Ecuadorian centavo coins
Ecuadorian centavo coins were introduced in 2000 when Ecuador converted its currency from the sucre to the U. S. dollar. The coins are in denominations of 1,5,10,25 and 50 centavos and are identical in size and they circulate within Ecuador alongside coins and banknotes from the USA. Although U. S. $1 coins are used in the U. S. they are commonly used in Ecuador. Ecuador managed to introduce a $1 coin but finally decided to not release in common circulation, Ecuador does not issue any banknotes, relying on U. S. issues. The exception is the one-cent coin, which rather than bearing a portrait, is printed with a map of the Americas and bears the legend Ecuador, coins bear the date Año 20xx, beginning in 2000, the largest proportion of coins in circulation are from the 2000 minting. With the exception of the one-cent coin, the coins are silver-colored, the coins are minted by the Royal Canadian Mint and the Casa de Moneda de Mexico. Centavo - article about the use of centavos worldwide Currency of Ecuador
The peso is the currency of Argentina, identified by the symbol $ preceding the amount in the same way as many countries using dollar currencies. It is subdivided into 100 centavos and its ISO4217 code is ARS. Several earlier currencies of Argentina were called peso, as inflation progressed a new currency with a few zeroes dropped, since 1970, thirteen zeroes have been dropped. As of October 2014, the rate was about 8 pesos per dollar, by February 2015, it was 10 per US dollar. The peso introduced in 1992 is just called peso, and is preceded by a $ sign only. The peso was an often used for the silver Spanish eight-real coin. Following independence, Argentina began issuing its own coins, denominated in reales and escudos and these coins, together with those from neighbouring countries, circulated until 1881. In 1826, two paper money issues began, denominated in pesos, the peso fuerte was a convertible currency, with 17 pesos fuertes equal to one Spanish ounce of 0.916 fine gold. It was replaced by the peso moneda nacional at par in 1881, the non-convertible peso moneda corriente was introduced in 1826.
It started at par with the peso fuerte, but depreciated with time, although the Argentine Confederation issued 1-, 2- and 4-centavo coins in 1854, with 100 centavos equal to 1 peso =8 reales, Argentina did not decimalize until 1881. The peso moneda nacional replaced the earlier currencies at the rate of 1 peso moneda nacional =8 reales =1 peso fuerte =25 peso moneda corriente, one peso moneda nacional coin was made of silver and known as patacón. However, the 1890 economic crisis ensured that no silver coins were issued. At the beginning of the 20th century, the Argentine peso was one of the most traded currencies in the world. The Argentine gold coin from 1875 was the gold peso fuerte and two-thirds of a gram of gold of fineness 900, equivalent to one and this unit was based on that recommended by the European Congress of Economists in Paris in 1867 and adopted by Japan in 1873. The monetary system before 1881 has been described as anarchistic. Law 1130 of 1881 put an end to this, it established the unit as the peso oro sellado, a coin of 1.612 grams of gold of fineness 900.
Gold coins of 5 and 2.5 pesos were to be used, silver coins of one peso and 50,20,10 and 5 centavos, the depreciated peso moneda corriente was replaced in 1881 by the paper peso moneda nacional at a rate of 25 to 1. This currency was used from 1881 until January 1,1970 The design was changed in 1899, initially the peso m$n was convertible, with a value of one peso oro sellado
The kyat is the currency of Burma. It is often abbreviated as K or Ks, which is placed before or after the numerical value, from 2001-2012, the official exchange rate varied between 5.75 and 6.70 kyats per US dollar. However, the rate, which more accurately took into account the standing of the national economy, has varied from 750 kyats to 1335 kyats per USD. The black market exchange rates decrease during the peak of the tourist season in Burma, on 2 April 2012, the Central Bank of Myanmar announced that the value of the kyat against the US dollar would float, setting an initial rate of K818 per US dollar. The kyat was a denomination of silver and gold coinages in Burma until 1889. It was divided into 20 pe, each of 4 pya, with the mu and mat worth 2 and 4 pe, nominally,16 silver kyats equal 1 gold kyat. The silver kyat was equivalent to the Indian rupee, which replaced the kyat after Burma was conquered by the British, when the Japanese occupied Burma in 1942, they introduced a currency based on the rupee.
