Regalia of Sweden
Swedens Royal Regalia are kept deep in the vaults of the Royal Treasury, underneath the Royal Palace in Stockholm, in a museum which is open to the public. The crowns and coronets have not been worn by Swedish royalty since 1907, until 1974 the crown jewels were displayed at the solemn opening of the Riksdag. Among the oldest priceless objects are the sword of Gustav Vasa, the Crown of Eric XIV, made in Stockholm in 1561 by Flemish goldsmith Cornelius ver Welden, is typical of the Renaissance style of jewelry of his time. When he was deposed by his brother, John III, John had each of these letters covered with identical cartouches each set with two pearls. However, they replaced the original orb and cross at the top of the crown with a new large orb enameled blue with star and set with diamond. This is the form the crown has in the portrait of Oscar II painted by Oscar Björck, in the early twentieth century this orb and cross and these diamond rosettes were removed and the crown restored to essentially the form it had under John III.
Eric had a scepter, an orb and a key made for his coronation and this key is an item found only in the Swedish regalia. His scepter was made by Hans Heiderick in 1561 and is of gold and set with diamonds and sapphires and it originally was surmounted by a large round sapphire at the top enclosed by two intersecting rows of pearls. This sapphire was lost at the baptism of Gustav IV Adolf and was replaced by the present dark blue enamelled orb in 1780. The orb is of gold and is unique among European regalia in that it is engraved and enamelled with a map of the according to the cartography current at the time it was made. At the top of the orb is an orb in blue enamel and covered with stars. The orb was made by Cornelius ver Weiden and probably engraved by Franz Beijer in Antwerp in 1568, the present blue enamel dates from 1751 and replaces the original black enamel that was badly damaged at the coronation of Charles XI. The original model used for the engraving is not known, but the engraver placed the northern hemisphere upside down, while placing the names where they would have been if the map were right side up.
The anointing horn was made in 1606 in Stockholm by Peter Kilimpe for the coronation of Carl IX and is of gold in the shape of s bulls horn supported by a pedestal. The large end is closed by a lip with a chain, the horn is decorated in ornamental relief work with multi-colored opaque and translucent enamel and set with 10 diamonds and 14 rubies, including 6 Karelian rubies. The burial crown and sceptre of King Carl IX are kept at Strängnäs Cathedral and these items were originally interred with his body but were exhumed and put on display. As her coronation and state crown Christina of Sweden used the crown that her mother Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg had used as the consort of Gustav II Adolph. Christina had two more added to her mothers crown matching the first two and had more diamonds and rubies added to it to enhance the crowns appearance as the crown of a queen regnant
Regalia of the Russian tsars
Like many other monarchies, the Russian Empire had a vast collection of regalia belonging to the Tsars. This collection is now on display in Kremlin in Moscow, the Diamond Fund maintains the security of the greater diamond masterpieces. Barmas of Old Ryazan, One of the greatest masterpieces of ancient jewelry were produced by masters of Old Ryazan in late 12th - early 13th century. They belonged to the princes family, but in 1237 the city was completely destroyed by Batu Khan. In 1822, the royal barmas were found by archeologists and brought to the Armory and these precious barmas are proof of the high level of local jewelry, enameled with their precious stones, gold medallions decorated with engraving. Cap of Monomakh The oldest crown is the Cap of Monomakh or Crown of Monomakh and its name is connected with a Russian legend of the 15th century, according to which it has been brought to Russia in ancient times as a gift from the Byzantine Emperor Constantine Monomachos. The cap is of oriental workmanship of the late 13th or early 14th century, the question of its origin is still unspecified.
The oldest section of the consists of eight gold plates adorned with very fine gold lace in a pattern of six-pointed rosette-stars. The semi-spherical top with a cross, the trimming and the pearls. It weighs 698 grams and is the lightest Russian crown, since the late 14th till the late 17th century, the Cap of Monomakh a symbol of power, was used in the ceremony of setting the ruler of the Russian State for reigning. In the first quarter of the 18th century, after Peter the Greats reforms, the setting for reigning was replaced by coronation. Since 18th century the Cap of Monomakh served as crown of the Tsardom of Great, Little. Kazan crown The Crown of Kazan belonged to Ediger Mahmet, the last ruler of the Tatar state of Kazan and this 16th century crown is the second oldest in Russia. The gold crown is studded with pearls and turquoises, the sable-fur trimming was for comfort. The Kazan Crown is dated by 1553 and it was first mentioned in the treasury of Tsar Ivan the Terrible, whose reigning was signed by a series of eminent events in the Russian history.
