Thomas Bladen was a politician and colonial governor. He served as the 19th Proprietary Governor of Maryland from 1742 to 1747, Bladen was born in Maryland in 1698, the eldest son of William Bladen, who came to Maryland in 1690, and Anne Van Swearingen. Thomas was the grandson of Nathaniel Bladen and Isabella Fairfax and he was the nephew of Colonel Martin Bladen, Commissioner of the Board of Trade and Plantations. He also saw service as a colonel. In 1742, he returned to Maryland as provincial Governor, the first governor to be born in the Province and he also served as surveyor general, Western Shore, 1742–1746, and chancellor, 1742–1746/47. While governor, he concluded a peace with the Six Nations and he negotiated with Pennsylvania authorities for the settlement of the Maryland–Pennsylvania boundary. Upon his arrival in Maryland, the Legislature awarded him £4,000 to build himself a residence, which was £1,000 more than his predecessor. In 1744, he bought 4 acres of land in Annapolis from Stephen Bordley and commenced construction of a building, now McDowell Hall, St. Johns College, as a governors residence. He quickly disagreed with the Legislature about its architecture and became involved in a lawsuit with Bordley, the previous owner, while as governor in Maryland in 1744, Thomas organized the first ice cream social in the United States. The social was organized while at a dinner party and he quickly became an unpopular Governor and was dismissed from office by October 1746 because he was tactless and quarrelsome. He returned to England in 1746, when he was succeeded by Samuel Ogle - husband of his niece Anne Tasker, Ogle had been Governor prior to Bladens arrival in Maryland. Bladen died in England in 1780, the Governors residence sat uncompleted until 1766 when the roof collapsed. The building now serves as the hall of St. Johns College and is named McDowell Hall. The town of Bladensburg, Maryland, which was incorporated in the first year of his governorship as Garrisons Landing, was renamed after him and he had two daughters, Barbara Bladen m. The Hon. Henry St John, a brother of Frederick St John, 2nd Viscount Bolingbroke, 3rd Viscount St John Harriet Bladen, m. William Capell, 4th Earl of Essex, ancestress of the 6th and subsequent earls
Thomas Brooke Sr.
Major Thomas Brooke Sr. Esq. was a colonial lawyer, planter and politician of Calvert County, Maryland, where he served in the appointed positions of Burgess, High Sheriff and Chief Justice. Thomas Brooke was born in Battle, Sussex, England on June 23,1632, Thomas was raised as a Protestant but converted to Roman Catholicism. He immigrated at the age of 18 to Maryland with his father Gov. Robert Brooke Sr. Esq. an Anglican minister on June 30,1650. Thomas Brooke was commissioned a Captain in 1658, commanding the Militia of Calvert County, in 1661 he led an expedition against Native Americans. He served as a Burgess for Calvert County from 1663–1669, and he was a High Sheriff of Calvert County from 1660–1667, and presiding Chief Justice of the County Court in 1667. In addition Thomas was Mayor of Battle Creek, Calvert Co, Maj. Thomas Brooke resided at his plantation called Brookefield, which he laid out on April 16,1664. B. the initials of the grantee and this is the origin of the name of the current town of T. B. The village still bears the name, besides Brookefield, Maj. Brooke was owner of two tracts of land in Charles County. The first was Locust Thicket, which he laid down on May 2,1668, the second one was laid down the next day, called Brookes Landing. At the time of his death on December 29,1676 and his estate, which included 10 slaves and 10 servants was valued at 95,910 pounds of tobacco. Thomas and Eleanor Brooke were both members of the Roman Catholic Church and raised their children as Catholic, in 1658 Brooke married as his second wife Eleanor Hatton, who was 16 years old. She was born in London, England on April 3,1642, as the daughter of the Honorable Richard Hatton Sr. and Margaret, father Richard was born in St. Margarets Parish, in Westminster, London, England, where he continued to reside. Eleanor immigrated across the Atlantic to Maryland in 1649 with her widowed mother, eleanors uncle Hon. Thomas Hatton, had been Secretary of the Province. After the death of Thomas Brooke, the widowed Eleanor, then still only age 34, married Col. Henry Darnall of Woodyard, Gov. Thomas Brooke Jr. Hon. of Brookefield, Thomas married 1) Ann. 2) Barbara Dent, daughter of Col. Thomas Dent Sr. Gent. 2) Capt. Benjamin Hall, son of Richard Hall and Elizabeth Wingfield. Ignatius Brooke Matthew Brooke Elinor Brooke, who married 1) Philip Darnall, son of Col. Henry Darnall Sr. 2) William Digges Jr. son of Col. William Digges Sr. clement Brooke Sr. who married Jane Sewall, daughter of Nicholas Sewall. Thomas Sr. was the son of Gov. Robert Brooke Sr. Esq. and his first wife, Mary was the daughter of Thomas Baker II and Mary Engham. Robert Sr. was the son of Hon. Thomas Brooke, Susan was the daughter of Sir Thomas Foster V of “Etherstone”, Hertford, England, and his wife, Susan Foster, co-heiress with her sister Constance
