It is the capital of the province of the same name and of the comarca of the Gironès. It is located 99 km northeast of Barcelona, Girona is one of the major Catalan cities. The first historical inhabitants in the region were Iberians, Girona is the ancient Gerunda, the Romans built a citadel there, which was given the name of Gerunda. The Visigoths ruled in Girona until it was conquered by the Moors in 715, Charlemagne reconquered it in 785 and made it one of the fourteen original counties of Catalonia. It was wrested temporarily from the Moors, who recaptured it in 793, from this time until the moors were finally driven out,1015, the city repeatedly changed hands and was sacked several times by the moors. Wilfred the Hairy incorporated Girona into the County of Barcelona in 878, Alfonso I of Aragón declared Girona a city in the 11th century. The ancient county became a duchy when King Pero III of Aragon gave the title of Duke to his first-born son, in 1414, King Ferrando I in turn gave the title of prince of Girona to his first-born son, Alfonso.
The title is currently carried by Princess Leonor of Asturias, the second since the 16th century to do so, the 12th century saw the Jewish community of Girona flourish, having one of the most important Kabbalistic schools in Europe. The Rabbi of Girona, Moshe ben Nahman Gerondi was appointed Great Rabbi of Catalonia, the presence of the Jewish community of Girona came to an end in 1492, when the Catholic Monarchs expelled all the Jews from Catalonia. Today, the Jewish ghetto or Call is one of the best preserved in Europe and is a major tourist attraction, on the north side of the old city is the Montjuic, where an important religious cemetery was located. Girona has undergone twenty-five sieges and been captured seven times and it was besieged by the French royal armies under Charles de Monchy dHocquincourt in 1653, under Bernardin Gigault de Bellefonds in 1684, and twice in 1694 under Anne Jules de Noailles. Finally, the French conquered the city in 1809, after 7 months of siege, Girona was center of the Ter department during the French rule, which lasted from 1809 to 1813.
The defensive city walls were demolished at the end of the 19th century to allow for the expansion of the city, in recent years, the missing parts of the city walls on the eastern side of the city have been reconstructed. Called the Passeig de la Muralla it now forms a tourist route around the old city, in the Köppen climate classification, Girona has a humid subtropical climate, with cool winters and hot summers. In winter, temperatures can drop to below −3 °C, in summer, temperatures often soar to 30–35 °C. Although rainfall is spread throughout the year, it is more common in spring. Girona is a destination for tourists and Barcelona day-trippers - the train journey from Barcelona Sants to Girona takes approximately forty minutes on express trains. The old town stands on the hill of the Capuchins to the east of the river Onyar
Reggio Emilia is a city in northern Italy, in the Emilia-Romagna region. It has about 170,000 inhabitants and is the comune of the Province of Reggio Emilia. The town is referred to by its more official name of Reggio nellEmilia listen. The inhabitants of Reggio nellEmilia usually call their town by the name of Reggio. In some ancient maps the town is named Reggio di Lombardia, the old town has an hexagonal form, which derives from the ancient walls, and the main buildings are from the 16th–17th centuries. The comunes territory is totally on a plain, crossed by the Crostolo stream, Reggio began as a historical site with the construction by Marcus Aemilius Lepidus of the Via Aemilia, leading from Piacenza to Rimini. Reggio became an administration centre, with a forum called at first Regium Lepidi, simply Regium. During the Roman age Regium is cited only by Festus and Cicero, however, it was a flourishing city, a Municipium with its own statutes and art collegia. Apollinaris of Ravenna brought Christianity in the 1st century CE, the sources confirm the presence of a bishopric in Reggio after the Edict of Milan.
In 440 the Reggio diocese was placed under the jurisdiction of Ravenna by Western Roman Emperor Valentinianus III, at the end of the 4th century, Reggio had decayed so much that Saint Ambrose included it among the dilapidated cities. Further damage occurred with the Barbarian invasions, after the deposition of Romulus Augustulus in 476 Reggio was part of Odoacers realm. In 489 it came under Ostrogothic control, from 539 it was part of the Roman Empire, Reggio was chosen as Duchy of Reggio seat. In 773 the Franks took Reggio, charlemagne gave the bishop the authority to exercise royal authority over the city and established the diocese limits. In 888 Reggio was handed over to the Kings of Italy, in 899 the Magyars heavily damaged it, killing Bishop Azzo II. As a result of new walls were built. On 31 October 900 Emperor Louis III gave authority for the erection of a castrum in the citys centre. In 1002 Reggios territory, together with that of Parma, Modena and Ferrara, were merged into the March of Tuscany, Reggio became a free commune around the end of the 11th or the beginning of the 12th century.