Among them is the capture of Kazan in October 1552 and annexation of the Kazan khanate to the Russian state, the precious crown might have been executed by Moscow Kremlin jewelers on the successful solution of The Eastern problem, so important for Muscovy. Its name might have immortalized the memory of the victory of Russian warriors. The crowns look combines national and eastern artistic traditions, some elements remind decor traditions of Russian churches of the epoch
Imperial Regalia of Japan
The Imperial Regalia of Japan, known as the Three Sacred Treasures of Japan, consist of the sword Kusanagi, the mirror Yata no Kagami, and the jewel Yasakani no Magatama. The regalia represent the three virtues, valor and benevolence. Since 690, the presentation of items to the Emperor by the priests at the shrine has been a central element of the enthronement ceremony. This ceremony is not public, and these items are by tradition seen only by the Emperor, because of this, no known photographs or drawings exist. Two of the three treasures were last seen during the accession and enthronement of Emperor Akihito in 1989 and 1993 and these treasures were eventually said to be passed down to Emperor Jimmu, who was the first Emperor of Japan and was Ninigis great-grandson. Traditionally, they were a symbol of the divinity as a descendant of Amaterasu. Susanoo presented the sword Kusanagi to Amaterasu as a token of apology, he had obtained it from the body of an eight-headed serpent, Yamata no Orochi.
At the conclusion of the Genpei War in 1185, the eight year-old Emperor Antoku and they were present when the Taira were defeated by the rival Minamoto clan at the Battle of Dan-no-ura, which was fought on boats in the shallow Kanmon Straits. The child-emperors grandmother threw herself, the boy, the sword, the mirror was recovered, but according to the main account of the battle, a Minamato soldier who tried to force open the box containing it was struck blind. The jewel was recovered shortly afterwards by divers, but the sword was lost, Regalia Chrysanthemum Throne Imperial House of Japan Japanese mythology National seals of Japan Order of the Sacred Treasure Shinto
Crown Jewels of the Netherlands
In comparison to many European monarchies regalia, the Dutch Regalia are relatively new, having been commissioned by King William II in 1840. An earlier, more modest set of made of silver was commissioned by King William I in 1815. It symbolises the dignity of the Sovereign as head of state, the crown was manufactured by the Amsterdam goldsmith Bonebakker. It is made of gilded silver, adourned with coloured stones, the sceptre, symbolising the reigning King or Queen’s authority, the orb, symbolising the Sovereign territory, Both sceptre and orb were made by court jeweler Meijer from The Hague. The arms of the Netherlands have changed since 1815, but the depiction on the gonfalon has not, the artwork was by Batholomeüs Johannes van Hove. All these objects, including the mantle are only used at the enthronement of a King or Queen and have been given by Queen Juliana to the Foundation Regalia of the House Orange Nassau. The mantle is made of velvet and is trimmed with ermine. 83 lions, embroidered in gold, adorn the mantle, the mantle was first used in 1815 and has been redesigned several times to fit the various monarchs and reflect the changing fashions.
The lions are old and were part of King William Ist mantle, Dutch monarchs have never been physically crowned. During royal inaugurations, the crown and orb are displayed on a table in the Nieuwe Kerk in Amsterdam, where the inaugurations take place. The Gonfalon of State and Sword of State are carried in the procession from Dam Palace to the Church and are held on either side of the royal dais in the Church during the swearing in ceremony. Sometimes the regalia are dubbed crown jewels, in the past, the terms House-diamonds, House-jewels and family jewels have been used. In 1790 the term Bijoux de la Couronne was used by Luise of Brunswick -Wolfenbüttel to refer to a diamond from Borneo. In 1896 the Firm of van Kempen & Begeer wrote about resetting the jewels of the Crown, Queen Juliana gave a selection of her formal jewelry to the new Foundation Regalia of the House of Orange-Nassau, instituted on 27 July 1963. In 1968 a Foundation Kroongoederen van het Huis van Oranje-Nassau was instituted and it owns the regalia and the House-jewels.