Benedict Swingate Calvert
Benedict Swingate Calvert was a planter, politician and a Loyalist in Maryland during the American Revolution. He was the son of Charles Calvert, 5th Baron Baltimore, the third Proprietor Governor of Maryland and his mothers identity is not known, though one source suggests Melusina von der Schulenburg, Countess of Walsingham. As he was illegitimate, he was not able to inherit his fathers title or estates, Benedict Calvert spent most of his life as a politician and planter in Maryland, though Frederick, by contrast, never visited the colony. Calvert was born Benedict Swinket in England on January 27,1722, of course, the possibility exists that he may have deliberately falsified his birthdate in order to protect or obscure the identity of his mother. Melusina was the daughter of George I of England and his mistress, Melusine von der Schulenburg, whatever the truth of this, it seems likely that Calverts mother was a person of some consequence. According to a letter of Benedicts daughter-in-law Rosalie Stier Calvert dated 10 June 1814, in 1742, aged about twelve years, the young Benedict was sent to the Calverts proprietary colony of Maryland, which in the mid 18th century was still a sparsely settled, largely rural society. In 1730 the population of Annapolis was just 776, Elizabeth was the daughter of Maryland Governor Captain Charles Calvert and his wife Rebecca Gerard, both of whom died young, leaving Elizabeth a wealthy heiress. Through his family connections Calvert was able to benefit from considerable proprietarial patronage, in 1745, aged around 15 years, he was appointed by his father the Patuxent district customs collector and naval officer. Benedict Calvert would never return to England, nor would he meet his father again, on April 21,1748 Benedict and his cousin Elizabeth were married in St Anns Church by the Reverend John Gordon. The couple, aged 18 and 17 years respectively, moved into a house at State Circle, the marriage was announced in the Maryland Gazette on April 27,1748, Last Thursday the Honourable Benedict Calvert, Esq. In 1751 Calverts father Charles Calvert, 5th Baron Baltimore died, leaving his son the 10. Unfortunately, Lord Baltimores legitimate son and heir, Frederick Calvert, 6th Baron Baltimore, successfully challenged the will and invalidated Benedicts bequest, despite the loss of his fathers bequest, Calverts career progressed steadily. In 1755 he became a Judge of the Land Office, sitting alongside his former guardian Dr. George H. Steuart and he was also an Annapolis councilman. In 1769 his half-sister Caroline Calvert married Robert Eden, who in the same year succeeded Governor Horatio Sharpe as Governor of Maryland, Eden and Calvert shared a love of horse racing and Benedict Swingate Calvert would soon find himself appointed to the Governors Council. Mount Airy was most likely a gift from his father, Lord Baltimore, Calvert began construction on the house at Mount Airy in 1751, expanding it considerably, to create the house which still survives today. Building continued in spite of a fire, rumored to be arson, by the 1770s Benedict Swingate Calvert controlled a large and profitable estate of around 4,000 acres, with upwards of 150 slaves. Their elegant and light carriages are drawn by finely bred horses, in 1774, Calverts daughter Eleanor Calvert, married John Parke Custis, son of Martha Washington and the stepson of George Washington. Washington himself did not approve of the match owing to the youth, but eventually gave his consent, and was present at the wedding celebrations
William Carmichael (diplomat)
William Carmichael was an American statesman and diplomat from Maryland during and after the Revolutionary War. Carmichael was born sometime around 1739 at the home in Queen Annes County, Maryland. Apparently, he was sent to Europe for his education, at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland and he was living in Chestertown in 1774, and was a member of its Committee of Correspondence during the local controversy over dutiable tea. In 1776 the Congress named Carmichael as a Secret Agent, first as an assistant to Silas Deane, Carmichael later represented American interests at the court of Frederick II of Prussia in Berlin. He returned to America in February 1778 and the Maryland Assembly sent him as a delegate to the Continental Congress, Carmichael clashed repeatedly with many of his fellow countrymen, particularly Arthur Lee and John Jay, and his tenure in Congress was a brief and stormy one. His true milieu was the world of European courts and high society, in 1779, then, Carmichael returned to the Old World, this time to Madrid as a diplomatic representative to Spain for the United States. At first, he was Secretary to the Legation headed by John Jay, when Jay returned in April 1782 Carmichael became Chargé dAffaires, remaining in this post at the Spanish royal court until illness forced his replacement in 1794. In 1792, President George Washington appointed Carmichael a commissioner plenipotentiary to negotiate a treaty with Spain protecting American navigation rights to the Mississippi River. The treaty was concluded shortly after Carmichaels death, and became known as the Treaty of San Lorenzo or Pinckneys Treaty, Thomas Pinckney having stepped in to complete the negotiations. Carmichael was also involved in negotiations to free American mariners who had taken captive by the Dey of Algiers. William Carmichael died in Madrid, Spain on February 9,1795 and is buried in the Protestant cemetery there and he left a Spanish wife and daughter, who returned to the Eastern Shore of Maryland and were eventually compensated by the U. S. Congress for Carmichaels services
