Pages in category "Culinary terminology"
The following 120 pages are in this category, out of 120 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 120 pages are in this category, out of 120 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Aspic – Aspic is a dish in which ingredients are set into a gelatin made from a meat stock or consommé. Non-savory dishes, often made with commercial gelatin mixes without stock or consommé, are usually called gelatin salads, when cooled, stock that is made from meat congeals because of the natural gelatin found in the meat. The stock can be clarified with egg whites, and then filled and flavored just before the aspic sets, almost any type of food can be set into aspics. Most common are meat pieces, fruits, or vegetables, aspics are usually served on cold plates so that the gel will not melt before being eaten. A meat jelly that includes cream is called a chaud-froid, nearly any type of meat can be used to make the gelatin, pork, beef, veal, chicken, turkey, or fish. The aspic may need additional gelatin in order to set properly, veal stock provides a great deal of gelatin, in making stock, veal is often included with other meat for that reason. Fish consommés usually have too little natural gelatin, so the stock may be double-cooked or supplemented. Since fish gelatin melts at a lower temperature than gelatins of other meats, fish aspic is more delicate, vegetables and fish stocks need gelatin to maintain a molded shape. Historically, meat aspics were made before fruit- and vegetable-flavored aspics or jellies, by the Middle Ages at the latest, cooks had discovered that a thickened meat broth could be made into a jelly. A detailed recipe for aspic is found in Le Viandier, written in or around 1375, in the early 19th century, Marie-Antoine Carême created chaud froid in France. Chaud froid means hot cold in French, referring to foods that were prepared hot, Aspic was used as a chaud froid sauce in many cold fish and poultry meals. The sauce added moisture and flavor to the food, Carême invented various types of aspic and ways of preparing it. Aspic, when used to hold meats, prevents them from becoming spoiled, the gelatin keeps out air and bacteria, keeping the cooked meat fresh. Aspic came into prominence in America in the early 20th century, by the 1950s, meat aspic was a popular dinner staple throughout the United States as were other gelatin-based dishes such as tomato aspic. Cooks used to show off aesthetic skills by creating inventive aspics, Aspic can also be referred as aspic gelée or aspic jelly. Aspic jelly may be colorless or contain various shades of amber, Aspic can be used to protect food from the air, to give food more flavor, or as a decoration. There are three types of textures, delicate, sliceable, and inedible. The sliceable aspic must be made in a terrine or in an aspic mold and it is firmer than the delicate aspic
2. Baker – A baker is someone who bakes and sometimes sells breads and other products made using an oven or other concentrated heat source. The place where a baker works is called a bakery, since grains have been a staple food for millennia, the activity of baking is a very old one. Control of yeast, however, is relatively recent, by the fifth and sixth centuries BCE, the ancient Greeks used enclosed ovens heated by wood fires, communities usually baked bread in a large communal oven. Greeks baked dozens and possibly hundreds of types of bread, Athenaeus described seventy-two varieties, in ancient Rome several centuries later, the first mass production of breads occurred, and the baking profession can be said to have started at that time. Ancient Roman bakers used honey and oil in their products, creating pastries rather than breads, in ancient Rome, bakers were sometimes slaves, who were sometimes manumitted. Large households in Rome normally had their own bakers, the Gauls are credited with discovering that the addition of beer froth to bread dough made well-leavened bread, marking the use of controlled yeast for bread dough. In medieval Europe, baking ovens were often separated from buildings to mitigate the risk of fire. Because bread was an important staple food, bakers production factors were heavily regulated, soon after the enactment of the Assize, baking became a very stable industry, and was executed much more professionally than brewing, resulting in towns and villages having fewer bakers than brewers. Because ovens were expensive capital investments and required careful operation, specialized bakeries opened, Bakers were often part of the guild system, which was well-established by the sixteenth century, master bakers instructed apprentices and were assisted by journeymen. In Amsterdam in 1694, for example, the cake-bakers, pie-bakers, a fraternity of bakers in London existed as early as 1155, according to records of payments to the Exchequer, the Worshipful Company of Bakers was formed by charters dated 1486,1569, and 1685. The guild still exists today, with ceremonial and charitable functions. Five bakers have served as mayor of London. The Columbian Exchange, which began in 1492, had a influence on the baking occupation. Access to sugar greatly increased as a result of new cultivation in the Caribbean, in the eighteenth century, processors learned how to refine sugar from sugar beets, allowing Europeans to grow sugar locally. These developments led to an increase in the sophistication of baking and pastries, and this occupation was less common that cloth manufacturer and tavern/public house worker, but more common than cotton spinner, merchant, calico printer, or grocer. The legislation was soon replicated in other states, joseph Lochner, a bakery owner in Utica, New York, was subsequently convicted of violating the law for forcing his employees to work more than sixty hours a week. Frustrated with the deterioration of working conditions, bakery workers in New York went on strike in August 1905. In Roman Catholic tradition, the saint of bakers and pastry chefs is Honoratus of Amiens
