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Pages in category "Cutting machines"
The following 19 pages are in this category, out of 19 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cutting machines.|
The following 19 pages are in this category, out of 19 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Bandsaw – A bandsaw is a saw with a long sharp blade consisting of a continuous band of toothed metal stretched between two or more wheels to cut material. They are used principally in woodworking, metalworking, and lumbering, advantages include uniform cutting action as a result of an evenly distributed tooth load, and the ability to cut irregular or curved shapes like a jigsaw. The minimum radius of a curve is determined by the width of the band, most bandsaws have two wheels rotating in the same plane, one of which is powered, although some may have three or four to distribute the load. The blade itself can come in a variety of size and tooth pitch which enables the machine to be versatile and able to cut a wide variety of materials including wood, metal. Almost all bandsaws today are powered by an electric motor, line shaft versions were once common but are now antiques. Constant flexing of the blade over the wheels caused either the material or the joint welding it into a loop to fail, nearly 40 years passed before Frenchwoman Anne Paulin Crepin devised a welding technique overcoming this hurdle. She applied for a patent in 1846, and soon sold the right to employ it to manufacturer A. Perin & Company of Paris. Combining this method with new alloys and advanced tempering techniques allowed Perin to create the first modern band saw blade. The first American band saw patent was granted to Benjamin Barker of Ellsworth, Maine, the first factory produced and commercially available band saw in the U. S. was by a design of Paul Prybil. Power hacksaws were once common in the industries, but bandsaws. Many workshops in residential garages or basements and in light industry contain small or medium-sized bandsaws that can cut wood, metal, often a general-purpose blade is left in place, although blades optimized for wood or metal can be switched out when volume of use warrants. Most residential and commercial bandsaws are of the vertical type mounted on a bench or a cabinet stand, Portable power tool versions, including cordless models, are also common in recent decades, allowing building contractors to bring them along on the truck to the jobsite. Saws for cutting meat are typically of all steel construction with easy to clean features. The blades either have fine teeth with heat treated tips, or have plain or scalloped knife edges, bandsaws dedicated to industrial metal-cutting use, such as for structural steel in fabrication shops and for bar stock in machine shops, are available in vertical and horizontal designs. Typical band speeds range from 40 feet per minute to 5,000 feet per minute, although specialized bandsaws are built for friction cutting of hard metals, metal-cutting bandsaws are usually equipped with brushes or brushwheels to prevent chips from becoming stuck in between the blades teeth. Systems which cool the blade with cutting fluid are also common equipment on metal-cutting bandsaws, the coolant washes away swarf and keeps the blade cool and lubricated. Horizontal bandsaws hold the workpiece stationary while the blade swings down through the cut and this configuration is used to cut long materials such as pipe or bar stock to length. Thus it is an important part of the facilities in most machine shops, the horizontal design is not useful for cutting curves or complicated shapes
2. Circular saw – A circular saw is a power-saw using a toothed or abrasive disc or blade to cut different materials using a rotary motion spinning around an arbor. A hole saw and ring saw also use a motion but are different from a circular saw. Circular saws may also be used for the blade itself. Circular saws were invented in the late 18th century and were in use in sawmills in the United States by the middle of the 19th century. A circular saw is a tool for cutting many materials such as wood, masonry, plastic, or metal, in woodworking the term circular saw refers specifically to the hand-held type and the table saw and chop saw are other common forms of circular saws. Skil saw has become a trademark for conventional hand-held circular saws. The circular saw was invented around the end of the 18th century as a rip-saw to convert logs into lumber in sawmills and various claims have been made as to who invented the circular saw. Before the design was invented logs were sawn by hand using a pit saw or using powered saws in a sawmill using a saw with a reciprocating motion. The rotary nature of the circular saw requires more power to operate, the sound of the circular saw is different from the sound of an up-and-down saw and earned it the nickname buzz-saw. Sawmills first used smaller diameter circular saws to resaw dimension lumber such as lath and wall studs, as the technology advanced large diameter saw blades began to be used for the head saws and to cut clapboards. Claims to the invention of the circular saw include, A common claim is for a little-known sailmaker named Samuel Miller of Southampton, however the specification for this only mentions the form of the saw incidentally, probably indicating that it was not his invention. Gervinus of Germany is often credited with inventing the saw in 1780. Walter Taylor of Southampton had the contract for Portsmouth Dockyard. In about 1762 he built a saw mill where he roughed out the blocks and this was replaced by another mill in 1781. Descriptions of his there in the 1790s show that he had circular saws. Taylor patented two other improvements to blockmaking but not the circular saw and this suggests either that he did not invent it or that he published his invention without patenting it. Another claim is that it originated in Holland in the sixteenth or seventeenth century and this may be correct, but nothing more precise is known. This claim is now mostly discredited, the Barringer, Manners and Wallis factory in Rock Valley Mansfield, Nottinghamshire also claims to be the site of the invention