Charles Carroll the Settler
Charles Carroll, sometimes called Charles Carroll the Settler to differentiate him from his son and grandson, was a wealthy lawyer and planter in colonial Maryland. Carroll, a Catholic, is best known because his efforts to hold office in the Protestant-dominated colony resulted in the disfranchisement of the colonys Catholics. The second son of Irish Catholic parents, Carroll was educated in France as a lawyer before returning to England, before that career developed, he secured a position as Attorney General of the young colony of Maryland. Its founder George Calvert and his descendants intended it as a refuge for Catholics, Carroll supported Charles Calvert, the colonys Catholic proprietor, in an unsuccessful effort to prevent the Protestant majority from gaining political control over Maryland. He was the wealthiest man in the colony by the time of his death, in the last years of his life, Carroll attempted to regain some vestige of political power for Catholics in the colony, but the Protestant colonial assembly and Governor John Hart disfranchised them. Carroll was the second of four born to Daniel Carroll of Aghagurty and Littermurna. The exact place of his birth is unclear, though it occurred near the small town of Aghagurty that Carrolls father took as part of his name. Some of the property near Aghagurty was obtained by a friend, Richard Grace. This action gave the family a livelihood, but the continued to have limited means compared to their former status. It is likely that Charles Carroll was fostered by the wealthier Grace, with Graces support, Carroll was able to attend school in France—at Lille and at the University of Douai—where he studied the humanities, philosophy, and civil and canon law. According to family tradition, Carroll secured a position as clerk to William Herbert, 1st Marquess of Powis, according to Carroll family tradition, Powis told his new clerk that he believed King James was receiving bad advice related to the religious turmoil in England. Powis was concerned about the consequences for English Catholics and he supposedly spoke on Carrolls behalf to an associate of his, Charles Calvert, proprietor of the Maryland colony. Charles Calverts grandfather, George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore, was a member of Parliament and Secretary of State to James I. Intense lobbying by George Calvert had led to the granting of a charter to the Calvert family. The Maryland colony was established in the 1630s on land granted by this charter and it was intended as a haven for English Catholics and other religious minorities. Carroll received a commission from Calvert as the colonys Attorney General on July 18,1688, en route, Carroll changed his family motto from In fide et in bello forte to Ubicumque cum libertate. This event, known as the Glorious Revolution, had implications for the future of the Maryland colony. Soon after his arrival in Maryland, Carroll presented his commission to the council and was recognized as the new Attorney General of the colony
Samuel Chase was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court and earlier was a signatory to the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of Maryland. Early in life, Chase was a firebrand states-righter and revolutionary and he was acquitted by the Senate and remained in office. Samuel Chase was the child of the Reverend Thomas Chase and his wife, Matilda Walker, born near Princess Anne. His father was a clergyman who immigrated to Somerset County to become a priest in a new church and he was eighteen when he left for Annapolis where he studied law under attorney John Hall. He was admitted to the bar in 1761 and started a law practice in Annapolis and it was during his time as a member of the bar that his colleagues gave him the nickname of Old Bacon Face. In May 1762, Chase married Ann Baldwin, daughter of Thomas, Samuel and Ann had had three sons and four daughters, with only four surviving to adulthood. In 1784, Chase traveled to England to deal with Marylands Bank of England stock, where he met Hannah Kilty, daughter of Samuel Giles and they were married later that year and had two daughters, Hannah and Elisa. In 1762, Chase was expelled from the Forensic Club, an Annapolis debating society, for extremely irregular, in 1764, Chase was elected to the Maryland General Assembly where he served for twenty years. In 1766, he became embroiled in a war of