Category:Christians of the Seventh Crusade
Pages in category "Christians of the Seventh Crusade"
The following 26 pages are in this category, out of 26 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 26 pages are in this category, out of 26 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
Margaret of Provence was Queen of France as the wife of King Louis IX. Margaret was born in the spring of 1221 in Forcalquier and she was the eldest of four daughters of Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence, and Beatrice of Savoy. Her younger sisters were Queen Eleanor of England, Queen Sanchia of Germany and she was especially close to Eleanor, to whom she was close in age, and with whom she sustained friendly relationships until they grew old. Margaret and her father entertained the knight well, and soon Blanche was negotiating with the count of Provence, Margaret was chosen as a good match for the king more for her religious devotion and courtly manner than her beauty. She was escorted to Lyon by her parents for the treaty to be signed. From there, she was escorted to her wedding in Sens by her uncles from Savoy, William, on 27 May 1234 at the age of thirteen, Margaret became wife of Louis IX of France and queen consort of France. She was crowned the following day, the wedding and her coronation as queen were celebrated at the cathedral of Sens.
The marriage was a one in numerous aspects. Blanche still wielded strong influence over her son, and would throughout her life, as a sign of her authority, shortly after the wedding Blanche dismissed Margarets uncles and all of the servants she had brought with her from her childhood. Margaret resented Blanche and vice versa from the beginning, like her sisters, was noted for her beauty, she was said to be pretty with dark hair and fine eyes, and in the early years of their marriage she and Louis enjoyed a warm relationship. Her Franciscan confessor, William de St. Pathus, related that on cold nights Margaret would place a robe around Louis shoulders and they enjoyed riding together and listening to music. The attentions of the king and court being drawn to the new queen only made Blanche more jealous, Margaret accompanied Louis on Seventh Crusade. Though initially the crusade met with success, like the capture of Damietta in 1249, it became a disaster after the kings brother was killed. Queen Margaret was responsible for negotiations and gathering enough silver for his ransom and she was thus for a brief time the only woman ever to lead a crusade.
In 1250, while in Damietta, where she earlier in the year successfully maintained order. She convinced some of those who had been about to leave to remain in Damietta, when she realized her mistake, she burst into laughter and ordered the messenger, Tell your master evil days await him, for he has made me kneel to his camelines. However, Joinville remarked with noticeable disapproval that Louis rarely asked after his wife, Margaret could only reply that she dared not make such a vow without the kings permission, because when he discovered that she had done so, he would never let her make the pilgrimage. In the end, Joinville promised her that if she made the vow he would make the pilgrimage for her, and her leadership during the crusade had brought her international prestige and after she returned to France, Margaret was often asked to mediate disputes
Robert I, called the Good, was the first Count of Artois, the fifth son of Louis VIII of France and Blanche of Castile. He received Artois as an appanage, in accordance with the will of his father on attaining his majority in 1237. In 1240 Pope Gregory IX, in conflict with the Emperor Frederick II, offered to crown Robert as emperor in opposition to Frederick, on 14 June 1237 Robert married Matilda, daughter of Henry II of Brabant and Marie of Hohenstaufen. They had two children, Blanche Robert II, who succeeded to Artois, while participating in the Seventh Crusade, Robert died while leading a reckless attack on Al Mansurah, without the knowledge of his brother King Louis IX. He and the Templars after fording a river, charged a Mamluk outpost in which the Mamluk commander, enbolded by his success, the Templar knights, and a contingent of English troops charged into the town and became trapped in the narrow streets. According to Jean de Joinville, he defended himself for some time in a house there, Jean Dunbabin, Charles I of Anjou, Power and State-Making in Thirteenth-Century, Routledge,2014.
