Category:Companies established in 1759
- Companies, corporations or businesses established in the year 1759.
1. Carron Company – The Carron Company was an ironworks established in 1759 on the banks of the River Carron near Falkirk, in Stirlingshire, Scotland. After initial problems, the company was at the forefront of the Industrial Revolution in the United Kingdom, the company prospered through its development and production of a new short-range and short-barrelled naval cannon, the carronade. The company was one of the largest iron works in Europe through the 19th century, after 223 years, the company became insolvent in 1982 and was later acquired by the Franke Corporation, being rebranded Carron Phoenix. The company was founded as a partnership by three men, two Englishmen, Dr John Roebuck, a chemist, Samuel Garbett, a merchant, the factory of Roebuck, Garbett and Cadell was established on the north bank of Carron Water, two miles north of Falkirk. The works helped to push other less technologically advanced ironworks, such as the Wealden iron industry based in the Weald, caddells young son, also William, was appointed manager, and the companys financial position was precarious in its first few years. It took time and an investment to create the necessary infrastructure. The first blast furnace became operational on 26 December 1760, producing pig iron, however, when the factory started to produce cast iron goods, they were of a generally poor quality. Nevertheless, in 1764, the Board of Ordnance granted the company a contract to supply armaments to the British armed forces. The company also cast parts for James Watts steam engine in 1765, the companys fortunes had begun to improve as a result of Charles Gascoigne becoming a partner in 1765. Gascoigne was a grandson of Charles Elphinstone, 9th Lord Elphinstone and had married Samuel Garbetts daughter in 1759, the company received a royal charter to incorporate as the Carron Company in 1773. Gascoigne pushed forward the development of a new type of cannon, originally known as the Gasconades but better known by its later name, the Carronade. It was shorter and much lighter than a gun of the same calibre, meaning that more could be carried. On the debit side, carronades had a short range, some warships - mainly small ones - were equipped with carronades as their main or only armament, but such vessels were vulnerable to opponents armed with long guns. The carronades principal use was on the decks of warships. This greatly increased firepower at the ranges at which contemporary naval battles were usually fought. The carronade was a success, and remained in production from 1778 to the 1850s. The company also made ammunition, including some invented by Henry Shrapnel, the company supplied armaments to governments outside the UK, including weapons supplied to the embryonic United States which were used against Britain in the War of 1812. He remained in Russia for 20 years, dying in July 1806 in Kolpino near St. Petersburg as Actual State Councillor Karl Karlovich Gaskoin
2. Guinness – Guinness is an Irish dry stout that originated in the brewery of Arthur Guinness at St. Jamess Gate brewery in the capital city of Dublin, Ireland. Guinness, produced by the Diageo beverages company, is one of the most successful beer brands worldwide and it is brewed in almost 50 countries and is available in over 120. Annual sales total of Guinness in 2011 was 850 million litres, Guinness features a burnt flavour that is derived from roasted, unmalted barley, although this is a relatively modern development, not becoming part of the grist until the mid-20th century. For many years, a portion of aged brew was blended with freshly brewed beer to give a sharp lactic flavour, although Guinnesss palate still features a characteristic tang, the company has refused to confirm whether this type of blending still occurs. The draught beers thick, creamy head comes from mixing the beer with nitrogen and it is popular with the Irish, both in Ireland and abroad. In spite of declining consumption since 2001, it is still the best-selling alcoholic drink in Ireland where Guinness & Co, Brewery makes almost €2 billion worth of the beverage annually. The company was started in 1759 in Dublin, but had to move its headquarters to London at the beginning of the Anglo-Irish Trade War in 1932, in 1997, Guinness plc merged with Grand Metropolitan to form the multinational alcoholic drinks producer Diageo. Arthur Guinness started brewing ales in 1759 at the St. Jamess Gate Brewery, on 31 December 1759, he signed a 9,000 year lease at £45 per annum for the unused brewery. Ten years later, on 19 May 1769, Guinness