Cross of Valour (Australia)
The Cross of Valour was established in 1975 as the highest Australian Bravery Award. The awards were established as part of the institution of the Australian Honours System, the Cross of Valour is awarded only for acts of the most conspicuous courage in circumstances of extreme peril. The award carries the post-nominal initials CV, awards may be made posthumously, the Cross of Valour is a gold, straight-armed cross pattée with diminishing rays between the arms. It is ensigned with the Crown of St Edward, the obverse has the shield and crest of the Commonwealth Coat of Arms surmounted by a Federation Star. A suspender bar is engraved with the words For Valour, the ribbon is 38mm wide, magenta with a central 16mm blood-red band. The two reds in the ribbon represent the colours of venous and arterial blood, to date, the Cross of Valour has been awarded to five recipients. 1989 Mr Darrell Tree, Captain of Mount Damper Fire Brigade,1995 Mr Victor Boscoe, Qld – Pursued and apprehended armed robbers at Strathpine.
1998 Senior Constable Allan Sparkes, NSW – Rescued a boy from flooded underground storm water drains, Mr Richard Joyes, WA – Entered the bombed Bali nightclub to rescue a badly injured woman, and continued to search for survivors despite personal injury and ongoing explosions. So far there have been no awards of the Cross of Valour during wars or warlike operations as required by the VE Act, the allowance has been A$2.10 per fortnight since the Goods and Services Tax in Australia commenced on 1 July 2000
Carnegie Hero Fund
Those chosen for recognition receive the Carnegie Medal and become eligible for scholarship aid and other benefits. The disaster claimed 181, including Taylor and Lyle, who were killed during rescue attempts, recipients who have fully met awarding requirements have been selected from more than 88,000 nominees. The Commission’s working definition of a hero as well as its requirements for awarding remain largely those that were approved by the founder. The candidate for an award must be a civilian who voluntarily risks his or her life to a degree while saving or attempting to save the life of another person. The rescuer must have no full measure of responsibility for the safety of the victim, there must be conclusive evidence to support the act’s occurrence, and the act must be called to the attention of the Commission within two years. About 90% of those awarded are male, over the life of the Fund,20.7 percent of the awards have been given posthumously. The three inch in diameter bronze medals which are given to awardees, are struck by Simons Brothers Co.
of Philadelphia and consist of 90% copper and 10% zinc. A verse from the New Testament of the Bible encircles the edge, Greater love hath no man than this. The first medals issued by the trust were in bronze, the trust soon stopped issuing gold medals. The last silver medal was issued in 1981, on 21 September 1908, Andrew Carnegie expanded the concept with the establishment of the British Carnegie Hero Fund Trust, based in Dunfermline, Scotland. The trust was taken over by the German Nazi government in 1934, the Danish trust covers acts of heroism in Greenland and the Faroe Islands. John Boyarski – Carnegie Medal recipient,1986 Harold H. Thompson – Carnegie Medal recipient,1938 Aquilla J
The Bir Sreshtho, is the highest military award of Bangladesh. It was awarded to seven freedom fighters who showed utmost bravery, the other three gallantry awards are named, in decreasing order of importance, Bir Uttom, Bir Bikrom and Bir Protik. All of these awards were introduced immediately after the Liberation War in 1971, all the recipients of this award were killed in action during the Liberation War of 1971. The award was published by the Bangladesh Gazette on 15 December 1973 and it is the highest military award of Bangladesh, similar to the American Medal of Honor or the British Victoria Cross. It has only given in 1973 to seven people. Listed below are the people who have received the Bir Srestho, When referring to martyrs, the word shaheed is often put before each individuals name as a mark of respect. The list has been prepared like the declaration by the Bangladesh Gazette, Bir Uttom Bir Bikram Bir Protik Medals of the Bangladesh Armed Forces
Albert Medal for Lifesaving
The Albert Medal for Lifesaving was a British medal awarded to recognise the saving of life. It has since replaced by the George Cross. The medal was named in memory of Prince Albert and originally was awarded to recognise saving life at sea, the original medal had a blue ribbon 5/8 wide with 2 white stripes. Witnessing the accident, Popplestone paused only to raise the alarm before setting off alone for the wreck and he clambered out onto the rocks and although swept off several times, he eventually managed to lift four men out of the water and drag them up the cliff to safety. In 1877, the medal was extended to cover saving life on land, the land version was enameled in red, with a red ribbon. The titles of the changed in 1917, the gold Albert Medal, first class becoming the Albert Medal in gold. The event that led to the introduction of the Albert Medal for Gallantry on Land was the Tynewydd Colliery disaster which occurred on 11 April 1877. In many ways, although it was tragic the disaster at Tynewydd was, by the standards of the time when mining accidents often claimed hundreds of lives.