Jean-François Nieus, Un pouvoir comtal entre Flandre et France, Saint-Pol, 1000-1300, a History of the Crusades, Vol. II, ed. Kenneth M. Setton, University of Wisconsin,1969, Charles T. Wood, The French Apanages and the Capetian Monarchy, Harvard University Press,1966
John I of Dreux, Count of Dreux and Braine, was the son of Robert III of Dreux and Annora of Saint-Valéry. Knighted by King Louis IX of France, he accompanied the king on campaigns, firstly in Poitou in 1242. In 1249 he joined the king on the Seventh Crusade to Egypt, in 1240 he married Marie, daughter of Archambaud VIII of Bourbon. They had three children, Robert IV, succeeded his father, became the second wife of John I, Count of Dammartin. Rerum Britannicarum medii aevi scriptores, Vol.44, Part 3, sir Frederic Madden, Green, and Co,1869. Richard of Devizes and Geoffrey de Vinsauf, Chronicles of the crusades, George Bell and Sons,1903
Louis IX, commonly known as Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 until his death. Louis was crowned in Reims at the age of 12, following the death of his father Louis VIII the Lion, although his mother, Blanche of Castile, ruled the kingdom until he reached maturity. During Louiss childhood, Blanche dealt with the opposition of rebellious vassals, as an adult, Louis IX faced recurring conflicts with some of the most powerful nobles, such as Hugh X of Lusignan and Peter of Dreux. Simultaneously, Henry III of England tried to restore his continental possessions and his reign saw the annexation of several provinces, notably Normandy and Provence. Louis IX was a reformer and developed French royal justice, in which the king is the judge to whom anyone is able to appeal to seek the amendment of a judgment. He banned trials by ordeal, tried to prevent the private wars that were plaguing the country, to enforce the correct application of this new legal system, Louis IX created provosts and bailiffs.
According to his vow made after an illness, and confirmed after a miraculous cure. He was succeeded by his son Philip III, Louiss actions were inspired by Christian values and Catholic devotion. He decided to punish blasphemy, interest-bearing loans and prostitution and he expanded the scope of the Inquisition and ordered the burning of Talmuds. He is the only canonized king of France, and there are many places named after him. Much of what is known of Louiss life comes from Jean de Joinvilles famous Life of Saint Louis, two other important biographies were written by the kings confessor, Geoffrey of Beaulieu, and his chaplain, William of Chartres. The fourth important source of information is William of Saint-Parthus biography, while several individuals wrote biographies in the decades following the kings death, only Jean of Joinville, Geoffrey of Beaulieu, and William of Chartres wrote from personal knowledge of the king. Louis was born on 25 April 1214 at Poissy, near Paris, the son of Prince Louis the Lion and Princess Blanche, and baptised in La Collégiale Notre-Dame church.
His grandfather on his fathers side was Philip II, king of France, while his grandfather on his mothers side was Alfonso VIII, tutors of Blanches choosing taught him most of what a king must know—Latin, public speaking, military arts, and government. He was 9 years old when his grandfather Philip II died, a member of the House of Capet, Louis was twelve years old when his father died on 8 November 1226. He was crowned king within the month at Reims cathedral, because of Louiss youth, his mother ruled France as regent during his minority. Louis mother trained him to be a leader and a good Christian. She used to say, I love you, my son, as much as a mother can love her child
Peter I, known as Peter Mauclerc, was Duke of Brittany jure uxoris from 1213 to 1221, and regent of the duchy for his minor son John I from 1221 to 1237. As duke he was 1st Earl of Richmond from 1218 to 1235, Peter was the second son of Robert II, Count of Dreux and Yolande de Coucy. The latter was in turn the son of Robert I of Dreux, Peter was thus a Capetian, a second cousin of Louis VIII of France. Despite being of descent, as the younger son of a cadet branch Peters early prospects were that of a minor noble, with a few scattered fiefs in the Île-de-France. He was initially destined for a career in the clergy, which he renounced and he broke the convention of ecclesiastical heraldry by placing on the canton of his paternal arms the ermine, reserved for the clergy. In 1212 King Philip II of France needed to find a weak, the duchy lay athwart the sea lanes between England and the English territories in Gascony. Furthermore, it bordered on Anjou and Normandy, which the English had lost ten or twelve years before and were eager to recover and it was being ruled with less than a strong hand by Guy of Thouars, as regent for his young daughter Alix.