3. Baking – Baking is a method of cooking food that uses prolonged dry heat, normally in an oven, but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones. The most common baked item is bread but many types of foods are baked. Heat is gradually transferred from the surface of cakes, cookies, as heat travels through it transforms batters and doughs into baked goods with a firm dry crust and a softer centre. Baking can be combined with grilling to produce a hybrid barbecue variant by using both methods simultaneously, or one after the other, Baking is related to barbecuing because the concept of the masonry oven is similar to that of a smoke pit. Because of historical social and familial roles, baking has traditionally performed at home by women for domestic consumption and by men in bakeries. When production was industrialized, baking was automated by machines in large factories, the art of baking remains a fundamental skill and is important for nutrition, as baked goods, especially breads, are a common but important food, both from an economic and cultural point of view. A person who prepares baked goods as a profession is called a baker, all types of food can be baked, but some require special care and protection from direct heat. Various techniques have developed to provide this protection. In addition to bread, baking is used to prepare cakes, pastries, pies, tarts, quiches, cookies, scones, crackers, pretzels, and more. Larger cuts prepared without stuffing or coating are often roasted. Roasting, however, is suitable for finer cuts of meat. One of these is the known as en croûte, which protects the food from direct heat. Meat, poultry, game, fish or vegetables can be prepared by baking en croûte, the en croûte method also allows meat to be baked by burying it in the embers of a fire – a favourite method of cooking venison. In this case, the casing is made from a paste of flour. Salt can also be used to make a protective crust that is not eaten, another method of protecting food from the heat while it is baking, is to cook it en papillote. In this method, the food is covered by baking paper to protect it while it is being baked, the cooked parcel of food is sometimes served unopened, allowing diners to discover the contents for themselves which adds an element of surprise. Eggs can also be used in baking to produce savoury or sweet dishes, in combination with dairy products especially cheese, they are often prepared as a dessert. For example, although a baked custard can be made using starch, baked custards, such as crème caramel, are among the items that need protection from an ovens direct heat, and the bain-marie method serves this purpose
4. Barbecue – Barbecue or barbeque is both a cooking method and an apparatus. The word barbecue when used as a noun can refer to, the method itself, the meat cooked this way. The term is used as a verb, i. e. barbecuing is usually done outdoors by smoking the meat over wood or charcoal. Restaurant barbecue may be cooked in large, specially-designed brick or metal ovens, barbeque is practiced in many areas of the world and there are numerous regional variations. The English word barbecue and its cognates in other languages come from the Spanish word barbacoa, the Oxford English Dictionary traces the word to Haiti and translates it as a framework of sticks set upon posts. Gonzalo Fernández De Oviedo y Valdés, a Spanish explorer, was the first to use the word barbecoa in print in Spain in 1526 in the Diccionario de la Lengua Española of the Real Academia Española. After Columbus landed in the Americas in 1492, the Spaniards apparently found native Haitians roasting meat over a grill consisting of a wooden framework resting on sticks above a fire, the flames and smoke rose and enveloped the meat, giving it a certain flavor. The same framework was used as protection from nocturnal animal attacks. Traditional barbacoa involves digging a hole in the ground and placing some meat—usually a whole lamb—above a pot so the juices can be used to make a broth and it is then covered with maguey leaves and coal, and set alight. The cooking process takes a few hours, linguists have suggested the word barbacoa migrated from the Caribbean and into other languages and cultures, it moved from Caribbean dialects into Spanish, then Portuguese, French, and English. According to the OED, the first recorded use of the word in English was a verb in 1661, in Edmund Hickeringills Jamaica Viewed, Some are slain, And their flesh forthwith Barbacud and eat. The word barbecue was published in English in 1672 as a verb from the writings of John Lederer, the first known use of the word as a noun was in 1697 by the British buccaneer William Dampier. In his New Voyage Round the World, Dampier wrote, and lay there all night, upon our Borbecus, or