This was replaced by banknotes in all kyat denominations and this kyat was subdivided into 100 cents. The currency became worthless at the end of the war when the Burmese rupee was reintroduced in 1945, the present kyat was introduced on 1 July 1952. It replaced the rupee at par, decimalisation took place, with the kyat subdivided into 100 pya. In 1852, the second last king of Burma, the dies were made in Paris. Silver coins were minted in denominations of 1 pe,1 mu,1 mat,5 mu and 1 kyat, the obverses bore the Royal Peacock Seal, from which the coins got their name. The reverse contained the denomination and mint date, in the 1860s and 1870s, lead coins were issued for 1⁄8 and 1⁄4 pya, with copper, brass and iron 1⁄4 pe and copper 2 pya. Further gold coins were issued in 1866 for 1 pe, 2 1⁄2 mu and 1 kyat, no coins were issued for this currency. In 1956, coins were introduced for 1,5,10,25 and 50 pyas and 1 kyat, in 1966, all coins were redesigned to feature Aung San on the obverse and were all changed in composition to aluminium.
Furthermore, the coins were reduced in size. However, they retained the same shapes and overall appearance of the series of coins. These were circulated until being discontinued in 1983, in 1983, a new series of coins was issued in bronze or brass 5,10,25,50 pyas and cupro-nickel 1 kyat
The Dominican peso is the currency of the Dominican Republic. Its symbol is $, with RD$ used when distinction from other pesos is required, each peso is divided into 100 centavos, for which the ¢ symbol is used. It is the currency that is legal tender in the Dominican Republic for all monetary transactions. The first Dominican peso was introduced with the independence from Haiti in 1844. It replaced the Haitian gourde at par and was divided into 8 reales, the Dominican Republic decimalized in 1877, subdividing the peso into 100 centavos. A second currency, the franco, was issued between 1891 and 1897 but did not replace the peso, however, in 1905, the peso was replaced by the U. S. dollar, at a rate of 5 pesos to the dollar. The peso oro was introduced in 1937 at par with the U. S. dollar, only one denomination of coin was issued by the Dominican Republic before decimalization. This was the ¼ real, issued in 1844 in bronze, decimalization in 1877 brought about the introduction of three new coins, the 1, 2½ and 5 centavos. 1¼ centavo coins were issued between 1882 and 1888.
After the franco was abandoned, silver coins were introduced in 1897 in denominations of 10 and 20 centavos, the designs of these coins were very similar to those of the franco. OLDER COINS Coins were introduced in 1937 in denominations of 1,5,10,25 centavos, all coins bore the national arms on the reverse while all except the 1 centavo bore a crowned allegorical Indian head on the obverse. The 1 centavo instead depicted a tree, the symbol of the ruling Dominican Party. The coins were all of identical weights and composition to U. S. coins of the era. Two denominations appeared on coins, one in centavos or pesos. A two coin set of 1955 commemorative coins were minted for the 25th anniversary of Rafael Trujillos reign and these consisted of a gold 30 peso and a silver one peso, both showing him in profile. 50,000 of the one peso coins were produced in issued into circulation. In 1963 the silver content in the 10,25,50, the 1963 issue distinctively commemorated the centennial of the republic and the crowned Indian head was added to the 1 centavo, replacing the palm.
After 1963 the Peso Oro became a currency and base metals replaced silver in the higher denominations, with the 10
Cape Verdean escudo
The escudo is the currency of the Republic of Cape Verde. Amounts are generally written by using the cifrão as the separator, such as 2000 for 20 escudos. The escudo became the currency of Cape Verde in 1914 and it replaced the Cape Verdean real at a rate of 1000 réis =1 escudo. Until 1930, Cape Verde used Portuguese coins, although banknotes were issued by the Banco Nacional Ultramarino specifically for Cape Verde beginning in 1865, until independence in 1975, the Cape Verde escudo was equal to the Portuguese escudo. Subsequently it depreciated, declining by about 30 per cent in 1977-8, thereafter, it remained fairly stable against the Portuguese escudo. In mid-1998 an agreement with Portugal established a rate of 1 Portuguese escudo =0.55 Cape Verdean escudo. Since the replacement of the Portuguese escudo with the euro, the Cape Verdean escudo has been pegged to the euro at a rate of 1 euro = 110$265 and this peg is supported by a credit facility from the Portuguese government. Under Portuguese rule, coins were introduced in 1930 in denominations of 5,10,20 and 50 centavos and 1 escudo, the 5,10 and 20 centavos were struck in bronze whilst the 50 centavos and 1 escudo were in nickel-bronze.