Also worrisome was that Alixs older half-sister Eleanor, Fair Maid of Brittany, was in an English prison, King Philip thus broke off the betrothal of Alix and the Breton lord Henry of Penthièvre, and turned to his French cousin Peter, in his early twenties. Peter married Alix, and on 27 January 1213, paid homage to the king for Brittany, there is some ambiguity regarding whether Peter should be considered duke or count. The duchy was held by his wife. The King of France and the Pope always addressed him as count, in 1214 King John of England had assembled a formidable coalition against the French. He landed in Poitou while King Otto of Germany prepared to invade from the north, John chased off some French forces in the north of Poitou, and moved to the southern edge of Brittany, opposite Nantes. Peter drove him off after a skirmish but did nothing to hinder Johns subsequent movement up the Loire valley where he took a few Breton fortresses. Johns Poitevin vassals, refused to fight against a French force led by the King of Frances son Louis, Ottos army was crushed at Bouvines, and the entire invasion foundered.
It is not clear why John attempted to capture Nantes, even less why he would do so the hardest way, nor is it clear why Peter declined to harass his forces from the rear as John marched east. A likely explanation is that the two had come to sort of agreement whereby John would leave Brittany alone for the moment. John had a prize he could dangle in front of Peter, Peter did not yield to King Johns offers to accept the earldom and take up the Kings side in his conflicts with the English barons, probably because he deemed the Kings prospects too uncertain. Moreover, Louis was again fighting against the English, but when Louis was defeated, Peter was sent as one of the negotiators for a peace treaty
John of Ibelin, count of Jaffa and Ascalon, was a noted jurist and the author of the longest legal treatise from the Kingdom of Jerusalem. He was the son of Philip of Ibelin, bailli of the Kingdom of Cyprus, and Alice of Montbéliard, and was the nephew of John of Ibelin, the Old Lord of Beirut. To distinguish him from his uncle and other members of the Ibelin family named John and his family was the first branch of Ibelins to have their seat in Cyprus, due to his fathers regency there 1218-1227. In 1229 John fled Cyprus with his family when Frederick II and they settled temporarily in northern Palestine, where the family had holdings. He was present at the Battle of Casal Imbert in 1232, around 1240 he married Maria of Barbaron, the sister of Hethum I of Armenia and sister-in-law of King Henry I of Cyprus. In 1241 he was responsible for drafting a compromise between the Ibelins and the emperor, in which Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester would govern the kingdom. Shortly thereafter, sometime between 1246 and the beginning of the Seventh Crusade, John became count of Jaffa and Ascalon and lord of Ramla.
This probably occurred when king Henry, Johns first cousin, became regent of Jerusalem, Jaffa was by now a minor port and Ascalon was captured from the Knights Hospitaller by the Mamluks in 1247. In 1249 John joined the Seventh Crusade and participated in Louis IX of Frances capture of Damietta, Louis was taken prisoner when Damietta was recaptured, but John seems to have escaped the same fate. Louis was released in 1252 and moved his army to Jaffa, Louis constable and chronicler Jean de Joinville portrays John very favourably, he describes Johns coat-of-arms as a fine thing to see. or with a cross pateé gules. John was by now an extremely famous lord in the east, corresponding with Henry III of England and Pope Innocent IV, Henry I died in 1253, and Louis IX left for France in 1254, leaving John as bailli of Jerusalem. John made peace with Damascus and used the forces of Jerusalem to attack Ascalon, John marched out and defeated them, and after this victory he gave up the bailliage to his cousin John of Arsuf.
