Pages in category "Culinary terminology"
The following 118 pages are in this category, out of 118 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 118 pages are in this category, out of 118 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Amandine (garnish) – Amandine is a culinary term indicating a garnish of almonds. Dishes of this sort are usually cooked with butter and seasonings, the term is often spelled almondine in American cookbooks. Green beans, potatoes, fish and asparagus are frequently served amandine, list of cooking techniques Meuniere sauce Merriam-Webster definition Green Beans Amandine
2. Amuse-bouche – An amuse-bouche or amuse-gueule is a single, bite-sized hors d’œuvre. Amuse-bouches are different from appetizers in that they are not ordered from a menu by patrons and these, often accompanied by a complementing wine, are served both to prepare the guest for the meal and to offer a glimpse into the chefs approach to the art of cuisine. The term is French, literally translated as mouth amuser, the plural form is amuse-bouche or amuse-bouches. In French, bouche refers to the mouth, while gueule refers to the mouth or snout of an animal. The amuse-bouche emerged as a course during the nouvelle cuisine movement. It differs from other hors dœuvres in that it is small, the functional role of the amuse-bouche could be played by rather simple offerings, such as a plate of olives or a crock of tapenade. It often becomes a showcase, however, due to the artistry and showmanship of the chef, at some point, the amuse-bouche transformed from an unexpected bonus to a de rigueur offering at Michelin Guide-starred restaurants and those aspiring to that category. This often requires a separate cooking station devoted solely to producing the course quickly as well as a large, interesting plates, demitasse cups, and large Asian-style soup spoons are popular choices. In addition, the kitchen must try to accommodate guests that have an aversion or allergy to ingredients in the amuse
3. Aspic – Aspic is a dish in which ingredients are set into a gelatin made from a meat stock or consommé. Non-savory dishes, often made with commercial gelatin mixes without stock or consommé, are usually called gelatin salads, when cooled, stock that is made from meat congeals because of the natural gelatin found in the meat. The stock can be clarified with egg whites, and then filled and flavored just before the aspic sets, almost any type of food can be set into aspics. Most common are meat pieces, fruits, or vegetables, aspics are usually served on cold plates so that the gel will not melt before being eaten. A meat jelly that includes cream is called a chaud-froid, nearly any type of meat can be used to make the gelatin, pork, beef, veal, chicken, turkey, or fish. The aspic may need additional gelatin in order to set properly, veal stock provides a great deal of gelatin, in making stock, veal is often included with other meat for that reason. Fish consommés usually have too little natural gelatin, so the stock may be double-cooked or supplemented. Since fish gelatin melts at a lower temperature than gelatins of other meats, fish aspic is more delicate, vegetables and fish stocks need gelatin to maintain a molded shape. Historically, meat aspics were made before fruit- and vegetable-flavored aspics or jellies, by the Middle Ages at the latest, cooks had discovered that a thickened meat broth could be made into a jelly. A detailed recipe for aspic is found in Le Viandier, written in or around 1375, in the early 19th century, Marie-Antoine Carême created chaud froid in France. Chaud froid means hot cold in French, referring to foods that were prepared hot, Aspic was used as a chaud froid sauce in many cold fish and poultry meals. The sauce added moisture and flavor to the food, Carême invented various types of aspic and ways of preparing it. Aspic, when used to hold meats, prevents them from becoming spoiled, the gelatin keeps out air and bacteria, keeping the cooked meat fresh. Aspic came into prominence in America in the early 20th century, by the 1950s, meat aspic was a popular dinner staple throughout the United States as were other gelatin-based dishes such as tomato aspic. Cooks used to show off aesthetic skills by creating inventive aspics, Aspic can also be referred as aspic gelée or aspic jelly. Aspic jelly may be colorless or contain various shades of amber, Aspic can be used to protect food from the air, to give food more flavor, or as a decoration. There are three types of textures, delicate, sliceable, and inedible. The sliceable aspic must be made in a terrine or in an aspic mold and it is firmer than the delicate aspic