The Albert Medal in gold was abolished in 1949, being replaced by the George Cross, in 1971, the Albert Medal was discontinued and all living recipients were invited to exchange the award for the George Cross. From the total of 64 eligible to exchange,49 took up the option, the medal was made of gold, which was enameled blue. Miniatures of all four types are known to exist, with the gold awards believed to be gilt, Albert Medal and Edward Medal George Cross and Albert Medal at Sea in World War 2
Cross of St. George
The Cross of Saint George is a state decoration of the Russian Federation. It was initially established by Imperial Russia where it was known as the Decoration of the Military Order of Saint George between 1807 and 1913. The Cross of Saint George was reinstated into the Russian awards system in 1992, established in the February 1807 decree of Emperor Alexander I, it was intended as a reward for undaunted courage by the lower ranks of the military. Article four of the decree ordered the decoration to hang from the ribbon as the Order of Saint George. There was only a class with no restriction as to the number of awards per person. The first soldier to be awarded the Cross of Saint George was a cavalry non-commissioned officer named Yegor Ivanovich Mitrokhin and he received the award for distinction in the battle against the French at Friedland on 2 June 1807. Numbering of the crosses on the began in January 1809, conversely. By this time, approximately 10,000 crosses had already been awarded, by the beginning of the War of 1812,16,833 crosses had been produced by the mint.
An 1856 royal decree divided the decoration into four classes, the first and second classes were made of gold, the third and fourth were made of silver. The numbering on the reverse began anew for each class of the decoration, a 1913 royal decree officialized the name Cross of Saint George and the numbering began anew. In 1915, due to war shortages, the first and second class decorations were made of lower grade gold, the third and fourth class decorations were produced in the same 99 percent silver. There were 26,950 first class crosses and 52,900 second class crosses produced in low-grade gold, on 10 September 1916, the Highest Council of Ministers approved a change to the St George Cross removing the gold and silver from its making. They began to mint crosses made of metal and of white metal. The crosses first and second class, made of metal had the letters JM above the serial number. In 1917, the Provisional Government changed the statute of the cross allowing its award to junior officers, when awarded as such, a silver laurel branch device was affixed to the ribbon.
The Cross of St. George was abolished after the Russian Revolution of 1917, following the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Cross of St George was reinstated by Decision of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation № 2557-I of March 20,1992. Its award criteria were amended twice, first on August 8,2000 by Presidential Decree 1463, awarded sequentially in four classes from the fourth to the first for subsequent acts of courage. The first post reinstatement award ceremony took place in August 2008 to soldiers who displayed courage, a further 263 servicemen were decorated with the Cross of Saint George for distinction displayed in the Georgia operation
Distinguished Conduct Medal (Natal)
In 1895, Queen Victoria authorised Colonial governments to adopt various British military decorations and medals and to award them to their local military forces. The Colony of Natal introduced this system in August 1895 and, in 1897 and it is the oldest British award for gallantry and was a second level military decoration, until it was discontinued in 1993. The medal could be awarded to non-commissioned military personnel of the British Dominions, recipients of the Distinguished Conduct Medal are entitled to the post-nominal letters DCM. A Bar to the medal, introduced in 1881, could be awarded in recognition of each subsequent act of distinguished conduct for which the medal would have been awarded. In the late 19th century, the Colony of Natals armed forces consisted of the para-military Natal Police, the Volunteer Force was reorganised as the Natal Militia in 1904 and, in 1908, the Natal Police and Natal Militia were amalgamated to form the Natal Colonial Forces. On 31 May 1895, Queen Victoria authorised Dominion and Colonial governments to adopt various military medals, the Colony of Natal introduced this system in August 1895.
In 1897, the Distinguished Conduct Medal was one of three known decorations and medals which were instituted by Natal in terms of this authority. The Natal medal remained current even after Natal became a Province of the Union of South Africa in 1910, in the order of wear prescribed by the British Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood, the Distinguished Conduct Medal ranks on par with the Distinguished Conduct Medal. It takes precedence after the Union of South Africa Queens Medal for Bravery, Gold, in the order of wear of military honours, it takes precedence after the Air Force Cross. Preceded by the Air Force Cross, succeeded by the Conspicuous Gallantry Medal. The medal was struck in silver and is a disk,36 millimetres in diameter and 3 millimetres thick, the suspender is an ornamented scroll pattern, affixed to the medal by means of a claw and a pin through the upper edge of the medal. Obverse The original Victorian obverse of the British Distinguished Conduct Medal shows a Trophy of Arms incorporating a central shield bearing the Royal Coat of Arms, without any inscription.