The Houses of Orange and Nassau have a collection of jewels, including diamonds, the famous Small Sancy diamond of 34 carat was bought by Frederik Hendrik, and is now in the collection of the Prussian Royal Family. These collections have been dispersed several times, after the death of William III in 1702 there were several heirs in Germany, descendants of his grandfather Prince Frederick Henry. The famous Orange pearls were sent to Prussia, in the 19th century the daughters and granddaughters of William I and the daughter of William II were given a large collection of jewels when they married
Danish Crown Regalia
Danish Crown Regalia are the symbols of the Danish monarchy. They consist of three crowns, a Sceptre, Globus cruciger, the Sword of state and an Ampulla, the Danish Royal Regalia are kept in the Schatzkammer at Rosenborg Castle. The oldest of these is Christian IIIs sword of state from 1551, during the time of the elective monarchs, the clergy and nobility placed the crown on the kings head at the coronation ceremony. For the anointing of Christian V, a new crown was made along with the Throne Chair of Denmark of narwhal teeth and three silver lions, the latter created by Ferdinand Küblich. This was inspired by the description of King Solomons throne. The lions were formerly displayed in Parliament during the annual opening session. They were displayed before the throne in the room of Christiansborg Palace when the Danish kings granted audiences on particularly formal occasions. Rosenborg houses four sets of Crown Jewels still worn by the Queen of Denmark, and it includes the crown of King Christian IV, which is a fine example of Renaissance guildwork, the better known crown of King Christian V and a smaller crown for the kings consort.
The Royal Collection has other important items and jewels, as well as precious prayer-books, and items belonging to the Order of the Elephant, the term old regalia is used to describe the crown regalia used prior to the introduction of absolute monarchy in 1660. The crown was fashioned by Dirich Fyring at Odense assisted by the Nuremberg goldsmith Corvinianus Saur during the years 1595-1596 for the coronation of Christian IV and it is made of gold, table cut gemstones and pearls and weighs 2895 g. The circlet is ornamented with six sets of table cut diamonds between two large round pearls with enameled putti on either side, between each of these sets are star-like ornaments of triangular and square table cut diamonds. On the upper rim of the circlet are six large and six small arabesque-like points, at the center of each of the larger points is an enameled allegorical figure of one of the kings ruling functions and virtues. The three points above the forehead and behind each of his ears bears a pelican in her piety.
The point on the right of the kings forehead bears a representation of Fortitude riding a lion, while that on the bears the image of Justice as a woman holding a sword. The point above the back of the kings neck bears the image of Charity as a mother suckling her child. On the inside these points are decorated with the coats of arms of various regions of the realm, the six smaller points each bears a star-like design in triangular and square table diamonds with a large pear shaped pearl at its top. Originally an open crown, in 1648 it was closed with arches and an orb and cross and it was used for the last time at the 1648 coronation of Frederick III. The sword of state of Christian III was made in 1551 by Johann Siebe and it is made of gilded silver and decorated with enamel and table cut gemstones
Bohemian Crown Jewels
They were originally held in Prague and Karlštejn Castle, designed in the 14th century by Matthias of Arras. Since 1791 they have stored in St. Vitus Cathedral at Prague Castle. Reproductions of the jewels are permanently exhibited in the exposition at the former royal palace in the castle. The crown was made for the coronation of Charles IV in 1347, the crown has an unusual design, with vertical fleurs-de-lis standing at the front and sides. Made from 22-carat gold and a set of precious 19 sapphires,30 emeralds,44 spinels,20 pearls,1 ruby,1 rubellite and 1 aquamarine, at the top of the crown is the cross, which reportedly stores a thorn from Christs crown of thorns. The Royal sceptre is made from 18-carat gold,4 sapphires,5 spinels and 62 pearls with an extra large spinel mounted on top of the sceptre, the Royal orb is made from 18-carat gold,8 sapphires,6 spinels and 31 pearls. It weighs 780g and is decorated with relief scenes from the Old Testament. The Coronation robe was used from 1653 until 1836 and it is made from precious silky red material called zlatohlav and is lined with ermine.
