Enkomi is a village near Famagusta in Cyprus. It is the site of an important Bronze Age city, possibly the capital of Alasiya, Enkomi is under the de facto control of Northern Cyprus. In 1974, Enkomi had about 800 Greek Cypriot inhabitants and they all fled to the south of the island after the Turkish invasion, in the aftermath of the July coup. As of 2011, Enkomi has a population of 2,645 and it comprises displaced Turkish Cypriots from Larnaca and Turkish settlers from Adana Province and Trabzon Province. Enkomi was settled in the Middle Bronze Age, near an inlet from the sea. From about the 16th century BC to the 12th, it was an important trading center for copper, during the 13th century BC, Enkomi was inhabited by Greeks, like most of the cities of Cyprus. From the 13th century, other towns along the southern coast of Cyprus competed with Enkomi, after an earthquake ca.1050 BC, the site was abandoned, leaving an opening for the rise of Salamis. René Dussaud demonstrated that Enkomi is the Alasia of the Amarna correspondence and other texts, long after the town disappeared, Hellenes recalled it in the cult title of Apollo Alasiotas, recorded in a Cypriote inscription as late as the 4th century BC.
In 1900 the archaeologist Joseph Offord suggested that Apollo Alasiotas was a Syrian god identical with Resheph, transported to Cyprus, the bronze statuette of a horned god may represent this divinity whom Greeks identified, by interpretatio graeca, with Apollo. Following more than a decade of widespread looting drawn by the quality of the tomb gifts. From the 1930s, excavations were continued by Claude F. A. Schaeffer for the Swedish Cyprus Expedition. Notable finds from Enkomi include Linear C inscriptions and the horned god. Another well-known statue is the god, a statue wearing a horned conical hat and greaves, armed with shield and spear. Murray, A. S. Excavations at Enkomi, in Murray, A. S. Smith, A. H. Walters H. B. From isolation to state formation in Cyprus, ca, the development of the Cypriot economy from the prehistoric period to the present day. Schaeffer, Claude F. A. Nouvelles découvertes à Enkomi, Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres. Schaeffer, Claude F. A. Enkomi-Alasia I, Enkomi on the Department of Antiquities website
Tamassos or Tamasos – names Latinized as Tamassus or Tamasus – was a city in Cyprus. It was situated in the central plain of the island, south-east of Soli. An Assyrian inscription from ca 673 BC, where it is found as Tamesi, as there were copper mines in the neighbourhood, it is very probably the Temese mentioned by Homer, which was in his time the principal copper market of the island. It is thought to be an archeological site bordering the village of Politiko, an article by Sophrone Pétridès in the Catholic Encyclopedia of 1912 says that coins of the city show the name with the double s An article by Stylianos Chr. Tamasios in the periodical Agape, the Government of Cyprus issued in 1964 a stamp that referred to the ancient city as Ταμασός in Greek and Tamasus in English. The Cypriot Department of Antiquities uses both forms, while archaeological institutes in Britain and the United States use the form with double s. Today the villages of Psimolofou, Pera Orinis, Politiko, Analyontas, the city-state prospered mainly because of its mines, from which metals were extracted.
However, it managed to survive despite exhaustion of its copper deposits, studies of the archaeological artefacts suggest that the region was inhabited since prehistoric times, more specifically since the Chalcolithic Age. Villages such as Kampia, Margi and Mathiatis in the region were densely populated from the Early Bronze Age. The population increased significantly following exploitation of the copper mines and copper-processing installations discovered in the area date back to the Late Bronze Age. Writers such as Claudius Ptolemy and Stephanus of Byzantium mention the city, Stephanus describes the city as mesogeia with copper of excellent quality. Its inland location and lack of a port kept it from becoming a trading post such as Salamis. The city lacked the character of the islands coastal cities. The two royal tombs discovered are proof of the citys wealth during the Archaic era and their construction demanded a considerable amount of riches, suggesting financial prosperity. The King of Tamassos, Pasikypros, is said to have sold his kingdom to the Phoenicians of Kition for a price of 50 talents, the temple of Aphrodite and perhaps other public buildings were rebuilt at the beginning of the Hellenistic period.