In 1167 it was a member of the Lombard League and took part in the Battle of Legnano, in 1183 the city signed the Treaty of Konstanz, from which the citys consul, Rolando della Carità, received the imperial investiture
It is a typical Italian medieval city, and it attracts many tourists, especially in the summer. From the 5th century the city was a bishopric, and during the Lombardic kingdom it was a city and had several privileges. In 1254 the taking of Ghibelline Pistoia by Guelph Florence, was among the origins of the division of the Florentine Guelphs into Black and White factions. Pistoia remained a Florentine holding except for a period in the 14th century, when Castruccio Castracani captured it for Lucca. During the 14th century Ormanno Tedici was one of the Lords of the city, dante mentioned in his Divina Commedia the free town of Pistoia as the home town of Vanni Fucci, who is encountered in Inferno tangled up in a knot of snakes while cursing God. In 1786 a famous Jansenist episcopal synod was convened in Pistoia, according to one theory, Pistoia lent its name to the pistol, which started to be manufactured in Pistoia during the 16th century. But today, it is notable for the extensive plant nurseries spreading around it.
Consequently, Pistoia is famous for its markets, as is the nearby Pescia. Although not visited as much as cities in Tuscany, mostly due to the citys industrial environs, Pistoia presents a well-preserved. The original Cathedral of San Zeno burned down in 1108, but was rebuilt during the 12th century, the façade has a prominent Romanesque style, while the interior received heavy Baroque additions which were removed during the 1960s. Its outstanding feature is the Altar of St James, an exemplar of the silversmiths craft begun in 1287 and its various sections contain 628 figures, the total weighing nearly a ton. The Romanesque belfry, standing at some 67 metres, was erected over an ancient Lombard tower, in the square is the 14th-century Baptistry, in Gothic style, with white and green striped marble revetment characteristic of the Tuscan Gothic. The Palazzo dei Vescovi, is characterized by a Gothic loggiato on the first floor and it is known from 1091, initially as a fortified noble residence.
In the 12th century it received a more decorated appearance, with mullioned windows and frescoes, in the 14th century, the Chapel of St. Nicholas was decorated with stories of the namesake saint and other martyrs. The Tower of Catilina is from the High Middle Ages, basilica of Our Lady of Humility, finished by Giorgio Vasari with a 59-metre high cupola. The original project was by Giuliano da Sangallo, but works were begun in 1495 by Ventura Vitoni, the dome was commissioned by Cosimo I de Medici to Vasari, the lantern completed in 1568 and the church consecrated in 1582. In the apse is a painting by Bernardino del Signoraccio, santissima Annunziata, baroque church famous for its Chiostro dei Morti. Damaged during World War II bombardments, it is now used as an exhibition center, San Giovanni Battista al Tempio, owned for a while by the Knights Templar and by the Hospitaller Knights
Tarraco is the ancient name of the current city of Tarragona. In 2000, the ensemble of Tarraco was declared a World heritage site by UNESCO. The municipality was inhabited in pre-Roman times by Iberians who had contacts with the Greeks. The Iberian colonies were located in the Ebro Valley. Evidence of Iberian colonies in the municipality of Tarragona has been dated to the 5th century BC, references in the literature to the presence of Iberians in Tarraco are ambiguous. Livy mentions an oppidum parvum called Cissis and Polybius talks about a polis called Kissa, Tarraco is mentioned for first time shortly after the arrival of Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus at Empúries in 218 BC at the start of the Second Punic War which began the Roman conquest of Hispania. Livy writes that the Romans conquered a field of Punic supplies for Hannibals troops near Cissis, a short time later, the Romans were attacked not far from Tarraco. But it remains unclear whether Cissis and Tarraco were the same city, a coin found in Empúries bears the inscription Tarakon-salir.
The coin, engraved in keeping with other Empúries models at a location, is generally dated to 250 BC. The name Kesse appears on coins of Iberian origin from the 1st, Kesse may be equated with Cissis, the place of origin of the Cissisians mentioned by Pliny. The Roman city wall was constructed on top of the more ancient wall characteristic of the Iberian stonemason. After the death of the Scipio brothers, Tarraco was 25-year-old Scipio Africanuss winter base between 211 and 210, and where he met the tribes of Hispania in conventus, the population was largely loyal to the Romans during the war. Livy called them allies and friends of the Roman people and the fishermen of Tarraco served with their boats during the siege of Carthago Nova, the conquest of the Iberian Peninsula by the Romans took over 200 years. During the following two centuries Tarraco remained a supply and winter camp during the wars against the Celtiberians. There was therefore a military presence during this period, possibly in the highest area of what is currently the citys historic quarter.