Meanwhile, the Genoese and Venetian trading communities in Acre came into conflict, in order to bring some order back to the kingdom and Bohemund VI of Antioch summoned Dowager Queen Plaisance of Cyprus to take over the regency of the kingdom for the absentee king, Conradin. Nevertheless, the Venetians defeated the Genoese in a battle in 1258. Johns wife and children were believed to have been living apart from him at the time, Maria was visiting her family in Cilicia in 1256 and 1263, and died after visiting her father, Constantine of Baberon, on his own deathbed. John could do little while Baibars, the Mamluk sultan of Egypt, Baibars may have reduced Jaffa to vassalage, and certainly used its port to transport food to Egypt. Johns truce with Baibars did not last, and he died in 1266. By 1268 Baibars had captured Jaffa
William of Rubruck was a Flemish Franciscan missionary and explorer. His account is one of the masterpieces of medieval geographical literature comparable to that of Marco Polo, born in Rubrouck, Flanders, he is known as William of Rubruk, Willem van Ruysbroeck, Guillaume de Rubrouck or Willielmus de Rubruquis. He travelled to places of the Mongol Empire in Asia before his return to Europe. William accompanied King Louis IX of France on the Seventh Crusade in 1248, on May 7,1253, on Louis orders, he set out from Constantinople on a missionary journey to convert the Tatars to Christianity. He actually followed the route of the first journey of the Hungarian Friar Julian, after reaching the Crimean town of Sudak, William continued his trek with oxen and carts. Nine days after crossing the Don he met Sartaq Khan, ruler of the Kipchak Khanate, the Khan sent William on to his father, Batu Khan, at Sarai near the Volga. Five weeks later, after the departure from Sudak, he reached the encampment of Batu Khan, Batu refused conversion but sent the ambassadors on to the Great Khan of the Mongols, Möngke Khan.
He and his companions set off on horseback on September 16,1253 on a 9,000 km journey to the court of the Great Khan at Karakorum. Upon arrival they were received courteously, and he was given an audience on January 4,1254, Williams account provided an extensive description of the citys walls and temples, and the separate quarters for Muslim and Chinese craftsmen among a surprisingly cosmopolitan population. He stayed at the Khans camp until July 10,1254, William and his companions reached the Crusader State of Tripoli on August 15,1255. William of Rubrucks was the fourth European mission to the Mongols, previous ones were led by Giovanni da Pian del Carpine and Ascelin of Lombardia in 1245, the King was encouraged to send another mission by reports of the presence of Nestorian Christians at the Mongolian court. In this report, he described the peculiarities of Mongolia as well as many geographical observations, there were anthropological observations, such as his surprise at the presence of Islam in Inner Asia.
Williams report is divided into 40 chapters, chapters 1-10 relate general observations about the Mongols and their customs. Chapters from 11 to 40 give an account of the course, the report of William of Rubruck is one of the great masterpieces of medieval geographical literature, comparable to that of Marco Polo, although they are very different. William was an observer, and an excellent writer. He asked many questions along the way and did not take folk tale and fable as truth, a Chinese participated with William in the competition. Rubrucks account was edited and translated into English by Richard Hakluyt in 1598-1600. The full account was published by the Société de Géographie in the Recueil de voyages et de mémoires, an English translation by William Woodville Rockhill, The Journey of William of Rubruk to the Eastern Parts, was published by the Hakluyt Society in 1900
John Tristan was a French prince of the Capetian dynasty. He was jure uxoris Count of Nevers from 1265 to 1270, Count of Auxerre and Tonnerre and Count of Valois, John was born in Damietta, Egypt. He was the child and the fourth son of king Louis IX of France, called St. Louis after canonization. Moreover, he was the first of three children of this couple who were born during the Seventh Crusade. He was born at the Egyptian port town of Damietta which had been conquered by the crusaders in 1249, according to chronicler Jean de Joinville, an old knight acted as midwife during Johns birth. Two days prior to his birth, the king was captured by the Mamluks which was the reason to name the child Tristan due to the triste occasion and he was baptised in the grand mosque of Damietta that had been re-consecrated into a church. One month later, Damietta had to be abandoned, John subsequently spent his childhood in the Holy Land where his siblings Peter and Blanche were born. His father wished that John joined the Dominican Order, but John resisted this wish successfully, in 1266, he was married to Yolande II, Countess of Nevers, making him Count of Nevers and Tonnere.
