The ducat /ˈdʌkət/ was a gold or silver coin used as a trade coin in Europe from the medieval centuries until as late as the 20th century. Many types of ducats had various metallic content and purchasing power throughout the period, the gold ducat of Venice gained wide international acceptance, like the medieval Byzantine hyperpyron and the Florentine florin, or the modern British pound sterling and the United States dollar. The word ducat is from Medieval Latin ducatus = relating to a duke, Doge Enrico Dandolo of Venice, whose title means duke, introduced a silver ducat whose types are related to the ducats of Roger II. Later gold ducats of Venice, became so important that the name ducat was associated exclusively with them, the Venetian business model of the 13th century was importing goods from the East and selling them at a profit north of the Alps. They paid for goods with Byzantine gold coins but when the Byzantine emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos backed a rebellion called the Sicilian Vespers in 1282.
This was just one more in a series of debasements of the hyperpyron, both Florence and Genoa had introduced gold coins in 1252 and the florin of Florence had become the standard European gold coin. Venice modeled the size and weight of their ducat on the florin, the Venetian ducat contained 3.545 grams of 99. 47% fine gold, the highest purity medieval metallurgy could produce. Gold ducat types derive from silver ducat types, which were ultimately Byzantine, the obverse shows the Doge of Venice kneeling before St. Mark, the patron saint of Venice. Saint Mark holds the gospel, which is his usual attribute, the legend on the left identifies the saint as S M VENET, i. e. Saint Mark of Venice, and the legend on the right identifies the doge, with his title DVX in the field. On the reverse, Christ stands among a field of stars in an oval frame, the reverse legend is the same as on Roger II’s ducats. Succeeding doges of Venice continued striking ducats, changing only their name on the obverse, during the 15th century, the value of the ducat in terms of silver money was stable at 124 Venetian soldi, i. e. schillings.
The term ducat became identified with this amount of money as well as the gold coin. Conflict between England and Spain in 1567, increased the price of gold and upset this equivalence, at this point, the coin was called the ducato de zecca, i. e. ducat of the mint, which was shortened to zecchino and corrupted to sequin. Leonardo Loredan extended the coinage with a half ducat and subsequent doges added a quarter, all of these coins continued to use the designs and weight standards of the original 1284 ducat. Even after dates became a feature of western coinage, Venice struck ducats without them until Napoleon ended the Venetian Republic in 1797. Instead, the Roman coin showed a senator kneeling before St. Peter on the obverse, the Popes subsequently changed these designs, but continued to strike ducats of the same weight and size into the 16th century. Most imitations of the Venetian ducat were made in the Levant, the Knights of Saint John struck ducats with grand master Dieudonné de Gozon, 1346-1353, kneeling before Saint John on the obverse and an angel seated on the Sepulcher of Christ on the reverse.
Subsequent Grand masters, found it expedient to copy the Venetian types more exactly, first at Rhodes and they struck ducats at Chios that could be distinguished from the Venetian originals only by their workmanship
A coin watch or medal watch comprises a watch inserted into a coin or medal. A coin watch is made by slicing a coin into two disks, one thinner than the other, or by removing one face of a coin. A watch is embedded into the part, and the two faces joined by a concealed hinge and catch. When closed, the watch is hidden and the coin looks like any other, noted makers of coin watches include Cartier and Corum
Celtic coinage was minted by the Celts from the late 4th century BC to the late 1st century BC. Thus Greek motifs and even letters can be found on various Celtic coins, Greek coinage occurred in three Greek cities of Massalia and Rhoda, and was copied throughout southern Gaul. Northern Gaulish coins were especially influenced by the coinage of Philip II of Macedon, the Armorican Celtic style in northwestern Gaul developed from Celtic designs from the Rhine valley, themselves derived from earlier Greek prototypes such as the wine scroll and split palmette. The Boii gave their name to Bohemia and Bologna, a Celtic coin from Bratislavas mint is displayed on Slovak 5 koruna coin and they are miniature masterpieces of surreal art. A tribe of Celts called Eburones minted gold coins with triple spirals on the front, the coins were either struck or cast. Both methods required a degree of knowledge. Striking a blank coin formed in a clay was one way, after forming the blank, it would have been flattened out before striking with a die made from iron or bronze.