3. Hacksaw – A hacksaw is a fine-toothed saw, originally and principally made for cutting metal. They can also cut various materials, such as plastic and wood, for example, plumbers and electricians often cut plastic pipe. There are hand saw versions and powered versions, most hacksaws are hand saws with a C-shaped frame that holds a blade under tension. Such hacksaws have a handle, usually a pistol grip, with pins for attaching a narrow disposable blade, the frames may also be adjustable to accommodate blades of different sizes. A screw or other mechanism is used to put the blade under tension. Panel hacksaws forgo the frame and instead have a metal body. These saws are no commonly available, but hacksaw blade holders enable standard hacksaw blades to be used similarly to a keyhole saw or pad saw. Power tools including nibblers, jigsaws, and angle grinders fitted with metal-cutting blades, on hacksaws, as with most frame saws, the blade can be mounted with the teeth facing toward or away from the handle, resulting in cutting action on either the push or pull stroke. In normal use, cutting vertically downwards with work held in a bench vice, some frame saws, including Fret Saws and Piercing Saws, have their blades set to be facing the handle because they are used to cut by being pulled down against a horizontal surface. While saws for cutting metal had been in use for years, significant improvements in longevity and efficiency were made in the 1880s by George N. Clemson. Inc of Middletown, New York, United States, Clemson conducted tests which involved changing the dimensions, shapes of teeth, styles of set, and variable heat treatments of blades. Clemson claimed enormous improvements to the ability of blades and built a major industrial operation manufacturing hacksaw blades sold under the trade name Star Hack Saw. In 1898, Clemson was granted US Patent 601947, which details various improvements in the hacksaw, blades are available in standardized lengths,10 or 12 inches for a standard hand hacksaw. Junior hacksaws are 6 inches long, powered hacksaws may use large blades in a range of sizes, or small machines may use the same hand blades. The pitch of the teeth can be anywhere from fourteen to thirty-two teeth per inch for a hand blade, the blade chosen is based on the thickness of the material being cut, with a minimum of three teeth in the material. As hacksaw teeth are so small, they are set in a wave set, hacksaw blades are normally quite brittle, so care needs to be taken to prevent brittle fracture of the blade. Early blades were of steel, now termed low alloy blades. They avoided breakage, but also wore out rapidly, except where cost is a particular concern, this type is now obsolete
4. Laser cutting – Laser cutting works by directing the output of a high-power laser most commonly through optics. The laser optics and CNC are used to direct the material or the laser beam generated, a typical commercial laser for cutting materials would involve a motion control system to follow a CNC or G-code of the pattern to be cut onto the material. The focused laser beam is directed at the material, which then melts, burns, vaporizes away, or is blown away by a jet of gas. Industrial laser cutters are used to cut flat-sheet material as well as structural, in 1965, the first production laser cutting machine was used to drill holes in diamond dies. This machine was made by the Western Electric Engineering Research Center, in 1967, the British pioneered laser-assisted oxygen jet cutting for metals. In the early 1970s, this technology was put into production to cut titanium for aerospace applications. At the same time CO2 lasers were adapted to cut non-metals, such as textiles, because, at the time, generation of the laser beam involves stimulating a lasing material by electrical discharges or lamps within a closed container. As the lasing material is stimulated, the beam is reflected internally by means of a partial mirror, mirrors or fiber optics are typically used to direct the coherent light to a lens, which focuses the light at the work zone. The narrowest part of the beam is generally less than 0.0125 inches. Depending upon material thickness, kerf widths as small as 0.004 inches are possible, in order to be able to start cutting from somewhere other than the edge, a pierce is done before every cut. Piercing usually involves a high-power pulsed laser beam which slowly makes a hole in the material, taking around 5–15 seconds for 0. 5-inch-thick stainless steel, for example. The parallel rays of coherent light from the laser source often fall in the range between 0. 06–0.08 inches in diameter. This beam is focused and intensified by a lens or a mirror to a very small spot of about 0.001 inches to create a very intense laser beam. In order to achieve the smoothest possible finish during contour cutting, for sheet metal cutting, the focal length is usually 1. 5–3 inches. Advantages of laser cutting over mechanical cutting include easier workholding and reduced contamination of workpiece, precision may be better, since the laser beam does not wear during the process. There is also a chance of warping the material that is being cut. Some materials are very difficult or impossible to cut by more traditional means. There are three types of lasers used in laser cutting
