Category:Classes of angel
Pages in category "Classes of angel"
The following 18 pages are in this category, out of 18 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 18 pages are in this category, out of 18 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Christian angelology – For other angelic hierarchies, see Hierarchy of angels. The most influential Christian angelic hierarchy was that put forward by Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite in the 4th or 5th century in his book De Coelesti Hierarchia, during the Middle Ages, many schemes were proposed, some drawing on and expanding on Pseudo-Dionysius, others suggesting completely different classifications. According to medieval Christian theologians, the angels are organized into several orders, although both authors drew on the New Testament, the Biblical canon is relatively silent on the subject, and these hierarchies are considered less definitive than biblical material. The first sphere angels serve as the servants of God the Son incarnated. Seraphim literally translated burning ones, the word seraph is normally a synonym for serpents when used in the Hebrew Bible. According to Isaiah 6, 1-8, the Seraphim are described as fiery six-winged beings, cherubim have four faces, one of a man, an ox, a lion, and an eagle. They have four conjoined wings covered with eyes, a body. Cherubim guard the way to the tree of life in the Garden of Eden and the throne of God. The cherubim are mentioned in Genesis 3,24, Exodus 25, 17–22,2 Chronicles 3, 7–14, Ezekiel 10, 12–14,28, 14–16,1 Kings 6, 23–28, modern English usage has blurred the distinction between cherubim and putti. Putti are the often wingless human baby/toddler-like beings traditionally used in figurative art, st. Thomas Aquinas imagined Satan as the fallen Cherub. The Thrones, or Elders, are a class of beings mentioned by Paul of Tarsus in Colossians 1,16. They are living symbols of Gods justice and authority, and have as one of their symbols the throne. It is not unusual to find that the Thrones are associated, by some, with the Ophanim or Erelim from the Jewish angelic hierarchy, however there is little evidence, if any. They appear as a beryl-coloured wheel-within-a-wheel, their rims covered with hundreds of eyes, Christian theologians that include the Thrones as one of the choirs dont describe them as wheels, describing them as adoring elder men who listen to the will of God and present the prayers of men. The Twenty Four Elders in the Book of Revelation are usually thought to be part of group of angels. Angels of the Second Sphere work as heavenly governors of the creation by subjecting matter, the Dominions or Dominations are presented as the hierarchy of celestial beings Lordships in some English translations of the De Coelesti Hierarchia. The Dominions regulate the duties of lower angels and it is only with extreme rarity that the angelic lords make themselves physically known to humans. These angels are those through which signs and miracles are made in the world, the term appears to be linked to the attribute might, from the Greek root dynamis in Ephesians 1,21, which is also translated as Virtue or Power
2. Archangel – An archangel /ˌɑːrkˈeɪndʒəl/ is an angel of high rank. The word archangel itself is associated with the Abrahamic religions. The word archangel is derived from the Greek ἀρχάγγελος, Michael and Gabriel are recognized as archangels in Judaism, Islam and by most Christians. Protestants recognize Gabriel as an angel but consider Michael to be the only archangel, raphael—mentioned in the deuterocanonical Book of Tobit—is also recognized in the Catholic and Orthodox churches. Gabriel, Michael, and Raphael are venerated in the Roman Catholic Church with a feast on September 29, the named archangels in Islam are Gabriel, Michael, Israfil and Azrael. Jewish literature, such as the Book of Enoch, mentions Metatron as an archangel, called the highest of the angels, some branches of the faiths mentioned have identified a group of seven Archangels, but the actual angels vary, depending on the source. Gabriel, Michael, and Raphael are always mentioned, the other archangels vary, but most commonly include Uriel, in Zoroastrianism, sacred texts allude to the six great Amesha Spenta of Ahura Mazda. An increasing number of experts in anthropology, theology and philosophy, the Amesha Spentas of Zoroastrianism are likened to archangels. They individually inhabit immortal bodies that operate in the world to protect, guide, and inspire humanity. The Avesta explains the origin and nature of archangels or Amesha Spentas, to maintain equilibrium, Ahura Mazda engaged in the first act of creation, distinguishing his Holy Spirit Spenta Mainyu, the Archangel of righteousness. Ahura Mazda also distinguished from himself six more Amesha Spentas, who, along with Spenta Mainyu, then he oversaw the development of sixteen lands, each imbued with a unique cultural catalyst calculated to encourage the formation of distinct human populations. The Amesha Spentas