In 1953, bronze 1 escudo, nickel-bronze 2½ escudos and silver 10 escudos were introduced, followed by bronze 50 centavos, after independence, coins were issued in 1977 in denominations of 20 and 50 centavos,1, 2½,10,20 and 50 escudos. The centavo coins were aluminium, the 1 and 2½ escudos were nickel-bronze, as inflation persisted the centavo coins progressively disappeared from circulation and by the time the coinage was revamped the 1 escudo coin was the smallest in circulation. The present coinage was introduced in 1994, the smallest was a brass-plated-steel 1 escudo, though the 1 escudo doesnt circulate well and vendors tend to round to the nearest five in practice. This coin comes in one style, featuring a sea turtle, while the other denominations came with three topical styles. These are the copper-plated-steel 5 escudos, nickel-plated-steel 10,20 and 50 escudos, the three congruent design series had one featuring native animals, the second was of historical ships with their names included, and the last was of native plants and ferns.
Heptagonal 200 escudo coins have been issued in 1995 to commemorate the 50th anniversary of FAO and 20 years of independence, another 200 escudo coin, this time round was issued in 2005 to commemorate the 30th anniversary of independence. Circulation of the 200 escudo coin is not quite as widespread as the other denominations, in 1914, the Banco Nacional Ultramarino introduced notes in denominations of 4,5,10,20 and 50 centavos. In 1921, notes for 1,5,10,20,50 and 100 escudos were issued, the next series of notes, introduced in 1945, omitted all denominations below 5 escudos and included 500 escudo notes. 10 escudo notes were replaced by coins in 1953, with the 5 escudo note withdrawn, after independence on 5 July 1975, notes were issued for 100,500, and 1000 escudos on 1 July 1977. The next series of notes was introduced in 1989 and consisted of 100,200,500,1000 and 2500 escudos, the third series was introduced in 1992 in denominations of 200,500,1000, with the addition in 1999 of 2000 and 5000 escudo notes
The franc is the currency of Burundi. It is nominally subdivided into 100 centimes, although coins have never issued in centimes since Burundi began issuing its own currency. Only during the period when Burundi used the Belgian Congo franc were centime coins issued, the franc became the currency of Burundi in 1916, when Belgium occupied the former German colony and replaced the German East African rupie with the Belgian Congo franc. Burundi used the currency of Belgian Congo until 1960, when the Rwanda, Burundi began issuing its own francs in 1964. There are plans to introduce a currency, a new East African shilling. In 1965, the Bank of the Kingdom of Burundi issued brass 1 franc coins, in 1968, Bank of the Republic of Burundi took over the issuance of coins and introduced aluminum 1 and 5 francs and cupro-nickel 10 francs. The 5 and 10 francs have continuous milled edges, second types of the 1 and 5 franc coins were introduced in 1976, featuring the coat of arms. In 2011 new 10 and 50 franc coins were introduced and these were followed in 1964 and 1965 by regular issues in the same denominations by the Banque du Royaume du Burundi.
In 1966, notes for 20 francs and above were overprinted by the Bank of the Republic of Burundi, regular issues of this bank began in denominations of 10,20,50,100,500,1,000 and 5,000 francs. 10 francs were replaced by coins in 1968,2,000 franc notes were introduced in 2001, followed by 10,000 francs in 2004. Photographer Kelly Fajacks image of school kids in Burundi was used on the back of the Burundian 10,000 franc note, on 3 January 2006, the franc was valued at 925 per $1. On January 1,2008, the franc was valued at 1,129.40 per US dollar, on January 1,2009, the franc was valued at 1,234.33 per U. S. dollar. On 10 July, the franc was valued at 1,587.60 per US dollar Economy of Burundi
The birr is the unit of currency in Ethiopia. Before 1976, dollar was the official English translation of birr, today, it is officially birr in English as well. Thus, the currency could be considered the Abyssinian birr and the post-1931 currency the Ethiopian birr, although it was the same country. 186 billion birr were in circulation in 2008, in the 18th and 19th centuries, Maria Theresa thalers and blocks of salt called amole tchew served as currency in Ethiopia. The thaler was known locally as the Birr or ታላሪ taleri, the Maria Theresa thaler was officially adopted as the standard coin in 1855, although the Indian rupee and the Mexican dollar were used in foreign trade. The talari became the unit on 9 February 1893 and 200,000 dollars were produced at the Paris Mint in 1894 for Menelik II. The talari, equivalent to the Maria Theresa thaler, was divided into 20 ghersh or 40 bessa, a new Ethiopian coinage appeared about 1903. The new silver birr maintained the weight and fineness as the old, but there was now a quarter-birr and a silver ghersh.
