Crown of Augustus III of Poland
The Crown of Augustus III was made in 1733 for Augustus III coronation in Kraków in 1734. In 1925 Polish Government purchased the silver regalia of King Augustus III and it consisted of 2 crowns,2 sceptres and 2 orbs made in about 1733. The original Crown Regalia were hidden - see War of the Polish Succession, the jewels were exhibited in Warsaw till 1939 and in 1940 they were stolen by German forces. Later they were found by the Soviet troops in Germany and sent to the USSR where they remained until 1960, today are deposited in the National Museum in Warsaw. ISBN 83-03-01914-7 Media related to Crown of Augustus III of Poland at Wikimedia Commons The National Museum in Warsaw Silver regalia of King Augustus III and Queen Maria Josepha
The so-called Muscovy Crown was a part of the Polish Crown Jewels. It was made in about 1610 for Prince Władysław Vasas coronation as a Tsar of Russia, the Muscovy Crown was the type of corona clausa, made in the form of the rims covered with the globe and a cross on their intersection. It was decorated with precious stones including sapphires, rubies, in total there were 255 precious stones. It was pawned lawlessly in 1700 by King Augustus II the Strong, one of the gems from the crown became the property of Jan Kazimierz Krasiński, Grand Treasurer of the Crown. It was in the possession of the Krasiński family till the 19th century, it was given to Tsar Nicholas I of Russia by Wincenty Krasiński and found its place in the collections of the Kremlin Armoury in Moscow. ISBN 83-03-01914-7 Media related to Muscovy Crown at Wikimedia Commons
The Homagial Crown, known under its Latin name as the Corona Homagialis, was a part of the Polish Crown Jewels. It was mentioned for the first time in the 15th century in the inventory of the Wawel Royal Treasury and it was probably the coronation crown of Władysław II Jagiełło. In the 15th century crown inventories of treasures of Wawel Castle there appear two crowns called homagial, which are considered to have been the property of Jadwiga of Anjou and Jogaila. From the 16th century, the coronation regalia inventories mention only one of these insignia and this crown was worn by the Polish kings during the homage ceremony, replacing the Crown of Bolesław I the Brave. It was used for the last time during a ceremony in Warsaw in 1764, the crown was stolen from Wawel Castle by Prussian troops in 1794 and found its place in the collection of the Hohenzollerns in Berlin. After 1809 it was destroyed and melted down, as was the case with the majority of Polish regalia, the Homagial Crown was made of pure gold in the form of rims covered with a globe and a cross at their intersection.
It consisted of nine segments, each crowned with heraldic fleur-de-lis, in total there were 178 precious stones. In the 18th century the crown was depicted in the portrait of Casimir III the Great by Marcello Bacciarelli, tajemnica polskich koron, czy jest szansa ich odnalezienia. Media related to Homagial Crown at Wikimedia Commons
Crown of Queen Maria Josepha
Crown of Maria Josepha was made for Archduchess Maria Josepha of Austria, wife of King Augustus III of Poland, for her coronation as Polish queen in 1734. In 1925 Polish Government purchased the silver regalia of King Augustus III and it consisted of 2 crowns,2 sceptres and 2 orbs made in about 1733. The original Crown Regalia were hidden - see War of the Polish Succession, the jewels were exhibited in Warsaw till 1939 and in 1940 they were stolen by German forces. Later they were found by the Soviet troops in Germany and sent to the USSR where they remained until 1960, today are deposited in the National Museum in Warsaw. ISBN 83-03-01914-7 The National Museum in Warsaw Silver regalia of King Augustus III and Queen Maria Josepha
Polish Crown Jewels
The only surviving original piece of the Polish Crown Jewels from the time of the Piast dynasty is the ceremonial sword – Szczerbiec. It is currently on display along with other preserved royal items at the Wawel Royal Castle Museum in Kraków. Several royal crowns were made, including several during the 16th Century, a Hungarian Crown, a Swedish Crown used by the Vasa kings, and others that were subsequently lost or destroyed. This relic, together with the attached to it, was probably the first insignia of the nascent Kingdom of Poland, a symbol of King Bolesławs rule. It remains unknown what images, if any, were painted or embroidered on the vexillum, starting from 1320 the Crown jewels of the Polish kings were kept in the treasury of the Wawel Cathedral. In 1370 Louis I of Hungary decided to transfer the Polish regalia to Hungary, during the reign of the Jagiellons the jewels were moved from the cathedral to the Wawel Castle and placed in the specially prepared Crown Treasury. In the 17th century they were brought to Warsaw for the coronations of the Polish Queens.
During the Deluge in 1655, the insignia were evacuated from the castle by Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski, Grand Marshal of the Crown. They were stored there until 1661, in 1703 during the Great Northern War they were hidden again, first in Silesia, in Moravia. In 1734, they were recovered from the hideout and deposited in the Jasna Góra Monastery, in 1764, with the consent of the Sejm, the royal insignia were transported to Warsaw for the coronation of King Stanisław II August. Later returned to the Wawel Castle, where they were kept till the Third Partition of Poland in 1795, on 15 June 1794 the Prussian Army entered Kraków and captured Wawel Castle, subsequently turning it into a fortress. Shortly thereafter, the city commandant, general Leopold von Reuts began a correspondence with Berlin on the fate of furnishings of the Polish kings residence, the locksmith brought by the Prussians broke the locks of the treasury and opened all the boxes. The valuables were transported in 1794 and found their place in the collection of the Hohenzollerns in Berlin, in 1800 the valuables were stored in the Berlin City Palace, where they were admired by Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, as he informed Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz.