From 1902, after the accession of King Edward VII, the effigy of the reigning monarch replaced the trophy of arms, known examples of the Distinguished Conduct Medal has the effigy of King Edward VII and is inscribed EDWARDVS VII REX IMPERATOR around the perimeter. Reverse The reverse is smooth, with a rim, and bears the inscriptions NATAL in a curved line at the top. The inscriptions are underlined by a laurel wreath between two spear blades. Ribbon The ribbon is identical to that of the British Distinguished Conduct Medal,32 millimetres wide and crimson, in June 1913, the Union of South Africa instituted its own version of the medal. Of all these, only one actually awarded the medal, only eight of these medals were awarded, all by the Colony of Natal
The Edelstam Prize, named after Harald Edelstam, is awarded annually by the Harald Edelstam Foundation. The Edelstam Prize is awarded for outstanding contributions and exceptional courage in standing up for one’s beliefs in the defense of Human Rights, the Edelstam Prize is named after, and awarded in memory of, the Swedish diplomat and ambassador Harald Edelstam. Harald Edelstam distinguished himself as diplomat by his competence, his bravery. He was a proponent and symbol of what is today known as Responsibility to Protect. The winner of the Edelstam Prize can be a person or a person who serves in government. The winner shall be an individual who has acted in Ambassador Harald Edelstam’s spirit in a country/countries where Human Rights, the laureate must have shown outstanding capabilities in analysing and handling complex situations and in finding ways, even unconventional and creative ones, to defend Human Rights. The candidate has, presumably in a situation, been able to take a decisive role in helping threatened people or directly saving human lives.
Civic courage is a parameter in the selection of the successful candidate. An international jury selects the winners from a list of nominated candidates, the jury is chaired by Harald Edelstams granddaughter Caroline Edelstam, co-founder of the Edelstam Foundation. The other members are Dr. Baltasar Garzón is most famous for indicting the Chilean president, General Augusto Pinochet, for the alleged deaths and torture of Spanish citizens. In spite of warnings and threats from the regime’s security and intelligence forces, she has repeatedly risked her own life. She has been arrested upon several occasions, and is imprisoned right now for these reasons, the Harald Edelstam Foundation considers her a prisoner of conscience, and in consequence respectfully asks the authorities of the Republic of Iran to set her free. The Edelstam Prize Jury’s motivation to give Mr. Benjamin Manuel Jerónimo the Edelstam Prize is, Mayan communities, in spite of being the majority of the population, have been exploited, discriminated against, and victimized in their own homeland for centuries.
The worst period came between 1960 and 1996, egregious abuses of rights were perpetrated in Guatemala during the internal armed conflict. According to the CEH200,000 civilians were murdered and 50,000 were forcibly disappeared, most of them, 83%, were defenseless indigenous Mayans. After the signature of the Peace Agreements, nobody was made accountable for these heinous crimes, Benjamín considered that those responsible for the crimes should be brought to justice. It was not a task, since discrimination, threats and violence persist in Guatemala. His endeavor and commitment are an example and reminder every day to the community than most of the perpetrators in Guatemala remain unpunished
Bravery Medal (Australia)
The Bravery Medal is a bravery decoration awarded to Australians. It is awarded for acts of bravery in hazardous circumstances, the BM was created in February 1975. The decorations recognise acts of bravery by members of the community and they selflessly put themselves in jeopardy to protect the lives or property of others. It is ranked third of the Australian bravery decorations in the Australian Honours System, recipients of the Bravery Medal are entitled to use the post-nominal letters BM. The Bravery Medal is a bronze medal ensigned with the Crown of Saint Edward. It is surmounted with the shield and crest of the Commonwealth Coat of Arms, the Federation Star is above the shield, which is contained in a circular zig-zag border. The medal is suspended from a ribbon by a bar inscribed For Bravery, the ribbon is 32 mm wide and has 15 alternating stripes of blood-red and magenta representing the colours of venous and arterial blood. The Australian Government Its an Honour database contains 1,240 entries of people who have been awarded the medal
The German Cross was instituted by Adolf Hitler on 28 September 1941. It was awarded in two divisions, gold for repeated acts of bravery or achievement in combat, and silver for distinguished war service. The German Cross was unique in that the gold and silver divisions were considered as separate awards but were not to be worn simultaneously, pictures of recipients wearing both grades exist. The order consists of a badge, containing a swastika. It had a diameter of 6.5 cm and was worn on the side of the tunic. If a recipient had been awarded both the silver and gold divisions, the division should be worn only. Far more awards in gold were presented than in silver, specimen copies of a special grade, the German Cross in Gold with Diamonds, was manufactured in 1942 but this grade was never instituted or bestowed. In 1957 alternative de-nazified replacement versions of the German Cross were authorized for wear by the Federal Republic of Germany and this replaced the swastika with a representation of the Iron Cross for the gold division, and the War Merit Cross with Swords for the silver division.
