Category:Christians of the Eighth Crusade
Pages in category "Christians of the Eighth Crusade"
The following 26 pages are in this category, out of 26 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 26 pages are in this category, out of 26 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
Theobald II, called the Young, was Count of Champagne and Brie and King of Navarre from 1253 until his death. Theobald was the eldest son of Theobald I of Navarre and his third wife and he succeeded to his fathers titles on his death at only fourteen years of age. His mother acted as regent with James I of Aragon until 1256, on 27 November, he affirmed the Fueros of Navarre, which limited his power by putting him under the counsel of a tutor from among the aristocracy. He could not make judgements without a council of twelve of noblemen, Theobald was not content, however, to be so restricted in royal prerogative before his twenty-first birthday. In order to counter the tendency to decentralisation, diminish the power of the nobility and he exacted extraordinary taxes and imposts from them, but they supported him nevertheless because he granted them rights and political clout. He extended the fueros of Pamplona to Lantz and Estella to Tiebas—nowadays in ruins, Theobald continued the power struggle with the bishop of Pamplona started during his fathers reign.
The former stood by his native Basque parishioners of the Navarreria borough, while Theobald championed the Saint Nicolas borough of Pamplona, in other affairs, Theobald continued the policies of his father. He improved the administration, of incomes and expenditures. The count of 1266 indicated a population of 150,000 inhabitants in Navarre, approximately 6. 75% of royal revenues were spent on a bureaucracy,33. 84% on the military, and 59. 6% to the maintenance of the monarch and his household and duties. Theobald found support in Louis IX of France, who supported his fellow kings against their vassals with consistency, Theobald married Isabella, Louiss daughter, on 6 April 1255. Theobald acted as an advisor of Louis and Louis as an arbiter in Navarres internal problems. When Alfonso X of Castiles daughter Berengaria was betrothed to Louis IX of Frances son Louis, Castile ceded the use of the ports of Fuenterrabía, in July 1270, Theobald embarked with his father-in-law on the Eighth Crusade to Tunis.
Louis died of dysentery at the siege, Theobald died childless at Trapani in Sicily while returning that same year. He was succeeded by his brother, Henry I. His widow Isabella returned home to France, where she died a few months later, ciampolo, a soul found by Dante in the Inferno who defrauded Theobald
Raoul II/III of Clermont-Nesle was Seigneur of Nesle in Picardy, Viscount of Châteaudun, Grand Chamberlain of France and Constable of France. Raoul was the eldest son of Simon II of Clermont by Adele of Montfort and his father had a brother called Raoul, sometimes numbered II, causing confusion about the parentage of Raouls children, as either somehow might come into question. II and his nephew as Raoul IV, makes himself No, there are other issues with the genealogy, as discussed in the article about Simon II. Raoul de Clermont was one of the most important generals of King Louis IX of France and he participated in most campaigns of the King, including the Eighth Crusade against Tunis. Appointed Constable of France in 1285, he fought in the Aragonese Crusade and in the Franco-Flemish War against the County of Flanders, with Count Guy of Dampierre, the governor of Flanders, Jacques de Châtillon, put in place by the French king was Raouls in-law. His daughter Alix succeeded in Châteaudun but record about succession in Nesle is not present, Raoul married firstly in c.1268 Alix of Dreux, Viscountess of Châteaudun, daughter of Robert of Dreux, and Clemence, Viscountess of Châteaudun.