were charged with protecting these holy lands and through their emanation, the Amesha Spentas as attributes of God are, Spenta Mainyu, lit. Immortality The Hebrew Bible uses the ter. מלאכי אלוהים, The Hebrew word for angel is malach, מלאכי י י, בני אלוהים and הקדושים to refer to beings traditionally interpreted as angelic messengers. Other terms are used in texts, such as העליונים. References to angels are uncommon in Jewish literature except in works such as the Book of Daniel, though they are mentioned briefly in the stories of Jacob. Daniel is the first biblical figure to refer to individual angels by name and it is therefore widely speculated that Jewish interest in angels developed during the Babylonian captivity. According to Rabbi Simeon ben Lakish of Tiberias, specific names for the angels were brought back by the Jews from Babylon, there are no explicit references to archangels in the canonical texts of the Hebrew Bible. In post-Biblical Judaism, certain angels came to take on a particular significance, though these archangels were believed to have rank amongst the heavenly host, no systematic hierarchy ever developed
3. Guardian angel – A guardian angel is an angel that is assigned to protect and guide a particular person, group, kingdom, or country. Belief in guardian angels can be traced throughout all antiquity, the concept of tutelary angels and their hierarchy was extensively developed in Christianity in the 5th century by Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite. The theology of angels and tutelary spirits has undergone many refinements since the 5th century, belief in both the East and the West is that guardian angels serve to protect whichever person God assigns them to, and present prayer to God on that persons behalf. The belief in guardian angels can be traced throughout all antiquity, pagans such as Menander and Plutarch, the guardian angel concept is present in the books of the Hebrew Bible and the Old Testament, and its development is well marked. These books described Gods angels as his ministers who carried out his behests, in this latter case, the prince of the kingdom of Persia contends with Gabriel. The same verse mentions Michael, one of the chief princes, in Rabbinic literature, the Rabbis expressed the notion that there are indeed guardian angels appointed by Adonai to watch over people. Lailah is an angel of the night in charge of conception, lailah serves as a guardian angel throughout a persons life and at death, leads the soul into the afterlife. According to Leo Trepp, in late Judaism, the belief developed that the people have a heavenly representative, every human being has a guardian angel. Previously the term Malakh, angel, simply meant messenger of God, modern rabbis clarify that people might indeed have guardian angels. In the New Testament the concept of guardian angel may be noted, other examples in the New Testament are the angel who succoured Christ in the garden, and the angel who delivered St. Peter from prison. In Acts 12, 12-15, after Peter had been escorted out of prison by an angel, he went to the home of Mary the mother of John, the servant girl, Rhoda, recognized his voice and ran back to tell the group that Peter was there. However, the replied, It must be his angel. Hebrews 1,14 says, Are they not all ministering spirits, sent to minister for them, in this view, the function of the guardian angel is to lead people to the Kingdom of Heaven. In the New Testament Epistle of Jude, Michael is described as an archangel, according to Saint Jerome, the concept of guardian angels is in the mind of the Church. He stated, how great the dignity of the soul, since one has from his birth an angel commissioned to guard it. The first Christian theologian to outline a specific scheme for guardian angels was Honorius of Autun in the 12th century and he said that every soul was assigned a guardian angel the moment it was put into a body. Scholastic theologians augmented and ordered the taxonomy of angelic guardians, in the 15th century, the Feast of the Guardian Angels was added to the official calendar of Catholic holidays. In his 2014 homily for the Feast of Holy Guardian Angels, October 2, Pope Francis told those gathered for daily Mass to be children who pay attention to their “traveling companion. ”“No one journeys alone and no one should think that they are alone