4. Au jus – Au jus is a French culinary term meaning with juice. It refers to dishes prepared or served together with a light gravy made from the juices given off by the meat as it is cooked. In French cuisine, cooking au jus is a way to enhance the flavour of dishes, mainly chicken, veal. In American cuisine, the term is used to refer to a light sauce for beef recipes. To prepare a natural jus, the cook may simply skim off the fat from the left after cooking and bring the remaining meat stock. Jus can be frozen for six months or longer, but the flavor may suffer after this time. American recipes au jus often use soy sauce, Worcestershire sauce, salt, pepper, white or brown sugar, garlic, beets, carrots, onion, the American jus is sometimes prepared separately, rather than being produced naturally by the food being cooked. An example could be a beef jus made by reducing beef stock to a concentrated form and it is typically served with the French dip sandwich. Jus can also be made by extracting the juice from the original meat, a powdered product described as jus is also sold, and is rubbed into the meat before cooking or added afterwards. Powdered forms generally use a combination of salt, dried onion, list of dips French dip with au jus
5. Baeksuk – Baeksuk is a Korean culinary term referring to dishes made by boiling or steaming meat or fish to be cooked thoroughly without seasonings. Baeksuk is made with chicken or pheasant with plenty of water for several hours, however, the term generally indicates dakbaeksuk, or chicken stew, whose recipe and ingredients are similar to samgyetang. While samgyetang is made with ginseng, various herbs, chestnuts, and jujubes, dakbaeksuk consists of simpler ingredients, such as chicken, water, the chicken can be stuffed with glutinous rice. When the cooking is finished, salt and sliced Welsh onions are added to the diners bowl according to taste, if the baesuk is not stuffed with glutinous rice, it is usually eaten with cooked rice. It is often seen as a simpler and cheaper variant of samgyetang, sometimes it is mistakenly used as another word for samgyetang. The dak hanmari is a popular South Korean dish to have developed from baeksuk, the dish literally means a whole chicken in Korean because diners can have several types of food altogether from a chicken, chicken flesh, its rich soup, kalguksu, potatoes, and garaetteok. It can be eaten with a clear broth just like baeksuk, or seasoned with gochujang based sauce
6. Bain-marie – A bain-marie is also used to melt ingredients for cooking. Under the outer container of the bain-marie is a heat source, typically the inner container is immersed about halfway into the working fluid. The insulating action of the water helps to keep contents of the pot from boiling or scorching. Using different working fluids in the container will result in different maximum temperatures. A contemporary alternative to the traditional, liquid-filled bain-marie is the electric dry-heat bain-marie, the dry-heat form of electric bains-marie often consumes less energy, requires little cleaning, and can be heated more quickly than traditional versions. They can also operate at higher temperatures, and are much less expensive than their traditional counterparts. Electric bains-marie can also be wet, using hot water or vapor, or steam. The open, bath-type bain-marie heats via a small, hot-water tub, chocolate can be melted in a bain-marie to avoid splitting and caking onto the pot. Special dessert bains-marie have an insulated container and are used as a chocolate fondue. Cheesecake is often baked in a bain-marie to prevent the top from cracking in the centre, custard may be cooked in a bain-marie to keep a crust from forming on the outside of the custard before the interior is fully cooked. The humidity from the steam that rises as the water helps keep the top of the custard from becoming too dry. Classic warm sauces, such as Hollandaise and beurre blanc, requiring heat to emulsify the mixture, some charcuterie such as terrines and pâtés are cooked in an oven-type bain-marie. Thickening of condensed milk, such as in confection-making, is easily in a bain-marie. Controlled-temperature bains-marie can be used to heat frozen breast milk before feedings, bains-marie can be used in place of chafing dishes for keeping foods warm for long periods of time, where stovetops or hot plates are inconvenient or too powerful. A bain-marie can be used to re-liquefy hardened honey by placing a glass jar on top of any improvised platform sitting at the bottom of a pot of boiling water. In small scale soap-making, a bain-maries inherent control over maximum temperature makes it optimal for liquefying melt-and-pour soap bases prior to molding them into bars and it offers the advantage of maintaining the base in a liquid state, or reliquefying a solidified base, with minimal deterioration. Similarly, using a bath, traditional wood glue can be melted. The name comes from the medieval-Latin term balneum Mariae—literally, Marys bath—from which the French bain de Marie, the devices invention has been popularly attributed to Mary the Jewess, an ancient alchemist