It is assumed there was an alteration to the city character and political structure. During the same period, Greeks from various places of the came to live in Tamassos. One of these people was Aspendios from Asia Minor, with the spread of Christianity throughout southern Europe, Tamasos became one of the first Greek Orthodox dioceses in Cyprus
Its ancient cult of Aphrodite was the most important, after Paphos, in Cyprus, her homeland, though the ruins of Amathus are less well-preserved than neighboring Kourion. The pre-history of Amathus mixes myth and archaeology, though there was no Bronze Age city on the site, archaeology has detected human activity that is evident from the earliest Iron Age, c.1100 BC. The citys legendary founder was Cinyras, linked with the birth of Adonis, according to a version of the Ariadne legend noted by Plutarch, Theseus abandoned Ariadne at Amathousa, where she died giving birth to her child and was buried in a sacred tomb. According to Plutarchs source, Amathousians called the grove where her shrine was situated the Wood of Aphrodite Ariadne. More purely Hellenic myth would have Amathus settled instead by one of the sons of Heracles and it was said in antiquity that the people of Amathus were autochthonous, or Pelasgian. Amathus was built on the cliffs with a natural harbor and flourished at an early date.
Greeks from Euboea left their pottery at Amathus from the 10th century BC, during the post-Phoenician era of the 8th century BC, a palace was erected and a port was constructed, which served the trade with the Greeks and the Levantines. A special burial ground for infants, a tophet served the culture of the Phoenicians, the excavators discovered the final stage of the Temple of Aphrodite, known as Aphrodisias, which dates approximately to the 1st century BC. The earliest remains hitherto found on the site are tombs of the early Iron Age period of Graeco-Phoenician influences, Amathus is identified with Kartihadasti in the Cypriote tribute-list of Esarhaddon of Assyria. Herodotus reports Because he had besieged them, the Amathusians cut off Onesilos’ head and brought it to Amathous, as it hung there empty, a swarm of bees entered it and filled it with honeycomb. The Amathusians did as they were told and still perform these rites in my day and its political importance now ended, but its temple of Adonis and Aphrodite Amathusia remained famous in Roman times.
The epithet Amathusia in Roman poetry often means more than Cypriote. The wealth of Amathus was derived partly from its grain partly from its sheep and copper mines, Amathus was a rich and densely populated kingdom with a flourishing agriculture and mines situated very close to the northeast Kalavasos. In the Roman era it became the capital of one of the four regions of Cyprus. Later, in the 4th century AD, Amasus became the see of a Christian bishop, of its bishops, Heliodorus was at the Council of Chalcedon in 451 and Alexander at the Second Council of Nicaea in 787. In the late 6th century, Saint Ioannis Eleimonas, protector of the Knights of St. John, was born in Amathus and after 614 sent Theodorus, bishop of Amathus, anastasius Sinaita, the famous 7th-century prolific monk of Saint Catherines Monastery, was born here. It is thought that he left Cyprus after the 649 Arab conquest of the island, setting out for the Holy Land, anathus declined and was already almost deserted when Richard Plantagenet won Cyprus by a victory there over Isaac Comnenus in 1191.
The tombs were plundered and the stones from the beautiful edifices were brought to Limassol to be used for new constructions, much later, in 1869, a great number of blocks of stone from Amathus were used for the construction of the Suez Canal
Larnaca is a city on the southern coast of Cyprus and the capital of the eponymous district. It is the third-largest city in the country, after Nicosia and Limassol, Larnaca is known for its palm-tree seafront, the Church of Saint Lazarus, the Hala Sultan Tekke, the Kamares Aqueduct and its medieval fort. It is built on the ruins of ancient Citium, which was the birthplace of Stoic philosopher Zeno, Larnaca is home to the countrys primary airport, Larnaca International Airport. It has a seaport and a marina, Larnaca might have taken its name from the many larnakes that are found in the area. The former city-kingdom of Kition was originally established in the 13th century BC, new cultural elements appearing between 1200 BC and 1000 BC are interpreted as indications of significant political changes and the arrival of the Achaeans, the first Greek colonists of Kition. Around the same time, Phoenicians settled the area, at the archaeological sites of Kiteon, remains that date from the 13th century BC have been found.