frames of Sticks, raised about 3 foot from the Ground. The spelling barbeque is given in Merriam-Webster and the Oxford Dictionaries as a variant, in the southeastern United States, the word barbecue is used predominantly as a noun referring to roast pork, while in the southwestern states cuts of beef are often cooked. Because the word came from native groups, Europeans gave it savage connotations. However, according to Andrew Warnes, there is little proof that Hickeringills tale of cannibalism in the Caribbean is even remotely true. Today, those in the U. S. associate barbecue with classic Americana, in American English usage, grilling refers to a fast process over high heat while barbecuing refers to a slow process using indirect heat or hot smoke, similar to some forms of roasting. In a typical U. S. home grill, food is cooked on a grate directly over hot charcoal and its South American versions are the southern Brazilian churrasco and the Argentine asado
5. Braising – Braising of meat is often referred to as pot roasting, though some authors make a distinction between the two methods, based on whether additional liquid is added. Many classic braised dishes are highly evolved methods of cooking tough, both pressure cooking and slow cooking are forms of braising. Most braises follow the basic steps. The food to be braised is first pan-seared to brown its surface and enhance its flavor, if the food will not produce enough liquid of its own, a certain amount of cooking liquid that often includes an acidic element is added to the pot, often with stock. A classic braise is done with a whole cut of meat. Then, the dish is covered and cooked at a low simmer. Often the cooking liquid is finished to create a sauce or gravy, sometimes, foods with high water content can be cooked in their own juices, making the addition of liquid unnecessary. A successful braise intermingles the flavors of the foods being cooked with those of the cooking liquid and this cooking method dissolves the meats collagen into gelatin, which can greatly enrich and thicken the liquid. Familiar braised dishes include pot roast, Swiss steak, chicken cacciatore, goulash, Carbonade Flamande, coq au vin, sauerbraten, beef bourguignon, beef brisket, and tajines, among others. Braising is also used extensively in the cuisines of Asia, particularly Chinese cuisine and Vietnamese cuisine, adobo Hot pot Jugging Kho Lancashire hotpot Pot roast Red cooking Stew
6. Butcher – A butcher is a person who may slaughter animals, dress their flesh, sell their meat or do any combination of these three tasks. They may prepare standard cuts of meat and poultry for sale in retail or wholesale food establishments, a butcher may be employed by supermarkets, grocery stores, butcher shops and fish markets, slaughter house, or may be self-employed. An ancient trade, whose duties may date back to the domestication of livestock, today, many jurisdictions offer trade certifications for butchers. Some areas expect a three-year apprenticeship followed by the option of becoming a master butcher, butchery is a traditional line of work. In the industrialized world, slaughterhouses use butchers to slaughter the animals, the steps include stunning, exsanguination, skinning or scalding and dehairing, evisceration and splitting. Secondary butchery involves boning and trimming primal cuts in preparation for sale, historically, primary and secondary butchery were performed in the same establishment, but the advent of methods of preservation and low cost transportation has largely separated them. In parts of the world, it is common for butchers to perform many or all of the butchers duties, where refrigeration is less common, these skills are required to sell the meat of slaughtered animals. Some butchers sell their goods in specialized stores, commonly termed a butcher shop, butchers at a butcher shop may perform primary butchery, but will typically perform secondary butchery to prepare fresh cuts of meat for sale. These shops may also sell related products, such as food supplies, baked goods. Butcher shops can have a variety of animal types, meat cuts. Additionally, butcher shops may focus on a culture, or nationality. Some butcher shops, termed meat delis, may include a delicatessen. In the United States and Canada, butcher shops are becoming common because of the increasing popularity of supermarkets. A primal cut is a piece of meat initially separated from the carcass during butchering, different countries and cultures make these cuts in different ways, and primal cuts also differ between type of carcass. The British, American and French primal cuts all differ in some respects, a notable example is fatback, which in Europe is an important primal cut of pork, but in North America is regarded as trimmings to be used in sausage or rendered into lard. The primal cuts may be complete or cut further. See also Butcher In various periods and cultures, the butcher has been applied to people who act cruelly to other human beings or slaughter them