Raoul and Alix had three daughters, Viscountess of Châteaudun, Lady of Mondoubleau, called Alix of Clermont, Nesle or Beaumont. Alix married firstly 1286 to Guillaume IV of Flanders, Seigneur of Dendermonde, Crèvecoeur and Richebourg, son of Guy of Dampierre, Count of Flanders. They had six children, Guillaume/William, married to Marie of Vianden, daughter of Philip of Salm-Vianden, Herr of Rumpst, youngest son of Philip I, married to Gérard van Diest, Châtelain of Antwerpen and Otto of Cuijk. Marie of Dampierre, Viscountess of Châteaudun, married 1317 to Robert VII of Auvergne and had seven children, including Jean I, Count of Auvergne, Boulogne. Alice Jean/John married 1315 to Béatrice, daughter of Jacques de Châtillon, Seigneur of Richebourg, married after 1315 Marie of Enghien, daughter of Gerard of Enghien, Herr of Zottegem. Secondly, in 1321 Guy married Béatrice of Putten, daughter of Nikolaas III/IV, Lady of Semblançay, married Hugues of lArchévêque, Seigneur of Montfort-le-Rotrou, son of Guillaume VI of lArchévêque.
Béatrix, married Aymer de Valence, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, in January 1296 Raoul married secondly Isabelle of Hainault, daughter of John II, Count of Holland and Philippa of Luxembourg. Some genealogists attribute Isabelle and Béatrix to this second marriage
He is lord of Varennes, in Picardy. He was married to Yolande de Nesle, daughter of John II de Nesle, Count of Soissons, I sacrifice to God wealth, pleasure. I wanted to give you this last example and I hope you will follow it if circumstances dictate, the first part of the journey is hectic. The King sent Florent de Varennes as a scout towards the Sards, since their boats were genoan, antagonism made them unwelcome. Food was delivered against high costs On July 17, the arrived on the Tunisian coast. According to the secretary, Jean de Condé, reporting the episode. He finds an empty harbour with only a few Muslim and genoan merchant ships and he sends a mesenger to the king. The royal council is divided on the strategy to adopt, for some, it is a trap, for others, one should take advantage of the situation, Florent de Varennes, without referring to the King, desembarks his troops on the platform closing Tunis harbour. Although he is furious, the King joins with the rest of the crew, the operation is a capharnaum but hopefully, no ennemy showed up.
On July 21, one seized the tower of La Goulette, the Castle of Carthage is conquered by genoan sailors. Waiting for the reinforcement of Charles of Anjou, King of Sicily to attack Tunis, Florent de Varennes and John Tristan, Count of Valois, son of Louis IX are among the victims. Saint Louis expires too on August 25, by the time of the arrival of Charles of Anjou, the latter defeated the Saracens and signed a treaty with the Sultan on 30 October 1270. From Florent de Varennes to François Thomas Tréhouart, there has been 73 admirals of France
John II, known as Jean de Nesle and by the sobriquet le Bon et le Bègue, was the tenth Count of Soissons, succeeding his father Ralph the Good, in 1235. He was the son of his fathers wife, Yolande. By marriage he became Count of Chartres and Lord of Amboise and he was well-connected with the trouvères, his younger brother Raoul was one and he received the dedication of a song by Pierrekin de la Coupele. He was a cousin by marriage of the historian Jean de Joinville and he is not to be confused with John II of Nesle, the burggrave of Bruges. Johns first marriage was to Mary, the heiress of Roger du Thour et de Chimay and his wife Agnes. John and Mary confirmed donations to the Teutonic Knights in May 1234 and she left him a son, John III, who would succeed him. Johns second wife was Matilda, the daughter and eldest surviving child of Sulpice III of Amboise and Isabella, Matilda was the widow of Richard II, the viscount of Beaumont-sur-Sarthe. On Isabellas death in 1246, Chartres thus passed to Matilda, John, in 1230 he supported Blanche of Castile as regent for the young Louis IX, in opposition to Peter I, Duke of Brittany.