Wearing Nazi-era decorations was banned in Germany after the war, as was any display of the swastika, the 1957 replacement of the World War II decorations consequently enabled recipients to wear the German Cross again but only in the new version of the insignia. The German Cross was disparagingly referred to as Hitlers fried egg by Colonel Hans von Luck and other officers of his acquaintance, the extent to which this nickname was used is uncertain. It been referred to in history books as the Nazi Party Badge for the near-sighted
The George Cross is the second highest award of the United Kingdom honours system. It is awarded for not in the face of the enemy to members of the British armed forces. It has always been able to be awarded posthumously and it was previously awarded to Commonwealth countries, most of which have established their own honours systems and no longer recommend British honours. Many of the awards have been presented by the British monarch to both recipients and in the case of posthumous awards to next of kin. These investitures are held at Buckingham Palace. The George Cross was instituted on 24 September 1940 by King George VI, at this time, during the height of the Blitz, there was a strong desire to reward the many acts of civilian courage. I propose to give my name to this new distinction, which will consist of the George Cross, which will rank next to the Victoria Cross, the medal was designed by Percy Metcalfe. The Warrant for the GC, dated 24 September 1940, was published in The London Gazette on 31 January 1941.
The GC replaced the Empire Gallantry Medal, all holders of the EGM were instructed to exchange their medals for a GC and this substitution policy ignored holders of the Albert Medal and the Edward Medal, awards which both took precedence over the EGM. The anomaly was rectified in 1971, when the recipients of the AM. Of the 64 holders of the Albert Medal and 68 holders of the Edward Medal eligible to exchange,49 and 59 respectively took up the option. The GC, which may be awarded posthumously, is granted in recognition of, the award is for civilians but for military personnel whose actions would not normally be eligible to receive military awards, such as gallantry not in the face of the enemy. The Warrant states, The Cross is intended primarily for civilians, bars are awarded to the GC in recognition of the performance of further acts of bravery meriting the award, although none has yet been awarded. Recipients are entitled to the postnominal letters GC, All GC awards are published in The London Gazette with the exception of the two collective bestowals.
Since its inception in 1940, the GC has been awarded 407 times,401 to men,4 to women, of the 159 individuals who received original awards,86 have been posthumous. In addition there were four recipients of the Empire Gallantry Medal whose awards were gazetted after the start of the Second World War. All the other recipients were living as of the date of the decisions for the exchanges. The George Cross has, on the instruction of the Sovereign, been awarded twice on a collective basis, to the island of Malta
Bronze Star Medal
Civilians serving with U. S. military forces in combat are eligible for the award. For example, UPI reporter Joe Galloway was awarded the Bronze Star with V Device during the Vietnam War for rescuing a wounded soldier under fire in the Battle of la Drang. The Bronze Star Medal was established by Executive Order 9419,4 February 1944, the acts of heroism are of a lesser degree than required for the award of the Silver Star. The acts of merit or acts of valor must be less than required for the Legion of Merit but must nevertheless have been meritorious. The Bronze Star Medal is awarded only to members in combat zones who are receiving imminent danger pay. For this purpose, the US Armys Combat Infantryman Badge or Combat Medical Badge award is considered as a citation in orders, effective 11 September 2001, the Meritorious Service Medal may be bestowed in lieu of the Bronze Star Medal for meritorious achievement in a designated combat theater. The Bronze Star Medal was designed by Rudolf Freund of the jewelry firm Bailey, the medal is a bronze star 1 1⁄2 inches in circumscribing diameter.
In the center is a 3⁄16 inch diameter superimposed bronze star, the reverse bears the inscription HEROIC OR MERITORIOUS ACHIEVEMENT with a space for the name of the recipient to be engraved. The star hangs from its ribbon by a metal loop with rounded corners. The Bronze Star Medal with the V device to denote heroism is the fourth highest military decoration for valor, 5/16 Inch Star – In the Navy and Marine Corps and Coast Guard, the 5/16 inch star is worn to denote additional awards. V Device – In the Army, the V is worn solely to denote participation in acts of heroism involving conflict with an armed enemy, in the Air Force, the V is worn to denote heroism in combat. Red Reeder conceived the idea of the Bronze Star Medal in 1943, Reeder felt another medal was needed as a ground equivalent of the Air Medal, and suggested calling the proposed new award the Ground Medal. The idea eventually rose through the bureaucracy and gained supporters. Marshall, in a memorandum to President Franklin D, the Air Medal had been adopted two years earlier to raise airmens morale.
President Roosevelt authorized the Bronze Star Medal by Executive Order 9419 dated 4 February 1944 and this authorization was announced in War Department Bulletin No. President John F. Kennedy amended Executive Order 9419 per Executive Order 11046 dated 24 August 1962 to expand the authorization to include serving with friendly forces. This allowed for awards where US service members become involved in a conflict where the United States was not a belligerent. At the time of the Executive Order, for example, the US was not a belligerent in Vietnam, since the award criteria state that the Bronze Star Medal may be awarded to any person