The money of account now became 1 birr =16 ghersh =32 bessa, the Bank of Abyssinia was established in 1905 by Emperor Menelik and the European banking group behind the National Bank of Egypt, the bank was officially inaugurated by Menelik on 15 February 1906. The Ethiopian coinage gained acceptance only gradually, and Bank of Abyssinia imported Maria Theresa thalers, by the time World War One broke out, the bank was still importing about 1,200,000 of these coins annually. Bank of Abyssinia put banknotes into circulation in 1915 and these notes were denominated birr in Amharic and thaler in English. They were used by merchants and by foreigners but were not initially accepted generally, Note circulation increased considerably after 1925. Emperor Haile Selassie bought out the Bank of Abyssinia in 1931 for £235,000 in order to make it a purely Ethiopian institution and it was reorganized as Bank of Ethiopia. At the same time, the currency was decimalized and token nickel and copper coins were introduced, the text on the banks notes appeared in Amharic and French.
By the mid-1930s circulation consisted chiefly of Maria Theresa and Menelik talari. In an effort to increase the use of Italian paper money, the rate for silver coin was raised to 4.50 lire, to 5.00. Still, many kept their Ethiopian coins and banknotes. Regular Italian coins and banknotes of Banca dItalia circulated after 15 July 1936, special notes with a red overprint were authorized for Italian East Africa on 12 September 1938, and a large quantity was printed
The apsar is a currency of Abkhazia. So far, only coins in denominations of 10,25 and 50 apsars have been issued, while the coins are legal tender in the Republic of Abkhazia, their usage is very limited, and the coins are mostly made for collectors. In Abkhazia, the Russian ruble is used in practice, the first apsar coins were introduced in 2008. The Bank of Abkhazia is responsible for the coins, and has so far issued two series, Outstanding personalities of Abkhazia and The patriotic war of the Abkhaz nation 1992–1993. The number of coins produced is low,2,000 silver coins are minted and 1,000 gold coins, Coins minted by the Bank of Abkhazia Coins of Abkhazia at CISCoins. net
The krone is the official currency of Denmark and the Faroe Islands, introduced on 1 January 1875. Both the ISO code DKK and currency sign kr. are in use, the former precedes the value. The currency is referred to as the Danish crown in English. Historically, krone coins have been minted in Denmark since the 17th century, one krone is subdivided into 100 øre, the name øre possibly deriving from Latin aureus meaning gold coin. Altogether there are eleven denominations of the krone, with the smallest being the 50 øre coin, formerly there were more øre coins, but those were discontinued due to inflation. The krone is pegged to the euro via the ERM II, the oldest known Danish coin is a penny struck AD 825–840, but the earliest systematic minting produced the so-called korsmønter or cross coins minted by Harald Bluetooth in the late 10th century. Organised minting in Denmark was introduced on a larger scale by Canute the Great in the 1020s, for almost 1,000 years, Danish kings – with a few exceptions – have issued coins with their name, monogram and/or portrait.
Taxes were sometimes imposed via the coinage, e. g. by the substitution of coins handed in by new coins handed out with a lower silver content. Danish coinage was based on the Carolingian silver standard. Periodically, the value of the minted coins was reduced. This was mainly done to generate income for the monarch and/or the state, as a result of the debasement, the public started to lose trust in the respective coins. Danish currency was overhauled several times in attempts to restore public trust in the coins, in 1619 a new currency was introduced in Denmark, the krone. One krone had the value of 1 1/2 Danish Rigsdaler Species accounting for 96 Kroneskillinger, for 144 common Skillings, until the late 18th century, the krone was a denomination equal to 8 mark, a subunit of the Danish rigsdaler. A new krone was introduced as the currency of Denmark in January 1875 and it replaced the rigsdaler at a rate of 2 kroner =1 rigsdaler. This placed the krone on the standard at a rate of 2480 kroner =1 kilogram fine gold.