Around 1000 BC, Kition was rebuilt by Phoenicians and it became a center of Phoenician culture. The remains of the sites include cyclopean walls and a complex of five temples and it was conquered in the first millennium BC by a series of great powers of the region. First by the Assyrian Empire, by Egypt, like most Cypriot cities, Kition belonged to the Persian or Achaemenid Empire. In 450 BC, the Athenian general Cimon died at sea, on his deathbed, he urged his officers to conceal his death from both their allies and the Persians. Strong earthquakes hit the city in 76 AD and the year after, earthquakes of 322 AD and 342 caused the destruction not only of Kition but of Salamis and Pafos. Kitions harbor silted up, and the moved to the seafront farther south. The commercial port was located at Skala, during the Ottoman Period, Skala is the name of the seashore immediately south of the Larnaca castle—and its neighborhood. The city is colloquially referred to as Skala meaning ladder or landing stage.
The Kamares aqueduct was built in 1747—bringing water to the city from a source around six miles from the city, the Salt Lake fills with water during the winter season and is visited by flocks of flamingoes who stay there from November until the end of March. It usually dries up in the summer, in the past, it yielded good quality salt scraped from the dried surface. The salt from the lake is now considered unsuitable for consumption, the climate in this area is described by the Köppen Climate Classification System as a hot semi-arid climate due to its low annual rainfall and strong summer drought. It is sometimes described as a climate, but its winter rainfall is below the required amount to avoid the semi-arid classification
Lapithos or Lapethos is a town in Cyprus. De facto, it is under the control of Northern Cyprus, according to Strabo, the settlement was founded by Spartans. In Assyrian inscriptions, Lapithos is mentioned as one of the eleven Cypriot kingdoms, during the Persian rule, Lapithos was settled by Phoenicians. The last independent king Praxippos was subdued by Ptolemy I in 312 BC, Lambousa is the name currently used for the ancient Roman town on the coast about 3 kilometres north of the current Lapta. Strabo wrote that Lapethos is a construction of the Laconians and of Praxandros, the philosopher Alexander of Ephesus called it Imeroessa, meaning attractive and passion-arousing. Lapithos is usually referred in literature as a Laconian colony built after the Trojan War, by Praxandros. However, findings from excavations i. e. pots and pottery date back its existence as early as 3000 BC. According to Diodoros of Sicily, who wrote in the 4th century BC, king of Lapithos, with his flotilla, together with Nicocreon of Salamis and Stasanor of Curion, came to the aid of Alexander the Great, helping him to capture Tyre in Phoenicia.
For this reason Alexander, the army commander, declared Cyprus free from the Persians. The last king of Lapethos was Praxippos, during the period of the Roman Empire, Lapethos had more than 10,000 inhabitants. It formed one of the four districts of Cyprus, from ancient times, Lapithos became a centre for the processing of copper and more importantly an earthenware centre. During the proto-Christian period Lapethos experienced a great commercial drive because of the plethora of its produce, during the first years of Christianity the apostles Paul and Mark passed by Lapethos coming from Tarsus. According to Apostle Barnabas, Lapethos had city walls and he cites that during his second tour with Apostle Mark, they stayed outside the walls because they were not given access to the city. In late antiquity, Lapethos enjoyed great prosperity in commerce as well as in riches, Lapethos was heavily damaged during the Arab incursions. The population often had to flee and take refuge in the interior, during the Lusignan period, Lapithos boasted a greater population than Limassol, Famagusta or Paphos.