7. Baker – A baker is someone who bakes and sometimes sells breads and other products made using an oven or other concentrated heat source. The place where a baker works is called a bakery, since grains have been a staple food for millennia, the activity of baking is a very old one. Control of yeast, however, is relatively recent, by the fifth and sixth centuries BCE, the ancient Greeks used enclosed ovens heated by wood fires, communities usually baked bread in a large communal oven. Greeks baked dozens and possibly hundreds of types of bread, Athenaeus described seventy-two varieties, in ancient Rome several centuries later, the first mass production of breads occurred, and the baking profession can be said to have started at that time. Ancient Roman bakers used honey and oil in their products, creating pastries rather than breads, in ancient Rome, bakers were sometimes slaves, who were sometimes manumitted. Large households in Rome normally had their own bakers, the Gauls are credited with discovering that the addition of beer froth to bread dough made well-leavened bread, marking the use of controlled yeast for bread dough. In medieval Europe, baking ovens were often separated from buildings to mitigate the risk of fire. Because bread was an important staple food, bakers production factors were heavily regulated, soon after the enactment of the Assize, baking became a very stable industry, and was executed much more professionally than brewing, resulting in towns and villages having fewer bakers than brewers. Because ovens were expensive capital investments and required careful operation, specialized bakeries opened, Bakers were often part of the guild system, which was well-established by the sixteenth century, master bakers instructed apprentices and were assisted by journeymen. In Amsterdam in 1694, for example, the cake-bakers, pie-bakers, a fraternity of bakers in London existed as early as 1155, according to records of payments to the Exchequer, the Worshipful Company of Bakers was formed by charters dated 1486,1569, and 1685. The guild still exists today, with ceremonial and charitable functions. Five bakers have served as mayor of London. The Columbian Exchange, which began in 1492, had a influence on the baking occupation. Access to sugar greatly increased as a result of new cultivation in the Caribbean, in the eighteenth century, processors learned how to refine sugar from sugar beets, allowing Europeans to grow sugar locally. These developments led to an increase in the sophistication of baking and pastries, and this occupation was less common that cloth manufacturer and tavern/public house worker, but more common than cotton spinner, merchant, calico printer, or grocer. The legislation was soon replicated in other states, joseph Lochner, a bakery owner in Utica, New York, was subsequently convicted of violating the law for forcing his employees to work more than sixty hours a week. Frustrated with the deterioration of working conditions, bakery workers in New York went on strike in August 1905. In Roman Catholic tradition, the saint of bakers and pastry chefs is Honoratus of Amiens
8. Baking – Baking is a method of cooking food that uses prolonged dry heat, normally in an oven, but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones. The most common baked item is bread but many types of foods are baked. Heat is gradually transferred from the surface of cakes, cookies, as heat travels through it transforms batters and doughs into baked goods with a firm dry crust and a softer centre. Baking can be combined with grilling to produce a hybrid barbecue variant by using both methods simultaneously, or one after the other, Baking is related to barbecuing because the concept of the masonry oven is similar to that of a smoke pit. Because of historical social and familial roles, baking has traditionally performed at home by women for domestic consumption and by men in bakeries. When production was industrialized, baking was automated by machines in large factories, the art of baking remains a fundamental skill and is important for nutrition, as baked goods, especially breads, are a common but important food, both from an economic and cultural point of view. A person