Monastery of Dumio
The Monastery of Dumio, is a former paleo-Christian monastery in the civil parish of Dume, municipality of Braga, in northwestern Portugal. Originally a Roman villa, it was the base of a basilica by Suebi tribes, the re-discovery of the Roman ruins in the late 20th century resulted in archaeological excavations that unearthed its former use. By the 1st century, there existed an octagonal Roman villa. In the first half of the 6th century, construction of a church was ordered constructed by the Suebi King Chararic. It can be inferred that this was a reflection of the expansion, by the middle of the 6th century, the site began to take on an important context within the peninsula. The King himself constructed an annex, making the ancient village a centre of decision-making in the Cortes. Three centuries after the construction of São Martinho, and during the Reconquista the basilica was the object of fundamental reforms, the church was transferred to the benevolance of the Bishop of Mondonhedo, São Rosendo.
Then, there was a return during the 10th century, with the re-purposing, yet, by this time, the religious complex in Dume was abandoned, neither the memory of Martin of Braga nor its ancient glory would motivate any new importance. It is likely that it may have served as a parochial church, Dume was returned to the Diocese of Braga around 1103, where it remained, although indictions as to the condition, state or use of the ancient basilica are none existent. In 1608, there were references to the hermitage of Nossa Senhora do Rosário and it was around this time that the actual Matriz Church was completed. Later expansion of the church was completed in the first half of the 18th century, around 1747, the Contador de Argote relates the appearance of diverse archaeological vestiges in Dume, casual objects unearthed by local farmers. In 1992, formal excavations of the medieval site was begun in Dume. By May 1993, the Roman baths of the Roman villa were discovered, the remains of Martin of Braga were moved to a subterranean tomb alongside the ruins, underneath the chapel.
In 1997, the government erected a fence to protect the backyard of the Casa do Assento. The beginning of the exploration of the uncovered paleo-Christian basilica were begun in July 2005, the collection of archaeological artefacts collected during the excavations were depoisted with the Museu Dom Diogo de Sousa, in Braga. This included primarily ceramics from the Roman and medieval periods, but Roman era glass and amphora, corroded medieval coins, the ruins are located around the Lugar da Igreja or Lugar do Assento on the square occupied by the parochial church of Dume. These individual spaces were occupied successively over a 2000-year period, Charles, ed. St. Martin of Braga
Monastery of Santa Maria de Pombeiro
The first reference to a monastery or religious institution came from a papel brief to Pope Leo IV. It is still unclear on the period that monastery and church was founded. Ferdinand I of Castile granted the proprietoriship of the convent to his nephew D. Gomes de Cela Nova, from the Sousas, the monastery passed to the Melos and Sampaios, represented by the Baron of Pombeiro de Ribavizela. At the time the abbot of Pombeiro functioned as the head almoner for the Kingdom, in 1112, under Queen Teresa, the monastery was off-limits to most of its citizens, including the church. Afonso I of Portugal provided privileges and patronage in 1155 to the monastery, the abbot would initiate remodelling and renovations in 1199. The monastery continued to be favoured by the monarchy, and throughout the 12th century a number of reliquaries were deposited in the altars of the Church, in 1234, the monastery traded lands with the Monastery of São Miguel de Refojos de Basto, in Cabeceiras de Basto. By 1272, a generation of public works were completed in the Church façade.
In the second-half of the 16th century, the abbot António de Mello order the execution of improvements to the church, on 6 March 1586, the monasterys rich patrimony was taken by King Philip I of Portugal and transferred to the Jerónimos Monastery. One of the wings of the cloister were completed in 1702 and it was followed in 1719 by the construction of the new choir in the principal wall, the displacement of the rose window from the portico to the bell towers. Continued remodelling in 1722 caused the destruction of the Romanesque main chapel in 1722, in successive years, the organ would be renovated, first in 1786, 1801, before the pipes were stolen in the 20th century. Between 1770-1773, the retable was completed by friar José de Santo António Ferreira Vilaça, who designed, the flourishments along the choir, the rosewood pews. Friar José completed two lateral retables between 1774–1777, while two other retables were completed after him by José Vilaça, ironically, by 1785, the church and monastery was practically painted.
Since 1910, the monastery has been considered a National Monument, in January 1997, the Ministry of Culture purchases the building and one of the parcels around the monastery. Similar public works were undertaken under the governments after the Carnation Revolution. It is situated east of the village of Pombeiro de Ribavizela. Itinerário de um artista nos séculos XVII e XVIII, Actas do I Congresso Internacional do Barroco, I, Portugal, pp. 355–369
Monastery of Rates
The Monastery of Rates was a Benedictine monastery located in the parish of Rates in the municipality of Póvoa de Varzim, in Portugal. Reconstruction of the church began at the turn of the 11th to the 12th century, the origin of the temple, that relate to the church itself, is dated to the Suebi-Visigothic period, although it incorporates older elements dating to the Roman period. Other elements relate it to Asturian-Leonese period, prior to the prevailing Romanesque reconstruction, according to legend, Peter of Rates came to the future Portuguese territory in the year 44 AD invited by Saint James the Great, one of Jesuss apostles. Peter is the legendary first Bishop of Braga and suffered martyrdom while trying to convert pagans to Christianity, according to legend, Peters tomb was rediscovered in the 9th century, and a church was built to keep his remains. The relics were subject to pilgrimage during the Middle Ages, the foundation of the Monastery of Rates is still rather mysterious. The building is of Asturian tradition and was rebuilt in the following centuries.