words with a number of loyalist members of the Maryland political establishment, in 1769, he started construction of the mansion that would become known as the Chase–Lloyd House, which he sold unfinished in 1771. The house is now a National Historic Landmark and he co-founded Anne Arundel Countys Sons of Liberty chapter with his close friend William Paca as well as leading opposition to the 1765 Stamp Act. From 1774 to 1776, Chase was a member of the Annapolis Convention and he represented Maryland at the Continental Congress, was re-elected in 1776 and signed the United States Declaration of Independence. He remained in the Continental Congress until 1778, in 1786, Chase moved to Baltimore, which remained his home for the rest of his life. In 1788, he was appointed Chief justice of the District Criminal Court in Baltimore, in 1791, he became Chief Justice of the Maryland General Court, again serving until 1796. On January 26,1796, President George Washington appointed Chase as a justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Chase served on the Court until his death on June 19,1811, virginia Congressman John Randolph of Roanoke took up the challenge and took charge of the impeachment. The House of Representatives served Chase with eight articles of impeachment in late 1804, two more focused on his conduct in the political libel trial of James Callender. All the counts involved Chases work as a judge in lower circuit courts. The heart of the allegations was that political bias had led Chase to treat defendants, Chases defense lawyers called the prosecution a political effort by his Republican enemies
Colonel William Digges was a politician in Colonial Virginia and a councillor in Colonial Maryland in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. He was a member of the Maryland Proprietary Council until losing his office in 1689 during the Protestant Revolution, Edward Digges invested heavily in planting mulberry trees and promoting the silk industry in the colony, in recognition of which he was appointed Auditor-General of Virginia. In around 1675 Edward Digges died, as eldest son, William inherited the E. D. William Digges began his career in Virginia, where he was appointed to a number of colonial offices and he became Justice of the Peace in 1671. He was captain of horse in 1674 and was appointed Sheriff of York County in 1679 and he was a strong supporter of Governor Berkeley during Bacons Rebellion. During an encounter with Thomas Hansford, one of Bacons foremost supporters, Digges severed Hansfords finger, in Maryland Digges became a merchant and planter in St. Marys County. He married Elizabeth Sewall, widow of Dr. Jesse Wharton and a stepdaughter of Lord Baltimore, immediately following his marriage he was appointed to the Governors Council. He was also appointed Deputy Governor of Maryland and he was granted extensive land and property in Maryland, and became the Lord of Warburton Manor in Prince George County on the Potomac River. During the Protestant Revolution in Maryland in 1689, Digges commanded the Catholic forces at St. Marys, after 1689, having lost his positions, he returned to live in Virginia. Col. Henry Lowe, and a granddaughter of Richard Bennett, Dudley John, married Mary _________ Nicholas Jane, married Notley Rozer Elizabeth, married Anthony Neale Ann, married Henry Darnall Mary, married _________ Okey Catherine (b. However, the York River plantation was inherited by Williams eldest son Edward, province of Maryland Protestant Revolution History of the Digges family in Maryland Retrieved January 2012 Digges family history Retrieved January 2012
Alexander Hamilton (Maryland doctor)
Dr. Alexander Hamilton was a Scottish-born doctor and writer who lived and worked in Annapolis in 18th-century colonial Maryland. His diary covered Maryland to Maine, and biographer Elaine Breslaw says he encountered, Hamilton was born in or near Edinburgh. His father was Dr. William Hamilton, professor of divinity and he was raised and educated as a member of the Scottish gentry. He emigrated to Maryland in 1738 and quickly set up his practice in Annapolis. Hamilton is known for his journal, Itinerareum, recording his journey in 1744 from Maryland, to York. The work has been cited by scholars of colonial America. Richard Bushman, for example, uses an incident of Hamilton observing and critiquing a fellow travelers behavior in an inn in order to demonstrate ideas surrounding gentility in colonial America, Hamilton also founded The Tuesday Club in 1745. This Annapolis-based social club included prominent men of the colonial Maryland community as both members and guests, called The History of the Ancient and Honorable Tuesday Club, From the Earliest Ages Down to This Present Year, it was not published during Hamiltons lifetime. The original manuscript is housed at the John Work Garrett Library of the Johns Hopkins University, Hamilton is known for his engaging and humorous writing style, regularly describing candidly his encounters with those he believed to be his social inferiors. His use of humor in these situations was