In 1231 he began a controversy over property with the leadership of Soissons. After imprisoning several ecclesiastics, Louis IX and the Archbishop of Reims, Henry of Dreux, in 1242 John supported Louis against the rebellious Hugh X of Lusignan and the invading Henry III of England in a conflict that became known as the Saintonge War. John joined the Seventh Crusade in 1248, on the day of the Battle of Mansurah he commented to Jean de Joinville that well speak about this day again, you and me, in the ladies chamber. He was captured by the Mamelukes in April 1250, but was soon freed, in 1265 John joined the army of Charles of Anjou that was heading to Italy to conquer the Kingdom of Sicily. He was in charge of the escort of Charles wife, Beatrice of Provence, in 1266 he fought in the Battle of Benevento on the winning side. In 1270 John joined the Eighth Crusade in Tunisia and died shortly after his return, nobility of the Paris region, Chapter 9. Nesle at the Medieval Lands Project
Philip of Montfort was a French nobleman, Count of Squillace in Italy from 1266/68, Lord of Castres in 1270. He was the son of Philip of Montfort, Lord of Tyre and Eleonore of Courtenay and his coat-of-arms was Gules, a lion rampant double queued argent, a label of four points azure. He joined the expedition of Charles of Anjou to conquer the Kingdom of Sicily and he led the Angevin troops into the island of Sicily after Benevento, and helped to put down the revolt that broke out there upon the advance of Conradin into Italy. On his father’s death in March 1270, he succeeded to his French seigneury of Castres and he joined the Eighth Crusade and died in Tunis. Charles I of Sicily Eighth Crusade Philip of Montfort, Lord of Tyre Runciman, coat of Arms in the Wijnbergen Roll
Thereafter, he claimed the island, though his power was restricted to the peninsular possessions of the kingdom, with his capital at Naples. Charles was the child and youngest son of Louis VIII of France and Blanche of Castile. He conquered the Kingdom of Sicily from the Hohenstaufen and acquired lands in the eastern Mediterranean, the War of the Sicilian Vespers forced him to abandon his plans to reassemble the Latin Empire. By marriage to Beatrice of Provence, heiress of Raymond Berengar IV of Provence, he was Count of Provence, in 1247, his brother Louis IX made him Count of Anjou and Maine, as appanages of the French crown. By conquest and self-proclamation, he became King of Albania in 1272, by the testament of William II of Villehardouin, he inherited the Principality of Achaea in 1278. Charles was born in March 1227, four months after the death of his father, like his immediate older brother, Philip Dagobert, he did not receive a county as appanage, as had their older brothers. In 1232, his brothers Philip Dagobert and John, Count of Anjou and Maine, Charles became the next in line to receive the Counties, but was formally invested only in 1247.
The affection of his mother Blanche seems largely to have bestowed upon his brother Louis. The self-reliance this engendered in Charles may account for the drive, upon his accession as Count of Provence and Forcalquier in 1246, Charles rapidly found himself in difficulties. Furthermore, while Provence was technically a part of the Burgundy and hence of the Holy Roman Empire, recent counts had governed with a light hand, and the nobilities and cities had enjoyed great liberties. Three cities, Marseille and Avignon were Imperial cities technically separate from the county. In 1247, while Charles was in France to receive the counties of Anjou and Maine, the local nobility joined with Beatrice, unfortunately for Charles, he had promised to join his brother on the Seventh Crusade. For the time being, Charles compromised with Beatrice, allowing her to have Forcalquier, rich Provence provided the funds that supported his wider career. His rights as landlord were, on the whole, of recent establishment, from the Church, unlike his brothers in the north, he received virtually nothing.