4. Heavenly host – Heavenly host refers to the army of angels mentioned both in the Hebrew and Christian Bibles, as well as other Jewish and Christian texts. Several descriptions of angels in the Bible describe them in terms, such as encampment, command structure. The heavenly host participate in the War in Heaven, in the Book of Joshua 5, 13-15, Joshua encounters a captain of the host of the Lord in the early days of his campaigns in the Promised Land. Cherubim are depicted as accompanying Gods chariot-throne, exodus 25, 18-22 refers to statues of two cherubim placed on top of the Ark of the Covenant. J. A. Motyer writes, the cherbim overshadowing the ark were a pedestal for the throne of the invisible God. Other guard-like duties include being posted in locations such as the gates of Eden, cherubim were mythological winged bulls or other beasts that were part of ancient Near Eastern traditions. This designation might be given to angels of various ranks, an example would be Raphael who is ranked variously as a Seraph, Cherub, and Archangel. This is usually a result of conflicting schemes of hierarchies of angels, in Revelation 5,11 a figure of ten thousand times ten thousand is given for the number of many angels in a circle around the throne, as well as the living creatures and the elders. In the Book of Revelation, the forces of Satan are defeated by the Heavenly Host led by Michael the Archangel during the War in Heaven. This name is transliterated in Latin as Sabaoth, a form that will be more familiar to many English readers. The term Lord of Hosts is also used in the Baháí Faith as a title of God, in the English epic poem Paradise Lost by John Milton, the Archangel Michael commands the army of angels loyal to God against the rebel forces of Satan. Armed with a sword from Gods armory, he bests Satan in personal combat, astrolatry Divine Council Hierarchy of Angels
5. Hierarchy of angels – A hierarchy of angels is a belief or tradition found in the angelology of different religions, which holds that there are different levels or ranks of angels. Higher ranks may be asserted to have power or authority over lower ranks. The Jewish angelic hierarchy is established in the Hebrew Bible, Talmud, Rabbinic literature and they are categorized in different hierarchies proposed by various theologians. For example, Maimonides, in his Mishneh Torah or Yad ha-Chazakah, Yesodei ha-Torah, the most influential Christian angelic hierarchy was that put forward by Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite in the 4th or 5th century in his book De Coelesti Hierarchia. During the Middle Ages, many schemes were proposed, some drawing on and expanding on Pseudo-Dionysius, according to medieval Christian theologians, the angels are organized into several orders, or Angelic Choirs. There is no standard hierarchical organization in Islam that parallels the Christian division into different choirs or spheres, and the topic is not directly addressed in the Quran. However, it is clear there is a set order or hierarchy that exists between angels, defined by the assigned jobs and various tasks to which angels are commanded by God. Some scholars suggest that Islamic angels can be grouped into fourteen categories, there is also an informal Zoroastrian angelic hierarchy, with specific angelic beings called yazatas having key positions in the day-name dedications on the Zoroastrian calendar. For example, Angels in Dungeons & Dragons, a subgroup of the beings called Celestials, come in three different types, the progressively more powerful Astral Deva, Planetar, and Solar
6. Living creatures (Bible) – The living creatures, living beings, or Hayyoth are a class of heavenly beings described in Ezekiels vision of the heavenly chariot in the first and tenth chapters of the Book of Ezekiel. References to the creatures recur in texts of Second Temple Judaism, in rabbinical literature, and in the Book of Daniel. Ezekiels vision of the four living creatures in Ezekiel chapter 1 are identified as cherubim in chapter 10 who are Gods throne bearers, Cherubim as minor guardian deities of temple or palace thresholds are known all over the Ancient East. Each of Ezekiels cherubim have four faces, that of a man, a lion, an ox, however, their human shape appearances set them apart from the griffin-like cherubs of Babylonia and Assyria. In their ability to move, Ezekiels cherubim do not need to turn and this description of movement differs from the seraphim in Isaiahs vision who have an extra set of wings for their ability to fly. In Daniel, four living creatures surround the throne upon which the Ancient of Days sits Daniel 7. This white throne is also referenced in the judgement in Revelation 20. The four beasts differ from the four beasts in Ezekiel chapter 1 and Revelation 4, 6–8 in that there are a lion, a calf, an eagle and a man faced creature. The beasts have four wings, just as the beasts in Ezekiel have four wings, the first beast has its wings removed, it is stood upright, and it is given the mind of a man. This beast which is given authority to rule, closely matches the description of the Dragon, the beast out of the sea in Revelation chapter 13, the final beast, is a mechanical beast with large iron teeth. It crushes and devours its victims, and tramples underfoot whatever is left and this beast most resembles the winepress spoken of in Revelation 14, 18-20. In Revelation 4, 6–8, four living beings are seen in Johns vision and these appear as a lion, an ox, a man, and an eagle, much as in Ezekiel but in a different order. They have six wings, whereas Ezekiels four living creatures are described as only having four, in verse 6, they are said to have eyes all over, front