first exported his ale, there have been claims that Arthur Price, a Welshman, took the original recipe with him to Ireland where he hired a servant, Richard Guinness, whose son later opened the brewery. Stout originally referred to a strength, but eventually shifted meaning toward body. Arthur Guinness started selling the dark beer porter in 1778, the first Guinness beers to use the term were Single Stout and Double Stout in the 1840s. Throughout the bulk of its history, Guinness produced only three variations of a beer type, porter or single stout, double or extra. Porter was also referred to as plain, as mentioned in the refrain of Flann OBriens poem The Workmans Friend. Already one of the top-three British and Irish brewers, Guinnesss sales soared from 350,000 barrels in 1868 to 779,000 barrels in 1876, in October 1886 Guinness became a public company, and was averaging sales of 1,138,000 barrels a year. This was despite the refusal to either advertise or offer its beer at a discount. The breweries pioneered several quality control efforts, by 1900 the brewery was operating unparalleled welfare schemes for its 5,000 employees. By 1907 the welfare schemes were costing the brewery £40,000 a year, the improvements were suggested and supervised by Sir John Lumsden. By 1914, Guinness was producing 2,652,000 barrels of beer a year, which was more than double that of its nearest competitor Bass, in the 1930s, Guinness became the seventh largest company in the world
3. GKN – GKN plc is a British multinational automotive and aerospace components company headquartered in Redditch, Worcestershire. The company was known as Guest, Keen and Nettlefolds and can trace its origins back to 1759. GKN is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE100 Index, the origins of GKN lie in the founding of the Dowlais Ironworks in the village of Dowlais, Merthyr Tydfil, Wales, by Thomas Lewis and Isaac Wilkinson. John Guest was appointed manager of the works in 1767, having moved from Broseley, in 1786, John Guest was succeeded by his son, Thomas Guest, who formed the Dowlais Iron Company with his son-in-law William Taitt. Guest introduced many innovations and the works prospered, under Guests leadership, alongside his manager John Evans, the Dowlais Ironworks gained the reputation of being one of the Worlds great industrial concerns. Though the Bessemer process was licensed in 1856, nine years of detailed planning, the company thrived with its new cost-effective production methods, forming alliances with the Consett Iron Company and Krupp. By 1857 G. T. Clark and William Menelaus, his manager, had constructed the Goat Mill, by the mid-1860s, Clarks reforms had borne fruit in renewed profitability. Clark delegated day-to-day management to Menelaus, his trusteeship terminating in 1864 when ownership passed to Sir Ivor Guest, however, Clark continued to direct policy, in particular, building a new plant at the docks at Cardiff and vetoing a joint-stock company. On 9 July 1900, the Dowlais Iron Company and Arthur Keens Patent Nut and Bolt Company merged to form Guest, in 1920 John Lysaght and Co. was acquired. Steel production remained at the core of the company, but under increasing profit margin pressure, due to a resultant global shortage of pig iron, in 1937 the company fired-up the single remaining blast furnace at Dowlais. In 1961 the companys name changed again to GKN Steel Company and these mergers heralded half a century in which GKN became a major manufacturer of screws, nuts, bolts and other fasteners. The company reflected the vertical integration fashionable at the time embracing activities from coal and ore extraction, after the First World War it became apparent that Britain was likely to follow France and more recently the United States in developing a large scale auto-industry. GKN acquired another fastener manufacturer, F. W. Cotterill Ltd. in 1919, in 1920, GKN purchased steel company John Lysaght and their subsidiary, Joseph Sankey and Sons Ltd. After training as an engineer, Sankey founded a tea tray producer. A pioneer motorist, he became friends with Herbert Austin. By 1914, the customers for sheet steel bodies included Austin, Daimler, Humber, Rover, Star. Production started in 1908, with customers including Herbert Austin and, later, in addition to his original factory at Bilston a new plant was established near Wellington, Shropshire, which was devoted to wheel production. By the time the business was acquired by GKN, the plant was supplying wheels to many UK manufacturers, by 1969 the highly automated Wellington plant was turning out over 5½ million wheels a year at a maximum rate of approximately 30,000 per day