But several material artifacts identify the origin of the temple to the Roman period, the history of the current church begins around 1096, when Henry, Count of Portugal, sponsored the rebuilding of the monastery that was in ruins. It is known that, in 1100, Count Henry invited monks from La Charité-sur-Loire to come to Rates, cluny was the most powerful religious community of the time and was headed by Abbot Hugh, a close relative of Count Henry. Work on the construction of the church proceeded slowly and its stages are not known with certainty. The project of Count Henrys time was never finished, but the current configuration of the church - with a nave, transept. However, the structure of some of the pillars of the nave indicate that the plan predicted the building of a stone vault over the whole building. Many of the capitals of the apse and transept have a very primitive design. The sculpture of other 12th century monastic foundations show great influence of the Rates worshop and it seems that the initial, ambitious building plan had to be modified around the mid-12th century, perhaps following the collapse of the roof of the apse and/or financial constraints.
The stone vault project was abandoned and the nave and transept were now to be covered by a wooden roof and it is believed that most of the church was built during the second half of the 12th century, although the works were not fully completed until the 13th century. In the next centuries, the history of the Monastery of Rates was relatively unremarkable, in the early 16th century the monastery was granted to the knights of the Order of Christ. In the 18th century the chapel of the apse was greatly expanded in size and was given a rectangular shape. In the 19th century, with the dissolution of the orders in Portugal. After a period of decay, the church was recognised as one of the oldest and most influential of the Portuguese Romanesque churches and it was declared a national monument as soon as 1910, when Portugal started listing and protecting monuments
The Monastery of Batalha, literally the Monastery of the Battle, is a Dominican convent in the civil parish of Batalha, in the district of Leiria, in the Centro Region of Portugal. It is one of the best and original examples of Late Gothic architecture in Portugal, the monastery was built to thank the Virgin Mary for the Portuguese victory over the Castilians in the battle of Aljubarrota in 1385, fulfilling a promise of King John I of Portugal. The battle put an end to the 1383–85 Crisis and it took over a century to build, starting in 1386 and ending circa 1517, spanning the reign of seven kings. It took the efforts of fifteen architects, but for seven of them the title was no more than a title bestowed on them. The construction required an enormous effort, using resources of men. New techniques and artistic styles, hitherto unknown in Portugal, were deployed, work began in 1386 by the Portuguese architect Afonso Domingues who continued until 1402. He drew up the plan and many of the structures in the church and his style was essentially Rayonnant Gothic, however there are influences from the English Perpendicular Period.
There are similarities with the façade of York Minster and with the nave and he was succeeded by Huguet from 1402 to 1438. This architect, who was probably of Catalonian descent, introduced the Flamboyant Gothic style. This is manifest in the main façade, the dome of the chapter house, the Founders Chapel, the basic structure of the Imperfect Chapels. He raised the height of the nave to 32.46 m, by altering the proportions he made the interior of the church seem even narrower. He completed the transept but he died before he could finish the Imperfect Chapels, during the reign of Afonso V of Portugal, the Portuguese architect Fernão de Évora continued the construction between 1448 and 1477. He added the Cloister of Afonso V and he was succeeded by the architect Mateus Fernandes the Elder in the period 1480–1515. This master of the Manueline style worked on the portal of the Capelas Imperfeitas, together with the famous Diogo Boitac he realized the tracery of the arcades in the Claustro Real. Work on the convent continued into the reign of John III of Portugal with the addition of the fine Renaissance tribune by João de Castilho, the construction came to a halt, when the king decided to put all his efforts in the construction of the Jerónimos Monastery in Lisbon.
The earthquake of 1755 did some damage, but much greater damage was inflicted by the Napoleonic troops of Marshal Masséna, when the Dominicans were expelled from the complex in 1834, the church and convent were abandoned and left to fall in ruins. In 1840, king Ferdinand II of Portugal started a program of the abandoned and ruined convent. The restoration would last till the years of the 20th century
Monastery of Santa Cruz (Coimbra)
The Santa Cruz Monastery, best known as Igreja de Santa Cruz, is a National Monument in Coimbra, Portugal. Because the first two kings of Portugal are buried in the church it was granted the status of National Pantheon, founded in 1131 outside the protecting walls of Coimbra, the Santa Cruz Monastery was the most important monastic house during the early days of the Portuguese monarchy. St. Theotonius founded this community of Canons Regular of the Holy Cross of Coimbra, the monastery and church were erected between 1132 and 1223. Its school, with its vast library, was respected in medieval times and was a meeting point for the intellectual. Its scriptorium was used for the consolidation of power by King Afonso Henriques. Nothing remains of the early Romanesque monastery and it is known that it had only one nave and a high tower in the façade, as typical of the Augustinian-Romanesque constructions, but none of those elements subsisted. In the first half of the 16th century, the Monastery was completely renovated by King Manuels order, the architect Diogo de Boitaca was responsible for the layout of the Manueline church and the chapter house with its basket-handled and ribbed ceilings.
Marco Pires gave continuity to the work, with the completion of the church, the Capela de São Miguel, the sacristy dates back to the 17th century and keeps some notable 16th-century canvases. Saint Anthony of Lisbon was a member of the community of canons regular and it was in this capacity that he welcomed the remains of the Franciscan protomartyrs, whose remains were being transported back to Assisi, after their deaths in Morocco. This led to his decision to leave the security and ease of the life of a canon for that of the newly founded Franciscans