It was known under the name Le field de la Pison,3000 troops were stationed at Lapithos under the command of Zanetto Dandolo in the years preceding the Ottoman conquest of Cyprus in 1571. Dandolo was killed during the defence of Nicosia, in 1780 a section of Lapithos was split off to form a new village, Karavas. Lapithos became a municipality soon after the transfer of power to the British rule and it spreads from the high mountains of Pentadactylos to the waters of the Mediterranean
Polis is a small town at the north-west end of the island of Cyprus, at the centre of Chrysochous Bay, and on the edge of the Akamas peninsula nature reserve. It is a quiet tourist resort, the income being supplemented by agriculture. Polis is served by the port of Latchi—a pole of attraction all the year round and reputed for its fish taverns, sea-sport facilities. However, the advantage of Polis is its close vicinity to the utmost beautiful Akamas peninsula. Α walk along its nature trails accompanied by the view of the bay of Polis is a popular experience with both locals and tourists. On present evidence, Marion was already inhabited at the end of the Neolithic, in 312 BC, it was conquered by Ptolemy I and the kingdom was abolished until its reconquest by Ptolemy II Philadelphus who renamed the city after his sister and wife. The new city was smaller than Marion but it flourished due to its proximity to the copper mines. Archaeological evidence indicates that the city was inhabited during the late Medieval period between the 12th and 14th centuries.
In Egypt at Medinet Habu in the temples of Ramesses III, the names of Cypriot towns mentioned include Marion. However, the first definite reference to Marion occurred in 449 BC, during that year, the great Athenian general, freed the city from the Persians. Later, the ancient geographers spoke of the town as Marion Ellinikon—The Hellenic Marion, the Kingdom was rich in gold and copper ore, mined chiefly in the nearby Limni Mines. It was the wealth which led the city to a period of flourishing trade, especially with Athens. Samples of this pottery can be viewed at the Polis Archaeological Museum, in ancient times, Polis was known as Marion, and was probably founded by Akamas or a certain Marieus. Marion was one of the city-kingdoms founded by the Mycenaeans when they came to Cyprus, the Mycenaeans, or Achaeans, were the creators of the Mycenaean civilization in Greece, and they settled in Cyprus between 1400 and 1100 BC. The Greek presence and the cities linked to the settlement of the Mycenaeans in Cyprus can be verified by inscriptions found in neighboring countries, the harsh battle for Cyprus between the successors of Alexander the Great and Ptolemy led Marion to destruction.
Ptolemy, who prevailed, laid waste the city whose king had taken the side of Antigonus. Later, another member of the Ptolemy dynasty, founded a new city on the ruins of Marion, the city, under its new name, prospered during the Hellenistic and Roman Ages. In early Christian times it was the seat of a bishop, for some years after that, there was no mention of the city until the late Middle Ages when reference was made to Chrysochou and later, Polis Chrysochou
Soli or Soloi is an ancient Greek city in the island of Cyprus, located southwest of Morphou and on the coast in the gulf of Morphou and dates back to about the 6th century BC. Since 1974 the city has lain in the de facto Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, Soloi was located in a much constricted geographical location. At its current location, the urban centre was designed by Solon during his 10-year trip. Reyes, disputes this etymological origin, as the name Soloi appears on the Esarhaddon prism predating Solons visit, Soloi was one of the ten city-kingdoms into which Cyprus was divided at the time. What remains today is mainly from the Roman period, most notably the floor of the basilica with its wealth of birds and geometric designs. There is a theatre but it has been restored so much that it no longer has any atmosphere of its original age, son of Pasicrates, who accompanied Alexander to India. Stasanor, 4th century BC general of Alexander the Great and governor of Drangiana and Sogdiana, hiero of Soli, who was sent by Alexander to circumnavigate the Arabian peninsula, and went as far as the mouth of the Persian Gulf.