7. Charcuterie – Charcuterie is the branch of cooking devoted to prepared meat products, such as bacon, ham, sausage, terrines, galantines, ballotines, pâtés, and confit, primarily from pork. Charcuterie is part of the garde manger chefs repertoire, originally intended as a way to preserve meat before the advent of refrigeration, they are prepared today for their flavors derived from the preservation processes. The French word for a person who prepares charcuterie is charcutier and this has led to the mistaken belief that charcuterie can only involve pork. The 1961 edition of Larousse Gastronomique defines it as, The art of preparing various meats, in particular pork, in 15th-century France, local guilds regulated tradesmen in the food production industry in each city. The guilds that produced charcuterie were those of the charcutiers, the members of this guild produced a traditional range of cooked or salted and dried fruits, which varied, sometimes distinctively, from region to region. The only raw meat the charcutiers were allowed to sell was unrendered lard, the charcutier prepared numerous items, including pâtés, rillettes, sausages, bacon, trotters, and head cheese. These preservation methods ensured the meats would have longer shelf-lives, forcemeat is a mixture of ground, lean meat emulsified with fat. The emulsification can be accomplished by grinding, sieving, or puréeing the ingredients, the emulsification may either be smooth or coarse in texture, depending on the desired consistency of the final product. Forcemeats are used in the production of items found in charcuterie. Meats commonly used in the production of forcemeats include pork, fish, seafood, game meats, poultry, game birds, veal, pork fatback is often used for the fat portion of forcemeat, as it has a somewhat neutral flavor. In US usage, there are four styles of forcemeat. Straight forcemeats are produced by progressively grinding equal parts pork and pork fat with a dominant meat which can be pork or another meat. The proteins are cubed and then seasoned, cured, rested, ground, country-style forcemeats are a combination of pork, pork fat, often with the addition of pork liver and garnish ingredients. The finished product has a coarse texture, the third style is gratin which has a portion of the main protein browned, the French term gratin connotes a grated product that is browned. The final style is mousseline, which are light in texture using lean cuts of meat usually from veal, poultry, fish. The resulting texture comes from the addition of eggs and cream to this forcemeat and its name derived through French from the Latin sal, salt, the sausage-making technique involves placing ground or chopped meat along with salt into a tube. The tubes can vary, but the more common animal-derived tubes include sheep, hog, additionally, animal stomachs and bladders, as well as edible artificial casings produced from collagen and inedible plant cellulose or paper are also used. Inedible casings are used to shape, store, and age the sausage
8. Chef – A chef is a highly trained and skilled professional cook who is proficient in all aspects of food preparation of a particular cuisine. The word chef is derived from the chef de cuisine. Chefs can receive both formal training from an institution, as well as through apprenticeship with an experienced chef, the Brigade system is a system of hierarchy found in restaurants and hotels employing extensive staff, many of which use the word chef in their titles. Underneath the chefs are the kitchen assistants, a chefs standard uniform includes a hat called a toque, necktie, double-breasted jacket, apron and shoes with steel or plastic toe-caps. The word chef is derived from the chef de cuisine. In English, the chef in the culinary profession originated in the haute cuisine of the 19th century. The culinary arts, among other aspects of the French language introduced French loan-words into the English language, various titles, detailed below, are given to those working in a professional kitchen and each can be considered a title for a type of chef. Many of the titles are based on the brigade de cuisine documented by Auguste Escoffier, other names include executive chef, chef manager, head chef, and master chef. Chef de cuisine is the traditional French term from which the English word chef is derived and this is often the case for executive chefs with multiple restaurants. Involved in checking the sensory evaluation of dishes after preparation and they are aware of each sensory property of those specific dishes. The Sous-Chef de Cuisine is the second-in-command and direct assistant of the Chef de Cuisine and this person may be responsible for scheduling the kitchen staff, or substituting when the head chef is off-duty. Also, he or she will fill in for or assist the Chef de Partie when needed and this person is accountable for the kitchens inventory, cleanliness, organization, and the continuing training of its entire staff. A sous-chefs duties can also include carrying out the head chefs directives, conducting line checks, smaller operations may not have a sous-chef, while larger operations may have more than one. The sous chef is also responsible when the Executive Chef is absent, a chef de partie, also known as a station chef or line cook, is in charge of a particular area of production. In large kitchens, each chef de partie might have several cooks or assistants, in most kitchens, however, the chef de partie is the only worker in that department. Line cooks are often divided into a hierarchy of their own, starting with first cook, then second cook, kitchen-hands assist with basic food preparation tasks under the chefs direction. They carry out relatively unskilled tasks such as peeling potatoes and washing salad, stewards/ kitchen porters are involved in the scullery, washing up and general cleaning duties. In a smaller kitchen, these duties may be incorporated, a communard is in charge of preparing the meal for the staff during a shift