The tiny details engraved on dies were just a few millimeters in diameter, casting a coin required a different technique. They were produced by pouring molten alloy into a set of molds which were broken apart when the metal had cooled, with the Roman invasion of Gaul, Greek-inspired Celtic coinage started to incorporate Roman influence instead, until it disappeared to be completely replaced by Roman coinage. Traditional historians have tended to overlook the role played by Celtic coinage in the history of British money. Over 45,000 of the ancient British and Gaulish coins discovered in Britain have been recorded at the Oxford Celtic Coin Index, the Trinovantian tribal oppidum of Camulodunon was minting large numbers of coins in the first centuries BC and AD, which have been found across Southern Britain. Common motifs on the Camulodunon coins included horses and wheat/barley sheafs, with the names of the rulers written mostly in Latin script, John The Diffusion of Classical Art in Antiquity, Princeton 1993 ISBN 0-691-03680-2 The Oxford Celtic Coin Index
Coin flipping, coin tossing, or heads or tails is the practice of throwing a coin in the air to choose between two alternatives, sometimes to resolve a dispute between two parties. It is a form of sortition which inherently has only two possible and equally likely outcomes, the historical origin of coin flipping is the interpretation of a chance outcome as the expression of divine will. Coin flipping as a game was known to the Romans as navia aut caput, as some coins had a ship on one side, in England, this game was referred to as cross and pile. The expression Heads or Tails results from heads and tails being considered opposite body parts, during a coin toss, the coin is thrown into the air such that it rotates edge-over-edge several times. Either beforehand or when the coin is in the air, an interested party calls heads or tails, the other party is assigned the opposite side. Depending on custom, the coin may be caught and inverted, when the coin comes to rest, the toss is complete and the party who called correctly or was assigned the upper side is declared the winner.
It is possible for a coin to land on its edge, even on a flat surface it is possible for a coin to land on its edge, with a chance of about 1 in 6000. Angular momentum typically prevents most coins from landing on their edges unsupported if flipped, such cases in which a coin does land on its edge are exceptionally rare and in most cases the coin is simply re-flipped. The coin may be any type as long as it has two sides, it need not be a circulating coin as such. Larger coins tend to be more popular than smaller ones, most high-profile coin tosses use custom-made ceremonial medallions. Three-way coin flips are possible, by a different process – this can be either to choose two out of three, or to choose one out of three. To choose two out of three, three coins are flipped, and if two coins come up the same and one different, the different one loses, leaving two players. To choose one out of three, either reverse this, or add a regular two-way coin flip between the players as a second step. Note that the flip is 75% likely to work each time it is tried.
A legacy of this coin flip was to reduce the use of coin flips to break ties in Texas sports, Coin tossing is a simple and unbiased way of settling a dispute or deciding between two or more arbitrary options. In a game theoretic analysis it provides even odds to both involved, requiring little effort and preventing the dispute from escalating into a struggle. Factors such as direction, the position of the sun. In team sports it is often the captain who makes the call, a competitive method may be used instead of a toss in some situations, for example in basketball the jump ball is employed, while the face-off plays a similar role in ice hockey
The croat was a silver coin of Catalonia introduced by Peter III of Aragon in 1285 and minted at Barcelona. The term croat derives from the Latin grossus denarius, great coin, Peter III was inspired by the gros introduced by Louis IX of France. The croat was originally worth twelve terns of 25% silver billon, in 1340 the gold florín was introduced at a value of eleven croats. The purity of the florín was fixed at eighteen carats in 1365, as the popularity of the florín and the croat grew, the Aragonese empire settled into bimetallism. The Catalan croat was equivalent in value to the Aragonese ral and it was the most stable of all the Aragonese coinage and widely used in the Mediterranean trade
Aachen penny of Charlemagne
This is the first discovery of coinage from the time of Charlemagne at Aachen. The obverse of the features a cross in the centre, surrounded by the Latin inscription CARLVS REX FR, which means Charles, King of the Fr. On the reverse, the monogram of Charlemagne is in the centre. In the monetary reform of 792/794 it was determined that a pound would contain twenty shillings or 240 pennies, the introduction of the new monetary system with broadly unified coinage types in the Frankish realm was decreed at the Council of Frankfurt in 794. On this coinage type, the relevant mint is named on the reverse inscription - in the case of the Aachen penny found in 2008, the silver penny was, minted in the period after 794 in the city of Melle, in Poitou-Charentes. The coin was deposited during the construction of the Palatine chapel. Ulrike Hecker said, The coin was found in the backfill from the excavation of the grave of 1910 and this origin leads to the conclusion that the Carolingian floor was first laid after 794.
Aachen archaeology portal, Der Denar Karls
Elongated coins are coins that have been elongated and embossed with a new design with the purpose of creating a commemorative or souvenir token. The collecting of elongated coins is a branch of numismatics, Elongated coins are categorized as exonumia. The first elongated coins in the United States were created at the Worlds Columbian Exposition in Chicago, several designs were issued to commemorate the fair, and are available in the elongated coin collecting community today. The earliest elongated coin designer on record is Charles Damm, who created the design for the coins available at the 1901 Pan American Exposition in Buffalo. The production of elongated coins can be divided into three classes, each of which covers a distinct period from 1893 to the present. This period started with the issuance of the first elongateds in 1893, the second class of elongated coins, the Modern Elongateds, cover the years c.1965 to c. Around 1965, the source of elongated coins became private rollers. The major rollers of this period include Dottie Dow, the House of Elongateds, Ralph Jones, Ralph W.