In 197 BC, all of the areas, even narrow strips along the coast of Spain, were divided between the new provinces of Hispania Ulterior and Hispania Citerior. The capital of Hispania Citerior was principally Carthago Nova but Strabo says that the governors resided in Tarraco. The legal status of Tarraco is not entirely clear and it was probably organized as conventus civium Romanorum during the Republic, with two magistri at its head
Italica is a well-preserved Roman city and the birthplace of Roman Emperors Trajan and Hadrian. The modern town of Santiponce overlies part of the pre-Roman Iberian settlement, the name Italica reflected the veterans Italian origins. The old town or urbs vetus dating from the Republican period lies under the present town of Santiponce, the nearby native and Roman city of Hispalis would always remain a larger city, but Italica became an important centre of Roman culture. Italica was the birthplace of the Roman emperors Trajan and Hadrian and he added temples, including a Trajaneum venerating Trajan, and rebuilt public buildings. Italica’s amphitheatre was the third largest in the Roman Empire at the time and it seated 25,000 spectators, about half as many as the Colosseum in Rome. In the same period a new quarter was built in the city, with several beautiful houses decorated with splendid mosaics. At the end of the 2nd century AD, the city began to decline for political and economic reasons, a shift of the Guadalquivir River bed, probably due to siltation— a widespread problem in antiquity that followed removal of the forest cover—left Italica isolated and dry.
The city started to dwindle as early as the 3rd century, Seville continued to grow nearby, and no modern city covered most of Italicas foundations. The result is an unusually well-preserved Roman city of Hispania Baetica, in Italica, cobbled Roman streets are visible, and mosaic floors still in situ. Italica was important enough in late Antiquity to have a bishop of its own, the ruins were the subject of visits and despair by many foreign travelers who wrote about and sometimes illustrated their impressions. Italicas prestige and fame were not enough, however, to save it from being the subject of continued looting, and a permanent quarry for materials from Ancient times to modern ones. In 1740 the city of Seville ordered demolition of the walls of the amphitheater to build a dam on the Guadalquivir, and in 1796 the urbs vetus was used to build the new Camino Real of Extremadura. The first law of protection for the site took effect in 1810 under the Napoleonic occupation, reinstating its old name of Italica, regular excavation, did not materialise until 1839-1840.
By Royal Order of 1912 Italica was declared a National Monument, but it was not until 2001 that the site of Italica. The archaeological site of Italica encompasses the urbs nova, following extensive excavations and the building of visitor facilities, Italica is now a popular destination for tourists. The ruins of the city host a cross country running competition every January. The mass race and childrens competitions attract hundreds of participants each year, the senior international competition has featured numerous world champions and it is one of the worlds foremost annual cross country competitions. Fall 2016 saw film crews filming in Italicas amphitheatre for season 7 of the HBO TV series Game of Thrones, Italica homepage from the Andalusian Council Historical overview from Livius. org
Salerno listen is a city and comune in Campania and is the capital of the province of the same name. It is located on the Gulf of Salerno on the Tyrrhenian Sea, Salerno was an independent Lombard principality in the early Middle Ages. During this time, it became the site of the first medical school in the world, later, in 1694, the city was struck by several catastrophic earthquakes and plagues. After a period of Spanish rule which would last until the 18th century, in recent history the city hosted the King of Italy, who moved from Rome in 1943 after Italy negotiated a peace with the Allies in World War II. A brief so-called government of the South was established in the town, some of the Allied landings during Operation Avalanche occurred near Salerno. Today Salerno is an important cultural centre in Campania and Italy and has had a long, a patron saint of Salerno is Saint Matthew, the Apostle, whose relics are kept here at the crypt of Salerno Cathedral. The area of what is now Salerno has been settled since pre-historical times.
We know the Oscan-Etruscan city of Irna, situated across the Irno river and this settlement represented an important base for Etruscan trade with the Greek colonies of Posidonia and Elea. It was occupied by the Samnites around the 5th century BC as consequence of the Battle of Cumae as part of the Syracusan sphere of influence. With the Roman advance in Campania, Irna began to lose its importance, being supplanted by the new Roman colony of Salernum, developing around an initial castrum. The new city, which gradually lost its function in favour of its role as a trade center, was connected to Rome by the Via Popilia. Archaeological remains, although fragmentary, suggest the idea of a flourishing, under the Emperor Diocletian, in the late 3rd century AD, Salernum became the administrative centre of the Lucania and Bruttii province. Like many coastal cities of southern Italy, Salerno initially remained untouched by the newcomers and it subsequently became part of the Duchy of Benevento. Under the Lombard dukes Salerno enjoyed the most splendid period of its history, with Arechis II, Salerno became a centre of studies with its famous Medical School.
The Lombard prince ordered the city to be fortified, the Castle on the Bonadies mountain had already been built with walls, in 839 Salerno declared independence from Benevento, becoming the capital of a flourishing principality stretching out to Capua, northern Calabria and Apulia up to Taranto. The coins minted in the city circulated in all the Mediterranean, the stability of the Principate was continually shaken by the Saracen attacks and, most of all, by internal struggles. In 1056, one of the numerous plots led to the fall of Guaimar and his weaker son Gisulf II succeeded him, but the decline of the principality had begun. In 1077 Salerno reached its zenith but soon lost all its territory to the Normans, on 13 December 1076, the Norman conqueror Robert Guiscard, who had married Guaimar IVs daughter Sikelgaita, besieged Salerno and defeated his brother-in-law Gisulf