Charles agents were efficient, the towns were prosperous, the peasants were buying up the duties of corvée and establishing self-governing consulats in the villages, Charles sailed with the rest of the Crusaders from Aigues-Mortes in 1248 and fought at Damietta and in the struggle around Mansourah, Egypt. However, his piety does not seem to have matched that of his brother, during his absence, open rebellion had broken out in Provence. Charles moved to suppress it, and Arles, Marseille held out until July 1252, but sued for peace. Charles imposed a lenient peace, but insisted on the recognition of his full rights, in November 1252, the death of his mother Blanche of Castile caused him to go north to Paris and assume the joint regency of the kingdom with his brother Alphonse
Eleanor of Castile was an English queen, the first wife of Edward I, whom she married as part of a political deal to affirm English sovereignty over Gascony. The marriage was known to be close, and Eleanor travelled extensively with her husband. She was with him on the Eighth Crusade, when he was wounded at Acre, when she died, near Lincoln, her husband famously ordered a stone cross to be erected at each stopping-place on the journey to London, ending at Charing Cross. Eleanor was better educated than most medieval queens and exerted a strong influence on the nation. She was a patron of literature, and encouraged the use of tapestries and tableware in the Spanish style. She was a businesswoman, endowed with her own fortune as Countess of Ponthieu. Eleanor was born in Burgos, daughter of Ferdinand III of Castile and Joan and her Castilian name, became Alienor or Alianor in England, and Eleanor in modern English. She was named after her paternal great-grandmother, Eleanor of England, Eleanor was the second of five children born to Ferdinand and Joan.
Her elder brother Ferdinand was born in 1239/40, her younger brother Louis in 1242/43, for the ceremonies in 1291 marking the first anniversary of Eleanors death,49 candlebearers were paid to walk in the public procession to commemorate each year of her life. Since the custom was to have one candle for each year of the life,49 candles would date Eleanors birth to the year 1241. The courts of her father and her half-brother Alfonso X of Castile were known for their literary atmosphere and she was at her fathers deathbed in Seville in 1252. Eleanors marriage in 1254 to the future Edward I of England was not the first marriage her family planned for her. To avoid Castilian control, Margaret of Bourbon in August 1253 allied with James I of Aragon instead, Henry III of England swiftly countered Alfonsos claims with both diplomatic and military moves. The young couple married at the monastery of Las Huelgas, following the marriage they spent nearly a year in Gascony, with Edward ruling as lord of Aquitaine.
During this time Eleanor, aged thirteen and a half, almost certainly gave birth to her first child and she journeyed to England alone in late summer of 1255. Edward followed her a few months later, Henry III took pride in resolving the Gascon crisis so decisively, but his English subjects feared that the marriage would bring Eleanors kinfolk and countrymen to live off Henrys ruinous generosity. A few of her relatives did come to England soon after her marriage and she was too young to stop them or prevent Henry III from supporting them, but she was blamed anyway and her marriage soon became unpopular. Interestingly enough, Eleanors mother had been spurned in marriage by Henry III and her great-grandmother, Alys of France, there is little record of Eleanors life in England until the 1260s, when the Second Barons War, between Henry III and his barons, divided the kingdom
Geoffrey was Seigneur of Vaucouleurs in Champagne, second son of Simon de Joinville and Beatrix dAuxonne and younger brother of Jean de Joinville. Geoffreys half-sister was wife to one of Eleanor of Provences uncles, Peter of Savoy, Geoffrey was thus one of the Savoyards who arrived in England in the retinue of Eleanor at the time of her marriage to King Henry III in 1236. Geoffrey thus came to control vast estates in Ireland centred at Trim and Geoffrey had at least four sons, Simon and Peter. Geoffrey was both a military figure and political negotiator and he successfully pacified the Irish pro-Montfort and Royalist barons at this time that assisted the future Edward Is success at Evesham. In 1267 he assisted Henry III with negotiations with Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, with another of his brothers, William, he accompanied Edward on the Eighth Crusade in 1270, fought in Welsh Wars, and went on diplomatic missions to Paris. He served as justiciar of Ireland from 1273 to 1276 but had success against the Leinster Irish.
In 1280 he acted as Edwards envoy in Paris and to the papal curia, in 1282 he was assistant to the Marshal of England in the Welsh War of that year. In 1283 He granted his English lands to his son Peter and he and his wife defended their liberty rights in Trim against the Dublin government, and defined military duties for his tenants. In 1297 he supported Edward in the crisis caused by royal demands for men, Edward appointed Geoffrey as Marshal of England in place of the main dissenter Roger Bigod, Earl of Norfolk until the crisis was over. Geneville subsequently received a number of summonses to parliaments between February 1299 and November 1306, geoffreys wife and their eldest son pre-deceased him, Maud dying on 11 April 1304. In 1308, aged eighty, he conveyed most, but not all, of his Irish lordships to Roger Mortimer, husband of his eldest granddaughter and heir. He retired to the Dominican Black Friary at Trim, that he had established 1263 and he died 21 October 1314 and was buried there.