The latter part of the 18th century and much of the 19th century saw expanding economic activity, banknotes were increasingly used instead of coins. The introduction of the new krone was a result of the Scandinavian Monetary Union, the parties to the union were the three Scandinavian countries, where the name was krone in Denmark and Norway and krona in Sweden, a word which in all three languages literally means crown. The three currencies were on the standard, with the krone/krona defined as 1⁄2480 of a kilogram of pure gold
The Bruneian dollar, has been the currency of the Sultanate of Brunei since 1967. It is normally abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or alternatively B$ to distinguish it from other dollar-dominated currencies and it is divided into 100 sen or cents. The Bruneian dollar is managed together with the Singapore dollar at a 1,1 ratio by the Monetary Authority of Singapore, early currency in Brunei included cowrie shells. Brunei is famous for its bronze teapots, which were used as currency in trade along the coast of northern Borneo. Brunei issued tin coins denominated in pitis in AH1285 and these were followed by a one cent coin in AH1304. This cent was one hundredth of a Straits dollar, the Bruneian dollar replaced the Malaya and British Borneo dollar in 1967 after the formation of Malaysia and the independence of Singapore. Until 23 June 1973, the Malaysian ringgit was exchangeable at par with the Singapore dollar, the Monetary Authority of Singapore and the Brunei Currency and Monetary Board (now the Authoriti Monetari Brunei Darussalam still maintain the exchangeability of their two currencies.
The dollar is accepted as customary tender in Singapore according to the Currency Interchangeability Agreement, coins were used in Brunei from the 10th century. The Straits dollar was used in Brunei from 1906. Due to the ties between China and Brunei, the first type of coins used in Brunei were Chinese coins. They were known as ‘Kue’ when local ‘Pitis’ were introduced, the local ‘Pitis’ coins had ‘Sultanate of Brunei’ stamped in front of the coin and the royal umbrella was imprinted at the back. These were issued from the 16th to the 19th century, previous Islamic coins were called the ‘Pitis’. Another type of coin that was used in Brunei were ‘Duit besi’, iron was considered valuable those days that it was used as money. 100 one-square inch pieces were valued at 1 dollar, the last coin to be issued before the introduction of the Straits Settlements currency was the ‘Duit Bintang’, otherwise known as the ‘Star coin’ or the Star Cent. It is called the Star coin because of the star imprinted on the obverse of the coin and it was minted in Birmingham, England, in 1887.
With the introduction of the Straits Settlements currency, the previously used coins were taken out of circulation and they were, however still used with certain exchange rates. The Straits dollar was introduced in Brunei in 1906 and it was replaced by the Malayan dollar which was introduced to British colonies and Brunei in 1939. It replaced the Straits dollar at par with a 1,1 exchange rate, the Malayan dollar was issued by the Board of Commissioners of Currency in Malaya
The ngultrum is the currency of the Kingdom of Bhutan. It is subdivided into 100 chhertum, the Royal Monetary Authority of Bhutan is the minting authority of the Ngultrum banknotes and coins. The Ngultrum is currently pegged to the Indian rupee at par, until 1789, the coins of the Cooch Behar mint circulated in Bhutan. Following this, Bhutan began issuing its own known as chetrum. Hammered silver and copper coins were the only issued until 1929. Nickel ½ rupee coins were introduced in 1950, while the Cooch Behar mint coins circulated alongside Bhutans own coins, decimalization was introduced in 1957, when Bhutans first issue of coins denominated in naya paisa. The 1966 issues were 25 naya paisa,50 naya paisa and 1 rupee coins, while the Bhutanese government developed its economy in the early 1960s, monetization in 1968 led to the establishment of the Bank of Bhutan. As monetary reforms took place in 1974, the Ngultrum was officially introduced as 100 Chhetrum equal to 1 Ngultrum, the Ngultrum retained the peg to the Indian rupee at par, which the Bhutanese coins had maintained.