a common among the gentry of the time for describing impertinent. He married Miss Margaret Dulany in May 1747, thereby joining one of Marylands most powerful families, as a result of this new found social influence Hamilton successfully ran for a seat on the Annapolis Assembly, occupying it from 1753 to 1754. Hamilton died on May 11,1756, childless, leaving all his possessions to his widow, Margaret Dulany Hamilton. Upon his death, a friend wrote in the Maryland Gazette, The death of this valuable, online Breslaw, Elaine G. Marriage, money, and sex, Dr. Hamilton finds a wife. Journal of Social History 36.3, 657-673, bodies and Minds in Bushman, The Refinement of America, persons, houses, cities. The Delightful Instruction of Dr. Alexander Hamiltons Itinerarium, the Comic Genius of Dr. Alexander Hamilton. Linguistic Evidence from Alexander Hamiltons Itinerarium, gentlemans Progress, The Itinerarium of Dr. Alexander Hamilton,1744 edited by Carl Bridenbaugh
John Hanson was a merchant and public official from Maryland during the era of the American Revolution. In 1779, Hanson was elected as a delegate to the Continental Congress after serving in a variety of roles for the Patriot cause in Maryland and he signed the Articles of Confederation in 1781 after Maryland finally joined the other states in ratifying them. John Hanson was born in Port Tobacco Parish in Charles County in the Province of Maryland on April 3,1721, sources published prior to a 1940 genealogical study sometimes listed his birth date as April 13 or his year of birth as 1715. Hanson was born on a plantation called Mulberry Grove into a wealthy and his parents were Samuel and Elizabeth Hanson. Samuel Hanson was a planter who owned more than 1,000 acres, John Hanson was of English ancestry, his grandfather, also named John, came to Charles County, Maryland, as an indentured servant around 1661. In 1877, a writer named George Hanson placed John Hanson in his family tree of Swedish-Americans descended from four Swedish brothers who emigrated to New Sweden in 1642. This story was repeated over the next century, but scholarly research in the late 20th century showed that John Hanson was of English heritage. Little is known about Hansons early life, he was privately tutored as was customary among the gentry of his time. He followed his fathers path as a planter, slave owner and he was often referred to as John Hanson, Jr. to distinguish him from an older man of the same name. Hansons career in service began in 1750, when he was appointed sheriff of Charles County. In 1757 he was elected to represent Charles County in the house of the Maryland General Assembly. He was an opponent of the 1765 Stamp Act, chairing the committee that drafted the instructions for Marylands delegates to the Stamp Act Congress. In protest of the Townshend Acts, in 1769 Hanson was one of the signers of a resolution that boycotted British imports until the acts were repealed. Hanson changed course in 1769, apparently to pursue his business interests. He resigned from the General Assembly, sold his land in Charles County, there he held a variety of offices, including deputy surveyor, sheriff, and county treasurer. When relations between Great Britain and the became a crisis in 1774, Hanson became one of Frederick Countys leading Patriots. He chaired a meeting that passed a resolution opposing the Boston Port Act. In 1775, he was a delegate to the Maryland Convention, with hostilities underway, Hanson chaired the Frederick County Committee of Observation, part of the Patriot organization that assumed control of local governance
Philip Lee Sr.
United States Naval Captain, Judge, & Justice of the, and Sheriff in colonial Virginia Philip Lee, the Elder. He was the son of Colonel Richard Lee II, Esquire, 1657-1706, and he born in 1681. He moved to the Province of Maryland in about 1700, and married his first wife, Lee was commissioned a captain in 1708, and that same year was elected as a member of the Lower House of the General Assembly from in which he served until 1722. Lee was a Justice of Prince Georges County, Maryland from 1710–1720, from 1725-1744 he was a member of the Upper House, and also on the King’s Council during the same time. Lee was a Justice of the Provincial Court from 1726–1732, and Associate Commissary General in 1727, however, this property was occupied by a tenant with a sole and exclusive contract between 1705 and 1718. It was not until the date that Lee would gain legal title to the land. The property was only just being developed when Lee died in April 1744, at this date there was a one-room-and-loft dwelling which doubled as Lee’s naval office. In addition he had built a bakehouse and mill which he listed in his will, Lee’s home plantation was his Prince George’s County seat, where all of his children were undoubtedly born. The Lee family of Virginia and Maryland bore arms that were blazoned as, “Gules, crest, “On a staff raguly a squirrel cracking a nut from dexter end of the staff an oak branch fructed, all proper”. These were the arms used by the Lees of Coton and Langley, Shropshire