Upon his death Joan succeeded him as suo jure Baroness Geneville
Alphonse or Alfonso was the Count of Poitou from 1225 and Count of Toulouse from 1249. Born at Poissy, Alphonse was a son of Louis VIII, King of France and he was a younger brother of Louis IX of France and an older brother of Charles I of Sicily. In 1229, his mother, who was regent of France and it stipulated that a brother of King Louis was to marry Joan of Toulouse, daughter of Raymond VII of Toulouse, and so in 1237 Alphonse married her. Since she was Raymonds only child, they became rulers of Toulouse at Raymonds death in 1249, by the terms of his fathers will he received an appanage of Poitou and Auvergne. To enforce this Louis IX won the battle of Taillebourg in the Saintonge War together with Alphonse against a revolt allied with king Henry III of England, Alphonse took part in two crusades with his brother, St Louis, in 1248 and in 1270. For the first of these, he raised a large sum and he sailed for home on 10 August 1250. His father-in-law had died while he was away, and he went directly to Toulouse to take possession.
There was some resistance to his accession as count, which was suppressed with the help of his mother Blanche of Castile who was acting as regent in the absence of Louis IX, the county of Toulouse, since then, was joined to Alphonses appanage. In 1252, on the death of his mother, Blanche of Castile, aside from the crusades, Alphonse stayed primarily in Paris, governing his estates by officials, inspectors who reviewed the officials work, and a constant stream of messages. His main work was on his own estates, there he repaired the evils of the Albigensian war and made a first attempt at administrative centralization, thus preparing the way for union with the crown. The charter known as Alphonsine, granted to the town of Riom and he is noted for ordering the first recorded local expulsion of Jews, when he did so in Poitou in 1249. When Louis IX again engaged in a crusade, Alphonse again raised a sum of money. This time, however, he did not return to France, dying while on his way back, probably at Savona in Italy, Alphonses death without heirs raised some questions as to the succession to his lands.
One possibility was that they should revert to the crown, another that they should be redistributed to his family. The latter was claimed by Charles of Anjou, but in 1283 Parlement decided that the County of Toulouse should revert to the crown, Alphonses wife Joan had attempted to dispose of some of her inherited lands in her will. But, her will was invalidated by Parlement in 1274, one specific bequest in Alphonses will, giving his wifes lands in the Comtat Venaissin to the Holy See, was allowed, and it became a Papal territory, a status that it retained until 1791. Hallam, Elizabeth M. Capetian France, 987-1328, women rulers throughout the ages, an illustrated guide. The Feudal Monarchy in France and England from the Tenth to the Thirteenth Century, in R. L. Wolff, H. W. Hazard
Isabella, infanta of Aragon, was by marriage Queen consort of France from 1270 to 1271. Isabella was the daughter of King James I of Aragon and his second wife Violant of Hungary, in Clermont on 28 May 1262, Isabella married the future Philip III of France, son of Louis IX and Margaret of Provence. They had four sons, Louis Philip IV the Fair, King of France Robert Charles, on their way home, they stopped in Cosenza, Calabria. Six months pregnant with her child, on 11 January 1271 she suffered a fall from her horse after they had resumed the trip back to France. Isabella gave birth to a stillborn son. She never recovered from her injuries and the childbirth, and died seventeen days and her husband took her body and their stillborn son and, when he finally returned to France, buried her in the Basilica of St Denis. Her tomb, like others, was desecrated during the French Revolution in 1793. Los testamentos de Jaime I, Repartos territoriales y turbulencias políticas, Centro de Estudios de Monzón y Cinca Media, 61–90.