9. Curing (food preservation) – Many curing processes also involve smoking, spicing, or cooking. Dehydration was the earliest form of food curing, because curing increases the solute concentration in the food and hence decreases its water potential, the food becomes inhospitable for the microbe growth that causes food spoilage. Curing can be traced back to antiquity, and was the way of preserving meat. Nitrates and nitrites, in conjunction with salt, are one of the most common agents in curing meat because they inhibit the growth of Clostridium botulinum. They also contribute to the pink color. For lesser-developed countries, curing remains a key process in ensuring the viability of meat production, transport, untreated meat decomposes rapidly if it is not preserved, at a speed that depends on several factors, including ambient humidity, temperature, and the presence of pathogens. Most meats cannot be kept at room temperature in excess of a few days without spoiling, if kept in excess of this time, meat begins to change colour and exude a foul odour, indicating the decomposition of the food. Ingestion of such spoiled meat can cause serious food poisonings, like botulism, in such circumstances the usefulness of preserving foods containing nutritional value for transport and storage is obvious. Curing is able to extend the life of meat before it spoils. A survival technique since prehistory, the conservation of meat has become, over the centuries, a topic of political, economic, Food curing dates back to ancient times, both in the form of smoked meat and salt-cured meat. Several sources describe the salting of meat in the ancient Mediterranean world, diodore of Sicily in his Bibliotheca historica wrote that the Cosséens in the mountains of Persia salted the flesh of carnivorous animals. Strabo indicates that people at Borsippa were catching bats and salting them to eat, the ancient Greeks prepared tarichos, which was meat and fish conserved by salt or other means. The Romans called this dish salsamentum – which term later included salted fat, also evidence of ancient sausage production exists. The Roman gourmet Apicius speaks of a technique involving œnogaros. A trade in salt meat occurred across ancient Europe, in Polybiuss time, the Gauls exported salt pork each year to Rome in large quantities, where it was sold in different cuts, rear cuts, middle cuts, hams, and sausages. This meat, after having been salted with the greatest care, was sometime smoked and these goods had to have been considerably important, since they fed part of the Roman people and the armies. The Belgians were celebrated above all for the care which they gave to the fattening of their pigs and their herds of sheep and pigs were so many, they could provide skins and salt meat not only for Rome, but also for most of Italy. The Ceretani of Spain drew a large income from their hams
10. Deep frying – Deep frying is a cooking method in which food is submerged in hot fat, most commonly oil, rather than the shallow oil used in conventional frying, done in a frying pan. Normally, a deep fryer or chip pan is used for this, industrially, Deep frying may also be performed using oil that is heated in a pot. Deep frying is classified as hot-fat cooking method, typically, deep frying cooks foods quickly, all sides of a food are cooked simultaneously as oil has a high rate of heat conduction. The term deep frying and many modern deep-fried foods were not invented until the 19th century, early records and cookbooks suggest that the practice began in a few European and Arabian countries before other countries adopted the practice. Deep frying is popular worldwide, with deep-fried foods accounting for a portion of global caloric consumption. Although the nouns deep-fried, deep-frying, and the verb deep-fry were not documented until 1916,1932, and 1933, one of the earliest known practices of deep frying came from the Egyptians in the 5th millennium BCE. Later developments included the Greeks deep frying food in oil in the 5th century BCE. In the 1st century CE, a Roman cookbook, Apicius, appears to list the ancient Romans first use of deep frying to prepare Pullum Frontonianum, the practice of deep frying spread to other parts of Europe and Arabia in the following centuries. Deep-fried foods such as funnel cakes arrived in northern Europe by the 13th century, falafel arrived in the Middle East from population migrations from Egypt as soon as the 14th century. The deep frying of food in Japan was likely introduced by Portuguese the 16th century, evidence of potato frying can be found as early as the late 17th century in Europe. Modern deep frying began in the 19th century with the popularity of cast iron. French fries, invented in the late 18th century, became popular in the early 19th century western Europe, doughnuts were invented in the mid-19th century, with foods such as onion rings, deep-fried turkey, and corn dogs all being invented in the early 20th century. In recent years, the growth of fast food has expanded the reach of deep-fried foods, Deep frying food is defined as a process where food is completely submerged in hot oil at temperatures typically between 350 °F and 375 °F. One common method for preparing food for deep