The robe is stored separately from jewelry in an air conditioned repository. For the coronation ceremonies, St. Wenceslas sword, a typical Gothic weapon, was used, the iron blade length is 76 cm, at the widest point is 45 mm and has a ripped hole in a cross shape. The wooden handle is covered with fabric and velvet embroidered with the ornament of laurel twigs with thick silver thread. After coronation ceremonies, the sword was used for the purpose of granting knighthoods, the oldest leather case for the crown was made for Charles IV in 1347. On top are inscribed four symbols, the Imperial eagle, Bohemian lion, the door to Crown Jewels chamber, and likewise the iron safe, is hardly accessible and has seven locks. Vitus Cathedral and the Mayor of Prague, who must all convene to facilitate opening the impenetrable door, the crown is named and dedicated after the Duke St. Wenceslaus of the Přemyslids dynasty of Bohemia. The jewels should be stored in the chapel of St. Wenceslaus in St. Vitus. They were only lent to Kings, and only on the day of the coronation, after 1918 and the establishment of the Czechoslovak Republic the Coronation Jewels ceased to serve their original function, but remained important as symbols of national independence and statehood.
In the past, the Jewels were kept in different places, Wenceslaus IV probably moved them to Karlštejn Castle. While the Jewels were stored in Vienna, the original gold orb, the new orb and sceptre probably originated with an order by Ferdinand I in 1533
Georgian Crown Jewels
The Georgian Crown Jewels were the regalia and vestments worn by the monarchs of Georgia during the coronation ceremony and at other state functions. Of these royal jewels—a crown and scepter—only the latter staff survives, but none of these specimens has come down to us. These were a crown and other symbols of investiture commissioned by the tsarina Catherine II from Louis David Duval and these items were carried away by the Iranian ruler Agha Muhammad Khan on his sack of Heraclius capital of Tiflis in 1795 and have since been lost. Only pictorial depictions survive, such as on the reverse of a medal, commemorative of the Treaty of Georgievsk, on 20 February 1801, the Russian military escorted the royal regalia from Tiflis to St. Petersburg. In 1811, Alexander I had these items deposited as part of the Russian sovereigns regalia in the Kremlins Armoury, the Georgian Crown was made of gold, a circlet surmounted by ornaments and closed by eight half-arches on which rested a globe surmounted by a cross.
It was adorned with 145 diamonds,58 rubies,24 emeralds, on 6 February 1923, the crown was sent to Georgia, where it was kept at the State Museum. On 23 April 1930, the Soviet Georgian authorities decided to utilize the crown and it might have been sent back to Moscow in compliance with the request from the central Soviet government and subsequently broken up. After Deterdings death in 1939, the crown became unheard of, the heraldic depiction of the Georgian Crown is in use in the current coat of arms of Georgia, adopted in 2004. Of the remaining Georgian regalia, the steel sword, adorned with various gems, was lost without any trace after the 1917 revolution. Media related to Crowns of Georgian monarchs at Wikimedia Commons
Ducal hat of Liechtenstein
The Ducal hat of Liechtenstein is a former crown of the Princes of Liechtenstein, who were Dukes of Troppau and Jägerndorf. It went missing in the 18th century, the ducal hat of Liechtenstein was commissioned in 1623 by Prince Karl I of Liechtenstein and completed in 1626. It was discovered to be missing in 1781, following the death of Prince Franz Joseph I, in 1976, the people of Liechtenstein presented a replica of the crown to Prince Franz Josef II on his 70th birthday. The replica is based on the drawing of the crown, dated 1756. The circlet of the crown was modeled on the circlet of the Imperial Crown of Austria, while eight jeweled acanthus leaves, alternately large and small, rested on the rim of the circlet. As with the crown of Rudolf II, the precious stones used in this crown were white and red. Inside the crown was a red velvet cap topped with a large jeweled button, the only depiction of the original crown dates from 1756, a gouache painting that is kept in the Liechtenstein Museum.