In 1809 the Polish regalia were valued at 525,259 thalers and shortly after, on 17 March 1809, in accordance with the decision of Frederick William III of Prussia, all of them were melted down. The obtained gold was reused to make coins, while precious stones and pearls were handed to the Directorate of Maritime Trade in Berlin.94 carats diamond,200 diamonds, a large emerald, among others. It was never used however, because two monks broke into the State Treasury in the Wawel Castle and stole the original regalia, the Augustus II Crown is kept in the Dresden Armory. All of the crown regalia were looted by the Prussians in 1795 after the Third Partition of the Commonwealth. In 1925 Polish Government purchased the silver regalia of King Augustus III and it consisted of two crowns, two sceptres and two orbs made in about 1733
Szczerbiec is the coronation sword that was used in crowning ceremonies of most Polish monarchs from 1320 to 1764. It is currently on display in the vault of the Royal Wawel Castle in Kraków as the only preserved piece of the medieval Polish Crown Jewels. However, the Golden Gate was only constructed in 1037 and the sword is actually dated to the late 12th or 13th century and it was first used as a coronation sword by Władysław I the Elbow-high in 1320. Looted by Prussian troops in 1795, it changed several times during the 19th century until it was purchased in 1884 for the Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg. The Soviet Union returned it to Poland in 1928, during World War II, Szczerbiec was evacuated to Canada and did not return to Kraków until 1959. In the 20th century, an image of the sword was adopted as a symbol by Polish nationalist, Szczerbiec is a 98 cm-long ceremonial sword bearing rich Gothic ornamentation, dated to the mid-13th century. The hilt consists of a round pommel, a flat grip, the grip is 10.1 cm long,1.2 cm thick, and from 2 to 3 cm wide.
It is rectangular in cross-section and its hard edges make it difficult to handle and impractical for fighting, the pommel is 4.5 cm in diameter and 2.6 cm thick, with a chamfered outer ring that is 1.3 cm wide. The crossguard forms an arch that is 1.8 cm wide in the middle and it is 1 cm thick near the grip and measures 20 cm in length along its upper edge. The pommel and the crossguard are made of silver, the core of the grip is a brass chest encasing the tang of the blade. It was probably made in the 19th century to replace an original organic core, at the same time the tang was riveted to the top of the pommel. The head of the rivet, which is 0.5 cm in diameter, all parts of the hilt are covered with golden plates, which are engraved with sharp or rounded styli and decorated with niello, or black metallic inlay that contrasts against the golden background. Each plate is 1 mm thick and made of about 18-carat gold, the niello designs include inscriptions written in late Romanesque majuscule, Christian symbols, and floral patterns.
The floral ornaments are in negative, that is, golden against a black, on the obverse side of the hilt, the pommel bears a large stylized letter T on top of a letter C or G between the Greek letters Α and ω surmounted with little crosses. Below the letter T, there is another cross placed within a cloud or flower with twelve petals, on the chamfered edge around this design runs a circular Latin inscription in two rings which reads, Rec figura talet ad amorem regum / et principum iras iudicum. The grip bears the symbols of two of the Four Evangelists, the lion of Saint Mark and the ox of Saint Luke, the crossguard bears the following Latin inscription, Quicumque hec / nomina Deii secum tu/lerit nullum periculum / ei omnino nocebit. The reverse side of the pommel is decorated with a bush surrounded by a wreath of vine leaves. On the reverse of the grip, there are the eagle of Saint John and the angel of Saint Matthew, the crossguard bears, above another pattern of vine leaves, an inscription in corrupted Hebrew in Latin script, Con citomon Eeve Sedalai Ebrebel
The Hungarian Crown was a part of the Polish Crown Jewels. It was made in the 16th century, resembling the Crown of Saint Stephen, according to a contemporary Polish chronicler, she broke the cross off the Crown of Saint Stephen’s peak for her son, John Sigismund Zápolya. The copy of the main Hungarian insignium was probably made at that time, after John Sigismunds death the crown was inherited in 1571 by King Sigismund II Augustus of Poland, Isabellas brother. The Polish king treated the crown of Hungary as a family keepsake, unable to use the Crown of Bolesław I the Brave, Báthory used the Hungarian Crown as an alternative. In about 1576 the crown was bequeathed to the State Treasury at the Wawel Castle and it was stolen by Prussian soldiers after the seizure of Kraków by the Prussian army, and was appropriated to the collections of the Hohenzollerns in Berlin. After 1809 it was destroyed, as was the majority of Polish regalia, the Hungarian Crown was made in the form of rims topped with a globe and a cross at their intersection.