and back which suggests that they are alert and knowledgeable, that nothing escapes their notice. The description parallels the wheels that are beside the creatures in Ezek 1.18,10.12. The Hebrew word for wheel was used in later Jewish literature to indicate a member of the angelic orders. The term eyes can also be used as a metaphor for stars, in Revelation, these four beasts surround the one on the red throne, which is contrasted with the white throne in Daniel Daniel 7,9 and Revelation Revelation 20, 11-15. Comparing the living creatures in Ezekiel with Revelations is a prominent apocalyptic study in Western Christianity, an example is the 18th Century works of Jonathan Edwards recorded interpretation of 1722/23. The four living creatures that John of Patmos sees in the Book of Revelation, is the reworking of the living creatures in the visions of Ezekiel
7. Ophanim – The ophanim or ofanim, also called galgalim, refer to the wheels seen in Ezekiels vision of the chariot in Ezekiel 1, 15-21. One of the Dead Sea scrolls construes them as angels, late sections of the Book of Enoch portray them as a class of beings who never sleep. These wheels have been associated with Daniel 7,9 of the four, eye-covered wheels, the four wheels move with the Cherubim because the spirit of the Cherubim is in them. The late Second Book of Enoch also referred to them as the many-eyed ones, for some the Ophanim are also related to or equated to the Thrones, since the Throne of God is usually depicted as being moved by wheels, in the vision of Daniel 7,9. However the Thrones, are a form of celestial spiritual being. The cherubim carry, by moving the Ophanim, the throne of God and these Angelic Princes are often also called Ofanim, Wheels of Galgallin. It is said that they were the wheels of the Lords Heavenly Chariot. The four wheels had rims and they had spokes, and their rims were full of round about. They are also referred to as many-eyed ones. Rosemary Ellen Guiley states that, The thrones, also known as ophanim and they are characterized by peace and submission, God rests upon them. Thrones are depicted as great wheels containing many eyes, and reside in the area of the cosmos where material form begins to take shape and they chant glorias to God and remain forever in his presence. They mete out justice and maintain the cosmic harmony of all universal laws. Maimonides lists Ophanim as occupying the second of ten ranks of angels in his exposition of the Jewish angelic hierarchy, Ophanim are mentioned in the kel adon prayer, often sung by the congregation, as part of the traditional Shabbat morning service. In the Jewish angelic hierarchy thrones and wheels are different and this is also true in the Kabbalistic angelic hierarchy. De Coelesti Hierarchia refers to the Thrones as the third Order of the first sphere, the other two superior orders being the Cherubim and Seraphim. It is mentioned that The name of the most glorious and exalted Thrones denotes that which is exempt from and untainted by any base and earthly thing, and the super mundane ascent up the steep. The heavenly Seraphim and Cherubim as well as the Ophanim still continue to aid humans in spiritual evolution and his successor Elijah Muhammad also identified them with contemporary sightings of flying saucers
8. Seraph – A seraph is a type of celestial or heavenly being in Christianity and Judaism. The singular seraph is a back-formation from the seraphim, whereas in Hebrew the singular is saraph. Tradition places seraphim in the highest rank in the Christian angelic hierarchy, a seminal passage in the Book of Isaiah used the term to describe six-winged beings that fly around the Throne of God crying holy, holy, holy. This throne scene, with its invocation of holiness, profoundly influenced subsequent theology, literature. Its influence is seen in works depicting angels, heaven. Seraphim are mentioned as celestial beings in an influential Hellenistic work, the Book of Enoch, the word saraph/seraphim appears three times in the Torah and four times in the Book of Isaiah. In Isaiah 6, 2-6 the term is used to describe a type of celestial being or angel, the other five uses of the word refer to serpents. The vision in Isaiah Chapter 6 of seraphim in an idealised Jerusalem First Temple represents the sole instance in the Hebrew Bible of this word being used to describe celestial beings. I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up, above him stood the Seraphim, each had six wings, with two he covered his face, and with two he covered his feet, and with two he flew. The seraphim cry continually to each other, Holy, holy, holy, is YHWH of hosts, one seraph then carries out an act of purification for the prophet by touching his lips with a live coal from the altar. The text literally describes the seraphim as winged celestial beings with a passion for doing Gods good work. Seraphim appear in the 2nd-century BC Book of Enoch where they are mentioned, in conjunction with cherubim and they are also called the Ikisat which, along with the