Jobe, Elmer Anderson, Don Adams, Cee Ceven and this event marks the beginning of the third class of elongated coins, the Contemporary Elongateds. This class of elongated coin machines were designed and built by Randy and Earl Vaughn from Dayton and these mechanical coin-operated machines are still prominent in amusement parks such as Disney Resorts and attractions throughout the United States, and the world. The first ever stand alone coin-operated mechanical penny press machine was placed in Kings Island Amusement park in 1988 by manufacturer Uncommon Cents, the hobby of collecting elongated coins has expanded throughout the United States and the world. Most modern coin elongating machines can be found in museums or landmark gift shops, souvenir stores, amusement parks, private engravers make special-issue elongated coins to commemorate historical events, personal landmarks, or other events warranting celebration. They design elongated coins for private clubs and organizations and it is common to find pressed penny machines in tourism hubs, such as museums, amusement parks, and natural/man-made landmarks.
An early and common method of coin elongation was smashing pennies by leaving them on a railroad track. When a train rolls over a penny, the force is sufficient to cause plastic deformation that flattens and stretches it into an oval, some early railroad flattened cents were hand engraved with the date and location. One of the rollers is engraved with a design that imprints a new image into the metal as the passes through it. The resulting coin is oval-shaped and shows a design corresponding to the design on the die in the mill, some machines are hand operated, whereas others are fully automatic. Throughout the history of the production of elongated coins, various methods have used to engrave the design into the roller. Early elongateds were hand engraved with burin gravers, and some are still engraved using this method, more popular modern and contemporary methods include etching, pantograph engraving, and engraving using electric or air-powered rotary tools
Coinage of Upper Canada
Upper Canada had a short history as a coin-issuing entity. Token bearing a portrait of King George IV, even though it was issued two years after his death, the obverse of this piece is inscribed PROVINCE OF UPPER CANADA. The reverse has a representation of Britannia facing from right to left, in 1850, the Bank of Upper Canada received the right to issue a coinage due to a severe coin shortage. The coinage consisted of 1/2 Penny and 1 Penny Bank Tokens, the obverse of the coins carried a representation of St. George slaying the dragon based on Benedetto Pistruccis gold sovereign coinage design. The reverse of the coins carried the obsolete Coat-of-Arms of Upper Canada, the 1850 issue was struck at the Royal Mint, but the coins did not arrive in Canada until 1851. Pieces bear a dot between the tips of the cornucopiae, but the significance of this is unknown, the letters R. K. & Co. is not a mintmark. It is the mark of Rowe and Company of London, in 1852, the Royal Mint started to strike the second issue, but due to a heavy schedule and time pressure, the coin dies and planchets were transferred to Heatons Mint.
There is a way that the strikings can be distinguished, the Royal Mint issue has the dies in medallic alignment, the Heatons Mint issue has the dies in coin alignment. In 1854, Heatons Mint were asked to strike a new coinage, there are two types of 4s in the date, a plain 4, and a crosslet 4. In 1857, Heatons Mint were asked to strike this final coinage, the reason why this was the final coinage was, because the introduction of a decimal currency into Canada was being contemplated. In 1863, the Bank of Upper Canada complained to the Canadian government that it had a time trying to issue their final coinage because of the change to decimal currency. The government bought the coins and stored them in a warehouse as copper bullion, after Canadian Confederation, a proportion of the coins managed to reach circulation, but the majority of the coins were melted in 1873 under government supervision. The coins of Upper Canada are very popular with collectors of British Empire coins, there are a few scarce pieces in this series.
The 1857 issue is difficult to find. The pieces have given the affectionate nickname of St. George Pieces
Coinage of Asia
The earliest coinage of Asia is the oldest coinage of the world. Coins were invented several times independently of each other, the earliest coins from the Mediterranean region are from the kingdom of Lydia, and are now dated ca.600 BCE. The dating of the earliest coins of China and India is difficult, the first coins of China are at least as old as the earliest Lydian coins and possibly older, while the earliest coins of India seems to have appeared at a stage. Pre-modern Chinese coins were always cast bronze or brass issues and this concept was adopted by Japan and Annam, and influenced regions in South-East Asia. The Lydian coins consisted of discs or lumps of electrum, and were stamped on two sides with dies and this concept spread rapidly to neighbouring Greek city states in Asia Minor and across the Aegean Sea, and eventually throughout the Mediterranean. When Lydia was conquered by Achaemenid Persia, the production of Lydian coins continued in the guise of silver Siglos, other parts of Persia only began to mint coins at the time of Alexander the Greats conquest.