It was decorated with plaques, filigree work, pendants. In the 18th century the crown was depicted in the portrait of Louis I of Hungary by Marcello Bacciarelli, ISBN 83-03-01914-7 Media related to Hungarian Crown at Wikimedia Commons
Crown of Augustus II the Strong
The Crown of Augustus II was intended for his coronation as a King of Poland. The crown was made in 1697 by Freiburgs goldsmith Johann Friedrich Klemm, the Augustus IIs crown is kept in Dresden Armory in Dresden, Germany. The most difficult situation was of Elector of Saxony, who had no support of the primate Michał Stefan Radziejowski, expecting obstacles in obtaining the royal insignia, he ordered to prepare replacements before his arrival to Kraków. On the eve of the ceremony, some of the decided to find a way to obtain the original regalia. The Dresden regalia become unnecessary, Augustus II the Strong, Crown of Augustus II the Strong is made of gilded silver and decorated with colorful enamel and semi-precious stones. Lileyko, Jerzy Regalia Polskie Krajowa Agencja Wydawnicza, Poland, ISBN 83-03-02021-8 Miniewicz, Janusz Tajemnica polskich koron, Czy jest szansa ich odnalezienia
The gift, a pair of simple bare swords, was a formal invitation to the battle. After the Polish-Lithuanian victory, both swords were taken as a war trophy by King Władysław II to Kraków, Polands capital at the time, and placed in the treasury of the Royal Wawel Castle. With time, the two swords became treated as royal insignia, symbolising the monarchs reign over two nations, the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and they were probably used in coronations of most Polish kings from the 16th to the 18th centuries. In private hands after the partitions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth at the end of the 18th century and they have remained, however, a symbol of victory and Polands and Lithuanias past, and an important part of national identity of the two nations. It was a battle of the war and one of the largest in medieval Europe. As both sides were preparing for the battle in the morning of 15 July 1410, two carrying two unsheathed swords were announced to King Władysław II.
The heralds spoke in German while the secretary, Jan Mężyk of Dąbrowa. They delivered, according to Długosz, the message, Your Majesty. As they spoke, Teutonic forces did, in fact, withdraw from previously occupied positions, while sending swords as a formal gesture challenging the enemy to battle was customary at that time, adding insults was not. Where, are the two swords of the enemies and they were indeed cut down with those swords with which they tried to terrify the humble. Behold, they sent you two swords, the swords of violence and of pride, and have lost many thousands of them, having been utterly defeated. The king sent the two swords to Kraków and deposited them, together with Teutonic army banners and other war trophies, the two Prussian swords, as they were described in a treasury inventory in 1633, became treated as part of Polish-Lithuanian crown jewels. Since the pair of swords had been given to two rulers – of Poland and Lithuania – each of the weapons was associated with one of the two constituent nations of the Commonwealth.
During a coronation ceremony, the made a sign of the Cross three times with Szczerbiec, or the principal coronation sword. Immediately afterwards, one of the assisting in the ceremony handed the Grunwald Swords to the king who in turn passed them on to the Crown. At some point in time they were embellished with hilts made from gilded silver, two of the elective kings of Poland–Lithuania were crowned without the use of the Grunwald Swords. King Stanislaus I Leszczyński was crowned in Warsaw in 1705 with a set of royal insignia given to him by King Charles XII of Sweden. The set probably did not include an equivalent of the Grunwald Swords, Augustus III used his own set of crown jewels for his 1734 coronation
The Queens Crown was a part of the Polish Crown Jewels until it was destroyed in 1809. It was mentioned for the first time in the inventory of the Wawel Royal Treasury in the 15th century. The Polish Queens coronation insignia were made for Jadwiga of Kalisz, wife of Władysław I the Elbow-high in 1320. Since that time it served as the main insignium of the Polish Queens till the end of the 17th century, the crown was stolen from the Wawel Castle by the Prussian troops in 1794 and found its place in the collections of the Hohenzollerns in Berlin. After 1809 it was destroyed and melted down just as the majority of Polish regalia, the Queens Crown consisted of eight segments each crowned with heraldic fleur-de-lis and interspersed with smaller pinnacles. It was made of gold in the form of the rims covered with the globe. The 18th century surveys of the Wawel Royal Treasury indicate that it was decorated with 40 rubies,40 sapphires and 63 pearls. In the 18th century the crown was depicted in the portrait of Saint King Jadwiga of Poland by Marcello Bacciarelli, ISBN 83-03-01914-7 Media related to Queens Crown at Wikimedia Commons
The Swedish Crown, known as the Purchased Crown, was a part of the Polish Crown Jewels. The crown was made for King Sigismund II Augustus, after Kings death it was pawned to Giovanni Tudesco and ransomed by King Sigismund III Vasa for 20,000 florins and used for his coronation in Uppsala as the King of Sweden on February 19,1594. In 1623 King Sigismund III bequeathed it to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, in the 18th century the crown was depicted in the portrait of Sigismund I the Old by Marcello Bacciarelli, painted to embellish the Marble Room at the Royal Castle in Warsaw. ISBN 83-03-01914-7 Media related to Swedish Crown at Wikimedia Commons Korona szwedzka