Clearchus of Soli, 4th century BC peripatetician philosopher, thought to have been to Alexandria on the Oxus, there is another city by the same name, Cilicia. The Athenians considered their dialect as uncultured and used the word σόλοικος to refer to incorrect speech, hence the English word solecism
Kition was a city-kingdom on the southern coast of Cyprus. It was established in the 13th century BC, the mound gate in the city wall was located in the vicinity northwest of the Phaneromeni Tomb. That the settlements name might once have been Khardihadast, was suggested by E. Gjerstad—and not accepted by scholars studying the Phoenician period, such as Masson, Sznycer. The city-kingdom was originally established in the 13th century BC, new cultural elements appearing between 1200 BC and 1000 BC are interpreted as indications of significant political changes and the arrival of the Achaeans, the first Greek colonists of Kition. Mycenaeans first settled in the area for the purpose of the exploitation of copper, T is early in the 12th century BC that the town was rebuilt on a larger scale, its mudbrick wall was replaced by a cyclopean wall. Around 1000 BC, the part of the city was abandoned. Literary evidence suggests an early Phoenician presence at least at Kition, some Phoenician merchants who were believed to come from Tyre colonized the area and expanded the political influence of Kition.
After c.850 BC, the sanctuaries were rebuilt and reused by the Phoenicians, the kingdom was under Egyptian domination from 570 to 545 BC. Persia ruled Cyprus from 545 BC, kings of the city are referred to by name from 500 BC—in Phoenician texts and as inscriptions on coins. Marguerite Yon claims that Literary texts and inscriptions suggest that by the Classical period Kition was one of the local powers. In 499 BC Cypriot kingdoms joined Ionias revolt against Persia, persian rule of Cyprus ended in 332 BC. Ptolemy I kills the Phoenician king of Kition—Poumyathon—and burns the temples, ptolemy I conquers Cyprus in 312 BC. Towards the end of the 4th century BC the Cypriot city-kingdoms were dissolved, following these events the area lost its religious character. A trading colony from Kition, already established at Piraeus, had prospered to the point that, after the end of Ptolemaic rule, there are no records of coins being minted at Kition. Cyprus was annexed by Rome in 58 BC, a curator civitatis, responsible for the financial administration of the city, was sent to Kition from Rome during the rule of Septimius Severus.
Strong earthquakes hit the city in 76 AD and the year after, earthquakes of 322 and 342 AD caused the destruction not only of Kition but of Salamis and Pafos. In modern times Kition was first systematically excavated by the Swedish Cyprus Archaeological Expedition in 1929, seemingly a religious centre, five temples were excavated in close proximity with metal workshops—providing evidence for a connection between metallurgy and religion. Copper metallurgy seems to have placed under divine protection
The Idalion Tablet is a 5th-century BCE bronze tablet from Idalium, Cyprus. The tablet is inscribed on both sides, the script of the tablet is in the Cypriot syllabary and the inscription itself is in Greek. Approximately two lines of the state as follows. they ordered Onasilon the of Onasikupon the physician. The quote from the covers the end of the 2nd line, and continues through the 3rd
Idalion or Idalium was an ancient city in Cyprus, in modern Dali, Nicosia District. The city was founded on the trade in the 3rd millennium BCE. Its name in the 8th century BCE was Ed-di-al as it appears on the Sargon Stele of 707 BCE, the original inhabitants were the natives of the island, known to scholars as the Eteocypriotes. The original city lay on the side of the Yialias River in modern Ayios Sozomenos. During the 13th century BCE the people of Ed-di-al began manufacturing operations on the side of the river in what is now modern Dhali. From there the city grew to the urban and copper-trading center founded by the Neo-Assyrians at the end of the 8th century BCE. Idalion was among the 11 cities of Cyprus listed on the Stele of Sargon and these 10 cities are listed as Idalion, Soloi, Salamis, Tamassos, the New Town, Ledrai and “Nuria”. The first evidence of presence appears in the Archaic Period in Phoenician inscriptions found in the Adonis Temenos on the East Acropolis. Cypro-Syllabic script was deciphered based on the Cypriot-Phoenician bilingual text of Idalion.