Coinage of India began in the 7th century BCE, as small native states known as the Mahajanapadas began to mint coins of silver, the concept of coinage, and many design elements, spread across the Indian subcontinent within centuries. India subsequently absorbed and modified numerous influences, including Greek, Arabic, some time around the 7th century BCE, coins shaped like utensils emerged in China. In most regions, spade-shaped coins were issued, while knife-shaped coins were issued in the North-East, in the state of Chu, small oval bronze pieces were issued. Numismatists and archaeologists believe that the minting of coins was not organized by the central authority, the spade and knife coins underwent a number of changes in size and inscriptions. Cowrie shells are found in excavations that date back to the Shang era. These might have used as currency, but there is not agreement as to whether they did serve a currency purpose or not. Various other bronze artifacts have been described as money, these are now believed to be types of ornaments.
During the 4th century BCE, a new type of coins, the ban liang coins were round, cast bronze coins with a hole in the center, inscribed ban liang, or half liang. Qin eventually conquered the states of China and replaced the defunct Zhou Dynasty with the Qin Dynasty in 221 BCE. The monetary systems of China were now standardized, based on the Qin model, the round, cast base metal coins of the Far East are known as cash coins. The cash coins were customarily strung together with hempen threads into standard-size strings of cash, in 118 BCE, the ban liang coins were replaced by another type, the wu zhu type, that was inscribed wu zhu, or five zhu. These were minted until 621 CE, shortly after the establishment of the Tang Dynasty, being minted for almost a thousand years combined, the ban liang and wu zhu coins come in a great number of varieties
The coins are of Greek style, but with an Etruscan flavour and have a predilection for ‘apotropaic’ images of exotic animals and monsters that drive away evil demons. The wheels with curved struts of Vulci are reminiscent of some 5th century Macedonian tribal coins and these early issues are rare and seem not to have been exported, they have no mark of value and must have had a limited circulation. They correspond to a silver unit of about 2.25 grams, probably representing the silver equivalent of a bronze as or libra. These male heads were probably followed by a more finely produced octopus/amphora silver series, struck on the ‘Chalcidian’ standard, but with exactly double the unit of value of the former. The marks of value 20,10 and 5, give a silver unit or as of about 1.13 grams, approximately one Roman scruple, and probably represent a devaluation of the bronze unit in relation to silver. Find evidence from the Ponte Gini di Orentino excavation suggests a dating for this phase in the first half of the 3rd century.
Last, but by no means least, is a spectacular series of high artistic merit probably from Volsini. The reverse running dog 5-unit coin is reminiscent of the Chiana Valley male head/dog running struck bronze of uncertain date in the 3rd century. By circa 280 BC, the Roman libra or pound weighed about 325 g and this cast coinage seems to mirror the extensive Roman series. Two large struck bronze series with Populonia and Vetulonia are close to the Roman post-semi-libral as standard that is dated by Crawford to about 215-211 BC, convegni del Centro Internazionale di Studi Numismatici di Napoli, Contributi introduttivi allo studio della monetazione etrusca. Atti del V Convegno, Napoli 1975, Istituto italiano di numismatica, Roma,1977 Catalli, alberto Campana, CNIA published in review Panorama Numismatico Head, Barclay Vincent. Greek coinages of Southern Italy and Sicily, ISBN 0-907605-82-6 Rutter, N. K. Historia Nummorum - Italy. Sear, David R. Greek Coins and Their Values, Vol.1, sara Sorda, I ripostigli di bronzo protostorici dellItalia centrale, in AA. VV.
Thompson M. Mørkholm O. Kray C. M, an Inventory of Greek Coins Hoards, New York,1973 Italo Vecchi, Etruscan Coinage. A descriptive catalogue of the cast coinage of Rome and Italy, hard bound in quarto format,84 pages,92 plates. ISBN 978-0-9575784-0-1 James Millingen, Considérations sur la Numismatique de lancienne Italie, francesco Carelli, Numorum Italiae veteris Tabulae CCII, ed. Cavedoni,1850. Luigi Sambon, Recherches sur les monnaies de la presquíle italique depuis leur origine jusqu´ a la bataille dActium, wilhelm Deecke, Etruskische Forschungen, Heft II. Raffaele Garrucci, Le monete dellItalia antica, theodor Mommsen, Die Geschichte des römische Münzwesen - Berlin 1860