who prepares baked goods as a profession is called a baker, all types of food can be baked, but some require special care and protection from direct heat. Various techniques have developed to provide this protection. In addition to bread, baking is used to prepare cakes, pastries, pies, tarts, quiches, cookies, scones, crackers, pretzels, and more. Larger cuts prepared without stuffing or coating are often roasted. Roasting, however, is suitable for finer cuts of meat. One of these is the known as en croûte, which protects the food from direct heat. Meat, poultry, game, fish or vegetables can be prepared by baking en croûte, the en croûte method also allows meat to be baked by burying it in the embers of a fire – a favourite method of cooking venison. In this case, the casing is made from a paste of flour. Salt can also be used to make a protective crust that is not eaten, another method of protecting food from the heat while it is baking, is to cook it en papillote. In this method, the food is covered by baking paper to protect it while it is being baked, the cooked parcel of food is sometimes served unopened, allowing diners to discover the contents for themselves which adds an element of surprise. Eggs can also be used in baking to produce savoury or sweet dishes, in combination with dairy products especially cheese, they are often prepared as a dessert. For example, although a baked custard can be made using starch, baked custards, such as crème caramel, are among the items that need protection from an ovens direct heat, and the bain-marie method serves this purpose
9. Barbecue – Barbecue or barbeque is both a cooking method and an apparatus. The word barbecue when used as a noun can refer to, the method itself, the meat cooked this way. The term is used as a verb, i. e. barbecuing is usually done outdoors by smoking the meat over wood or charcoal. Restaurant barbecue may be cooked in large, specially-designed brick or metal ovens, barbeque is practiced in many areas of the world and there are numerous regional variations. The English word barbecue and its cognates in other languages come from the Spanish word barbacoa, the Oxford English Dictionary traces the word to Haiti and translates it as a framework of sticks set upon posts. Gonzalo Fernández De Oviedo y Valdés, a Spanish explorer, was the first to use the word barbecoa in print in Spain in 1526 in the Diccionario de la Lengua Española of the Real Academia Española. After Columbus landed in the Americas in 1492, the Spaniards apparently found native Haitians roasting meat over a grill consisting of a wooden framework resting on sticks above a fire, the flames and smoke rose and enveloped the meat, giving it a certain flavor. The same framework was used as protection from nocturnal animal attacks. Traditional barbacoa involves digging a hole in the ground and placing some meat—usually a whole lamb—above a pot so the juices can be used to make a broth and it is then covered with maguey leaves and coal, and set alight. The cooking process takes a few hours, linguists have suggested the word barbacoa migrated from the Caribbean and into other languages and cultures, it moved from Caribbean dialects into Spanish, then Portuguese, French, and English. According to the OED, the first recorded use of the word in English was a verb in 1661, in Edmund Hickeringills Jamaica Viewed, Some are slain, And their flesh forthwith Barbacud and eat. The word barbecue was published in English in 1672 as a verb from the writings of John Lederer, the first known use of the word as a noun was in 1697 by the British buccaneer William Dampier. In his New Voyage Round the World, Dampier wrote, and lay there all night, upon our Borbecus, or frames of Sticks, raised about 3 foot from the Ground. The spelling barbeque is given in Merriam-Webster and the Oxford Dictionaries as a variant, in the southeastern United States, the word barbecue is used predominantly as a noun referring to roast pork, while in the southwestern states cuts of beef are often cooked. Because the word came from native groups, Europeans gave it savage connotations. However, according to Andrew Warnes, there is little proof that Hickeringills tale of cannibalism in the Caribbean is even remotely true. Today, those in the U. S. associate barbecue with classic Americana, in American English usage, grilling refers to a fast process over high heat while barbecuing refers to a slow process using indirect heat or hot smoke, similar to some forms of roasting. In a typical U. S. home grill, food is cooked on a grate directly over hot charcoal and its South American versions are the southern Brazilian churrasco and the Argentine asado