L, in 1927, the Swedish Cyprus Expedition started its work on the island. They did a lot of work at Idalium, on the western acropolis, the Swedish expedition excavated the remains of a fortification wall. The Swedes identified six different building periods, periods 1–3 were dated to the Late Cypriote III, when the city kingdom of Idalion seems to have been formed. Periods 4–6 were considered to belong from Cypro-Geometric III to Cypro-Archaic II, based on these assumptions, the earliest settlement on the acropolis could have begun around 1200 BCE. The ancient city was independent until it was conquered by the Kitians in 450 BCE, kition at that time was a Phoenician city. North of Idalium is the Nymphaeum of Kafizin, with Cypro-syllabic inscriptions dated to 225–218 BCE, rosemary scented Idalium appears in the poetry of Propertius and others as the place where Venus met Adonis. The city was the center of the worship of the Great Goddess of Cyprus and this worship appears to have begun in the 11th century BCE and continued down through the Roman Period.
American Expedition to Idalion, First Preliminary Reports, Seasons of 1971 and 1972
Kourion or Latin, was an ancient city on the southwestern coast of Cyprus, the surrounding Kouris River Valley being occupied from at least the Ceramic Neolithic period to the present. The acropolis of Kourion, located 1.3 km southwest of Episkopi and 13 km west of Limassol, is located atop a limestone promontory nearly one hundred meters in height along the coast of Episkopi Bay. The Kourion archaeological area lies within the Akrotiri West Sovereign Base Area, the Kourion Archaeological Area, and all antiquities within the Akrotiri West Sovereign Base are managed by the Cyprus Department of Antiquity. Kourion is a listed UNESCO World Heritage Site, Kourion was an urban center of considerable importance within Cyprus, reaching the climax of its influence in the Roman and Late Roman periods. The city is mentioned by ancient authors including, Stephanus of Byzantium, Hierocles. Though Kourion attained its highest prominence under the Romans, the Kouris River Valley has seen occupation from the Ceramic Neolithic period to the present village of Episkopi.
Occupation on the acropolis appears to have been from the Late Classical period at latest until the Arab raids of the 7th century CE, the earliest occupation within the Kouris Valley is the hilltop settlement of Sotira-Teppes, located 9 km northwest of Kourion. This settlement dates to the Ceramic Neolithic period, another Ceramic Neolithic hilltop settlement has been excavated at Kandou-Koupovounos, another hilltop situated along the east bank of the Kouris River. In the Chalcolithic period settlement shifted to the site of Erimi-Pamboules, Erimi-Pamboules was occupied from the conclusion of the Ceramic Neolithic through the Chalcolithic period. Occupation of the Early Cypriot period is uninterrupted from the preceding Chalcolithic period, with occupation continuing along the Kouris River Valley, sotira-Kaminoudhia, located to the northwest of Sotira-Teppes, on the lower slope of the hill, was settled. It dates from the Late Chalcolithic to EC I, in the ECIII-LC IA a settlement was established 0.8 km east of Episkopi at Episkopi-Phaneromeni.
The Middle Cypriot is a period in the Kouris River Valley. The settlements established during the MC flourished into urban centers in the Late Cypriot II-III, in the MCIII-LC IA a settlement was occupied at Episkopi-Phaneromeni. Episkopi-Bamboula, located on a low hill 0.4 km west of the Kouris, the town flourished in the 13th century BCE before being abandoned c.1050 BCE. In the Cypro-Geometric the Kingdom of Kourion was established, though the center remains unidentified. In the Cypro-Archaic period the Kingdom of Kourion was among the most influential kingdoms of Cyprus, in 672 Damasos, king of Kourion, is recorded as a tributary of Esarhaddon of Assyria as Damasu of Kuri. Between 569 and ca.546 BCE Cyprus was under Egyptian administration, in 546 BCE Cyrus I of Persia extended Persian authority over the Kingdoms of Cyprus, including the Kingdom of Kourion. During the Ionian Revolt, king of Kourion, aligned himself with Onesilos, king of Salamis, in 497 Stasanor betrayed Onesilos in battle against the Persian general Artybius, resulting in a Persian victory over the Cypriot poleis and the consolidation of Persian control of Cyprus