cherubim and Paradise, are under the rule of Gabriel. In the Second Book of Enoch, two classes of beings are equated with the seraphim and cherubim, known as the phoenixes. Both are described as flying elements of the sun that reside in either the 4th or 6th heaven and they appear also in the Christian Gnostic text On the Origin of the World. The 12th-century scholar Maimonides placed the seraphim in the fifth of ten ranks of angels in his exposition of the Jewish angelic hierarchy, through this they ascend to God, and return to their place. Below them in the World of Yetzirah are the Hayot angels of Ezekiels vision, Seraphim are part of the angelarchy of modern Orthodox Judaism. Isaiahs vision is repeated several times in daily Jewish services, including at Kedushah prayer as part of the repetition of the Amidah, and in several other prayers as well. Conservative Judaism retains the traditional doctrines regarding angels and includes references to them in the liturgy, adherents of Reform Judaism and Reconstructionist Judaism generally take images of angels as symbolic
9. Thrones – The Thrones are a class of celestial beings mentioned by Paul the Apostle in Colossians 1,16. According to the New Testament, these high celestial beings are among those Orders at the Christs service and they are the carriers of the Throne of God, hence the name. According to Matthew Bunson, the order of angels in Judaism is called the abalim or arelim/erelim. The Hebrew word erelim is usually not translated Thrones, but rather valiant ones, heroes, the function ascribed to erelim in Isaiah 33,7 and in Jewish folklore is not consonant with the lore surrounding the Thrones. The Ophanim is a class of beings, from Daniel 7,9. They are said to be great wheels covered in eyes, pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite includes the Thrones as the third highest of 9 levels of angels
10. Watcher (angel) – Watcher is a term used in connection with biblical angels. Watcher occurs in both plural and singular forms in the Book of Daniel, where reference is made to their holiness, the apocryphal Books of Enoch refer to both good and bad Watchers, with a primary focus on the rebellious ones. In the Book of Daniel 4,13,17,23 there are three references to the class of watcher, holy one, the term is introduced by Nebuchadnezzar who says he saw a watcher, a holy one come down from heaven. Lutheran Protestant reformer Johann Wigand viewed the watcher in Nebuchadnezzars dream as either God himself and he promoted Trinitarian thinking by linking verse 17 with verse 24. In the Books of Enoch, the first Book of Enoch devotes much of its attention to the fall of the Watchers, the Second Book of Enoch addresses the Watchers who are in fifth heaven where the fall took place. The Third Book of Enoch gives attention to the unfallen Watchers, the use of the term Watchers is common in the Book of Enoch. The Book of the Watchers occurs in the Aramaic fragments with the phrase irin we-qadishin, Watchers and Holy Ones, the Aramaic irin watchers is rendered as angel in the Greek and Ethiopian translations, although the usual Aramaic term for angel malakha does not occur in Aramaic Enoch. The dating of this section of 1 Enoch is around 2nd–1st century BC and this book is based on one interpretation of the Sons of God passage in Genesis 6, according to which angels married with human females, giving rise to a race of hybrids known as the Nephilim. In the Book of Enoch, the Watchers are angels dispatched to Earth to watch over the humans and they soon begin to lust for human women and, at the prodding of their leader Samyaza, defect en masse to illicitly instruct humanity and procreate among them. The offspring of these unions are the Nephilim, savage giants who pillage the earth, eventually God allows a Great Flood to rid the earth of the Nephilim, but first sends Uriel to warn Noah so as not to eradicate the human race. The Watchers are bound in the valleys of the Earth until Judgment Day, the chiefs of tens, listed in the Book of Enoch, are as follows,7. These are their chiefs of tens, the book of Enoch also lists leaders of the 200 fallen angels who married and commenced in unnatural union with human women, and who taught forbidden knowledge. Some are also listed in Book of Raziel, the Zohar, araqiel taught humans the signs of the earth. Armaros in Enoch I taught men the resolving of enchantments, Azazel taught men to make knives, swords, shields, and how to devise ornaments and cosmetics. Gadreel taught the art of cosmetics, the use of weapons, bezaliel mentioned in Enoch I, left out of most translations because of damaged manuscripts and problematic transmission of the text. Chazaqiel taught men the signs of the clouds, kokabiel, In the Book of Raziel he is a high-ranking, holy angel. In Enoch I, he is a fallen Watcher, resident of the nether realms, among other duties, he instructs his fellows in astrology. Penemue taught mankind the art of writing ink and paper, and taught the children of men the bitter and the sweet