frying involves adding multiple layers of batter around the food, such as cornmeal, flour, or tempura, breadcrumbs may also be used. After the food is submerged in oil, the surface of it begins to dehydrate and it undergoes Maillard reactions which break down sugars and proteins, once the surface is dehydrated, it forms a crust which prevents further oil absorption. The heat conducts throughout the food causing proteins to denature, starches to undergo starch gelatinization, while most foods need batter coatings for protection, it is not as necessary for cooked noodles and potatoes because their high starch content enables them to hold more moisture and resist shrinking. Meats may be cooked before deep frying to ensure that they are done inside while keeping juiciness, when performed properly, deep frying does not make food excessively greasy, because the moisture in the food repels the oil. The hot oil heats the water within the food, steaming it, as long as the oil is hot enough and the food is not immersed in the oil for too long, oil penetration will be confined to the outer surface
11. Fermentation in food processing – Fermentation in food processing is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under anaerobic conditions. Fermentation usually implies that the action of microorganisms is desired, the science of fermentation is known as zymology or zymurgy. The term fermentation sometimes refers specifically to the conversion of sugars into ethanol, producing alcoholic drinks such as wine, beer. However, similar processes take place in the leavening of bread, other widely consumed fermented foods include vinegar, olives, and cheese. More localised foods prepared by fermentation may also be based on beans, grain, vegetables, fruit, honey, dairy products, fish, meat, since ancient times, humans have exploited the fermentation process. Seven-thousand-year-old jars containing the remains of wine, now on display at the University of Pennsylvania, were excavated in the Zagros Mountains in Iran. There is strong evidence that people were fermenting alcoholic drinks in Babylon c.3000 BC, ancient Egypt c.3150 BC, pre-Hispanic Mexico c.2000 BC, the French chemist Louis Pasteur founded zymology, when in 1856 he connected yeast to fermentation. When studying the fermentation of sugar to alcohol by yeast, Pasteur concluded that the fermentation was catalyzed by a force, called ferments. The ferments were thought to only within living organisms. Alcoholic fermentation is an act correlated with the life and organization of the yeast cells, not with the death or putrefaction of the cells, nevertheless, it was known that yeast extracts can ferment sugar even in the absence of living yeast cells. In 1907 he received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his research, one year earlier, in 1906, ethanol fermentation studies led to the early discovery of NAD+. Food fermentation is the conversion of sugars and other carbohydrates into alcohol or preservative organic acids, all three products have found human uses. The production of carbon dioxide is used to leaven bread, the production of organic acids is exploited to preserve and flavor vegetables and dairy products. It has more cases of botulism than any state in the United States of America. The World Health Organization has classified pickled foods as possibly carcinogenic, other research found that fermented food contains a carcinogenic by-product, ethyl carbamate. A2009 review of the studies conducted across Asia concluded that regularly eating pickled vegetables roughly doubles a persons risk for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Science aid, Fermentation - Process and uses of fermentation Fermented cereals, a global perspective - FAO1999
12. Fillet (cut) – A fillet is a cut or slice of boneless meat or fish. In the case of beef, the term most often refers to beef tenderloin in the United States, chicken fillets, sometimes called inner fillets, are a specific cut of meat from the chicken. There are two fillets in a chicken, and they are each a few inches long and about 1 inch or less wide and they lie under the main portion of the breast just above the ribcage around the center of the sternum. They are separated from the main breast by filament, chicken fillets are very popular in supermarkets in many countries. They can come attached to the main breast itself or separated from the breast in packages of four or more fillets. In preparation for filleting, the scales on the fish should be removed, the contents of the stomach also need careful detaching from the fillet. Fish fillets are generally obtained by slicing parallel to the spine, cuts of fish performed perpendicular to the spine are known as steaks or cutlets, and often include bone. The remaining bones with the flesh is called the frame. As opposed to whole fish or fish steaks, fillets do not contain the fishs backbone, they yield less flesh, special cut fillets are taken from solid large blocks, these include a natural cut fillet, wedge, rhombus or tail shape. Fillets may be skinless or have skin on, pinbones may or may not be removed, a fletch is a large boneless fillet of halibut, swordfish or tuna. There are several ways to cut a fish fillet, Cutlet This fillet is obtained by slicing from behind the head of the fish, round the belly and tapering towards the tail. J Cut This fillet is produced in the way as a single fillet