In 1268, John was made Count of Valois and Crépy on his own right by his father the king, two years later, John accompanied his father during the Eighth Crusade, which reached Tunis in July after setting out from Cagliari on Sardinia. But at Tunis the army suffered an outbreak of dysentery, John Tristan was one of the victims who died of it, and three weeks later, St. Louis succumbed to the disease. Both bodies were transported to France and buried in the Basilica of St Denis and his widow married again in 1272 with Robert III of Flanders, the county of Valois, his prerogative, returned to the Crown
Alphonso of Brienne or Alphonse I de Brienne, called Alphonse dAcre was the son of John of Brienne and Berengaria of León, born in Acre. He was the Grand Butler of France in 1258, by his marriage to Marie, Countess of Eu he became Count of Eu. He was Grand Chamberlain of France, and died in Tunis on the Seventh Crusade and he had at least two children by Marie, John I of Brienne, Count of Eu Blanche, Abbess of Maubuisson
Guillaume de Sonnac was Grand Master of the Knights Templar from 1247 to 1250. Sonnac was born to a family in the French region of Rouergue. No date of birth survives for the Grand Master and he was described by Matthew Paris as a discreet and circumspect man, who was skilled and experienced in the affairs of war. De Sonnac was an member of the order before his election as Grand Master. He was the Preceptor of Aquitaine in France for the Templars and arrived in the Holy Land around autumn of 1247, finding the remnants of the Kingdom of Jerusalem in a precarious state. Grand Master Armand de Périgord had been taken prisoner at the Battle of La Forbie in 1244, before his first year in the East was out, he was the orders new leader. De Sonnacs tenure was a violent one. By 1247, the Christians had lost power bases in Tiberias, Mount Tabor and this prompted a fresh campaign from King Louis IX of France, who landed at Limassol, Cyprus on 17 September 1248. De Sonnac sailed from Acre to meet him and make preparations, shortly after, the new Grand Master received an Emir from the Sultan, offering the crusaders a peace deal.
De Sonnac related this to the French King, who ordered him to any negotiations without gaining Royal permission first. This ensured the new campaign would be concluded with violence, not diplomacy, on 5 June 1249, the French crusader army, combined with de Sonnac and his Templar knights, attempted to land in Egypt. They targeted Damietta, just as the Fifth Crusade had years earlier, fighting on the Egyptian beaches was heavy and the King fought in waist-high water alongside the troops. After a prolonged battle, the Muslims were forced to retreat, De Sonnacs next engagement was at the Battle of Mansurah, for the city containing the areas defensive force, the last obstacle to central Egypt. The Muslims had been protected by the swollen Nile, but on 8 February 1250, De Sonnac, Robert of Artois, the Kings brother and William II Longespee, leader of the English troops, launched an assault on the Muslim force without the main Frankish army. Taken by surprise, the Egyptians quickly retreated from the riverbank into the city, john of Joinville claimed that the Count meant to follow on his own and that the rest of the raiding party did so as to not look cowardly.
The Templars thought that they would be dishonored if they allowed the Count to go before them, another source, Matthew Paris, reported that de Sonnac was forced into the assault by the Count. Robert was bellowing and swearing disgracefully as is the French custom, disgusted, de Sonnac returned to his men and prepared to chase down the numerically superior enemy. Whatever the fact, the three commanders charged into Mansurah with tired men and no reinforcements and were drawn into heavy fighting