Wilhelm, Der historische liechtensteinische Herzogshut, in, Jahrbuch des Historischen Vereins für das Fürstentum Liechtenstein,1960, Volume
Prussian Crown Jewels
The Prussian Crown Jewels, is the royal regalia consisting of two crowns, an orb, and sceptre used during the coronation of the monarchs of Prussia from the House of Hohenzollern. There was no crown for the German Empire, although a version existed. In contrast with the lavish, heavily bejewelled crowns of other monarchies, the regalia includes, Crown of William II, or the Hohenzollern Crown, is the only piece dating from the imperial period, but is very similar to older crowns. The German Empire became a republic in 1918 and, at the same time, most of the Prussian regalia are on public display in the Charlottenburg Palace in Berlin. The Crown of William II, in his role as King of Prussia, is kept at Hohenzollern Castle near Hechingen in Baden-Württemberg
Crown of Saint Wenceslas
The Crown of Saint Wenceslas is a crown forming part of the Bohemian Crown Jewels, and made in 1347. On the orders of Charles IV the new crown was permanently deposited in Karlštejn Castle near Prague). It was used for the last time for the coronation of Ferdinand V in 1836, the St. Wenceslas Crown is made of 21 to 22 carat gold and decorated with precious stones and pearls. It contains a total of 19 sapphires,44 spinels,1 ruby,30 emeralds and 20 pearls, unlike many other European royal treasures, the St. Wenceslas Crown is not displayed publicly, and only a replica is shown. Along with the other Bohemian crown jewels, it is kept in a chamber within St. Vitus Cathedral accessible by a door in the St. Wenceslas Chapel, the exact location of the chamber is not known to the general public. The jewels are taken from the chamber and displayed for periods of several days on notable occasions approximately once every five years. The crown was exhibited in May 2016 to mark the 700th anniversary of the birth of Charles IV, although there is no evidence proving that Heydrich did so, the legend is widely believed.
Środa Treasure Official info of Prague Castle
Portuguese Crown Jewels
The Portuguese Crown Jewels were the pieces of jewelry and vestments worn by the Monarchs of Portugal during the time of the Portuguese Monarchy. Over the nine centuries of Portuguese history, the Portuguese Crown Jewels have lost, most of the current set of the Portuguese Crown Jewels are from the reigns of King João VI and King Luís I. By the reign of King Manuel I, Portugal had already a set of jewels. In early 1581 King António I fled to France after King Philip I was made the King of Portugal, António I took with him the Portuguese Crown Jewels, including many valuable diamonds. After several failed attempts to reclaim the Portuguese Crown, António I fell into poverty and his poverty led him to sell many of the remaining diamonds. From Maximilien, the diamond would finally go to join the French Crown Jewels, during the Portuguese Restoration War, João II of Braganza sold many of the Portuguese Crown Jewels to finance the war with Spain. Since then, Portuguese monarchs did not have a coronation but instead an acclamation, before the assumption of the Portuguese throne by the Philippine Dynasty, the Kings of Portugal used to be anointed and crowned in the Jeronimos Monastery in Lisbon.
In 1755 the Great Lisbon earthquake destroyed Lisbon and the Paço da Ribeira, with the destruction of the palace, innumerable pieces of the Portuguese Crown Jewels of the time were destroyed, lost, or stolen. While his court was in Rio de Janeiro, João VI had a new set of Portuguese Crown Jewels made. Constructed by the royal jewelers at the workshop of António Gomes da Silva, the pieces from this era are the majority of the current set of jewels. When Maria Pia of Savoy became Queen Consort of Portugal, King Luís I ordered many pieces of jewelry to be made, alongside this, he had a new royal mantle produced. When the Portuguese Royal Family was exiled, many of the jewels were taken with Queen Amélie of Orléans, in 2002 a large part of the Portuguese Crown Jewels were stolen from the Museon in The Hague, where they were on loan for an exhibition on European Crown Jewels. Following an investigation by the museum and Dutch authorities, the Dutch government paid a sum of six million euros to the Portuguese government for reparation, the Portuguese Crown Jewels are currently kept in a secured vault at the Ajuda National Palace, in Lisbon.
While the palace is a popular and important museum, the jewels are not open to the public. The crown jewels are now seen at special events concerning them or the palace specifically. Though the Portuguese Crown Jewels have had a history, theft. The current set of crown jewels includes numerous pieces of jewelry, gems and other regalia, but most notably, The Crown of João VI is an imperial format crown. A unique feature of the crown is that it is composed only of gold and red velvet