Latin. The same rule applied to his mother, father, and servants, who were obliged to use only Latin words he himself employed, Montaignes Latin education was accompanied by constant intellectual and spiritual stimulation. He was familiarized with Greek by a method that employed games, conversation. The atmosphere of the upbringing, although designed by highly refined rules taken under advisement by his father, created in the boys life the spirit of liberty. Duty by an unforced will, and of my own voluntary motion. without any severity or constraint and he then began his study of law at the University of Toulouse in 1546 and entered a career in the local legal system