The Ministry of Finance issued the first banknotes in 1974 denominated Nu.1, Nu.5, Nu,10, in 1974, aluminium Ch.5 and Ch.10, aluminium-bronze Ch.20 and cupro-nickel Ch.25 and Nu.1 were introduced. The Ch.5 was square and the Ch.10 was scallop-shaped, a new coinage was introduced in 1979, consisting of bronze Ch.5 and Ch.10, and cupro-nickel Ch.25 and Ch.50 and Nu.1 and Nu.3. Aluminium-bronze Ch.25 were issued dated 1979, the Ch.5 and Ch.10 have largely ceased circulating. Currently coins are available in denominations of Ch20, Ch.25, Ch.50 and Nu.1. On June 2,1974, Nu.1, Nu.5 and Nu.10 notes were introduced by the Royal Government of Bhutan, followed by Nu.2, Nu.20, Nu.50, and Nu.100 in 1978. On August 4,1982, the Royal Monetary Authority of Bhutan Act was enacted, although the RMA didnt began actual operations until November 1,1983, and did not issue its own family of notes until 1986. In 2006, the Monetary Authority introduced its latest series of notes, with denominations of Nu.1, Nu.5, Nu.10, Nu.20, Nu.50, Nu.100, Nu.500, and Nu.1000.
Royal Monetary Authority of Bhutan Economy of Bhutan Panish, Charles K, the American Numismatic Society, Museum Notes 17, New York 1971, p. 247-254 and plates XLVII-XLVIII. Oriental Numismatic Society, Information Sheet no 16, January 1977, Nicholas, Coinage in Bhutan. Journal of Bhutan Studies. The Centre of Bhutan Studies, vol,1, Autumn,1999, p. 84-113
The peso is the currency of Colombia. Its ISO4217 code is COP and it is abbreviated as COL$. However, the peso symbol is $. As of August 21,2016, the rate of the Colombian peso is 2,857 Colombian pesos to 1 U. S. dollar. The peso has been the currency of Colombia since 1810 and it replaced the real at a rate of 1 peso =8 reales and was initially subdivided into 8 reales. In 1847, Colombia decimalized and the peso was subdivided into ten reales, the real was renamed the decimo in 1853, although the last reales were struck in 1880. The current system of 100 centavos to the peso was first used in 1819 on early banknotes, in 1871, Colombia went on the gold standard, pegging the peso to the French franc at a rate of 1 peso =5 francs. This peg only lasted until 1886, from 1888, printing press inflation caused Colombias paper money to depreciate and the exchange rate between coins and paper money was fixed at 100 peso moneda corriente =1 coinage peso. Between 1907 and 1914, coins were issued denominated in peso p/m, in 1910, the Junta de Conversión began issuing paper money and, in 1915, a new paper currency was introduced, the peso oro.
This was equal to the peso and replaced the old peso notes at a rate of 100 old paper pesos =1 peso oro. In 1931, when the U. K. left the standard, Colombia shifted its peg to the U. S. dollar, at a rate of 1.05 pesos =1 dollar. Although it never appeared on coins, Colombias paper money continued to be issued denominated in peso oro until 1993, when the word oro was dropped. Since 2001, the Colombian senate has debated whether to redenominate the currency by introducing a new peso worth 1000 old pesos, in other words, such a plan has yet to be adopted. Between 1837 and 1839, the Republic of New Grenada introduced silver ¼, ½,1,2, and 8 real coins, along with gold 1,2, and 16 pesos. These were mostly continuations of coins issued before 1837 in the name of the Republic of Colombia, in 1847, the currency was decimalized and coins were introduced in denominations of ½ and 1 décimo de real in copper and 1,2,8 and 10 reales in silver. ¼ and ½ real coins followed in 1849 and 1850, in 1853, silver ½ and 1 décimo, and gold 10 peso coins were introduced, followed by 2 décimos in 1854 and 1 peso in 1855, both in silver.
In 1856, gold 5 peso coins were added. Between 1859 and 1862, coins were issued by the Grenadine Confederation in silver for ¼, ½ and 2 reales, ¼, ½ and 1 décimo, and 1 peso, the United States of New Grenada issued silver 1 décimo &1 peso in 1861