5. Plasma cutting – Plasma cutting is a process that cuts through electrically conductive materials by means of an accelerated jet of hot plasma. Typical materials cut with a plasma torch include steel, Stainless steel, aluminum, brass and copper, Plasma cutting is often used in fabrication shops, automotive repair and restoration, industrial construction, and salvage and scrapping operations. Due to the speed and precision cuts combined with low cost. This is accomplished by a gas which is blown through a focused nozzle at high speed toward the work piece. An electrical arc is formed within the gas, between an electrode near or integrated into the gas nozzle and the work piece itself. The electrical arc ionizes some of the gas, thereby creating a conductive channel of plasma. As electricity from the cutter torch travels down this plasma it delivers sufficient heat to melt through the work piece. At the same time, much of the high velocity plasma and compressed gas blow the hot molten metal away, Plasma cutting is an effective means of cutting thin and thick materials alike. Hand-held torches can cut up to 38 mm thick steel plate. Since plasma cutters produce a hot and very localized cone to cut with. Plasma cutting grew out of plasma welding in the 1960s, and emerged as a productive way to cut sheet metal. It had the advantages over traditional metal against metal cutting of producing no metal chips, giving accurate cuts, early plasma cutters were large, somewhat slow and expensive and, therefore, tended to be dedicated to repeating cutting patterns in a mass production mode. These CNC plasma cutting machines were, however, generally limited to cutting patterns and parts in flat sheets of steel, proper eye protection and face shields are needed to prevent eye damage called arc eye as well as damage from debris. It is recommended to use green lens shade #5, OSHA recommends a shade 8 for arc current less than 300, but notes that These values apply where the actual arc is clearly seen. Experience has shown that lighter filters may be used when the arc is hidden by the workpiece, lincoln Electric, a manufacturer of plasma cutting equipment, says, Typically a darkness shade of #7 to #9 is acceptable. Plasma cutters use a number of methods to start the arc, in some units, the arc is created by putting the torch in contact with the work piece. Some cutters use a voltage, high frequency circuit to start the arc. This method has a number of disadvantages, including risk of electrocution, difficulty of repair, spark gap maintenance, Plasma cutters working near sensitive electronics, such as CNC hardware or computers, start the pilot arc by other means
6. Punch press – A punch press is a type of machine press used to cut holes in material. It can be small and manually operated and hold one simple die set, or be large, CNC operated, with a multi-station turret and hold a much larger. Punch presses are large machines with either a C type frame, C type presses have a bed plate which is used to lock the die bottom bolster. For locking the die, T bolts are used and so this plate contain T - slots into which t- bolts are slid in and these slots are placed diagonally and with a slot horizontal to the longer side of the plate, is the general practice. The top of the tool butted against a sliding ram with a clamping system which accommodates only a particular diameter of a threaded cylindrical member called the shank of the tool. The bottom portion of the tool is locked to the bottom bed plate, top and bottom portions of the tool are generally guided by suitable pillar and bush assemblies, which gives safety to the punching elements of the tool. Generally the tool is placed slightly above the bottom bed plate by providing two parallel blocks accurately ground to the same size and this is a necessary action since many tools, scrap is discharged through the bottom element of the tool, not necessarily in the centre of the tool. The scrap or the blank come out from the die at different places and these have to be taken out horizontally from between the parallels placed. Otherwise they get accumulated inside the tool itself and cause damage to the tool. In very heavy presses with higher tonnage, The sliding ram has also a plate with T slots for locking the top plate of the tool. In such cases the threaded cylinder called shank is not attached to the tool, the clamps are either mechanical or air operated varieties. Turret type punch press machines have a table or bed with brushes or rollers to allow the metal workpiece to traverse with low friction. Brushes are used where scratches on the workpiece must be minimized, in a production environment a 30-ton press is mostly the machine used today. The tonnage needed to cut and form the material is well known, according to the requirement the tonnage may even go up to 2000 to 2500 ton presses. A die set consists of a set of punches and dies which, the punches and dies are removable, with the punch being attached to the ram during the punching process. The ram moves up and down in a linear motion. The main bed of most machines is called the X Axis with the Y Axis being at right angles to that and allowed to traverse under CNC control. Dependent on the size of the machine, the beds, and the metal workpiece weight
7. Water jet cutter – Waterjet cutting is often used during fabrication of machine parts. It is the method when the materials being cut are sensitive to the high temperatures generated by other methods. Waterjet cutting is used in industries, including mining and aerospace, for cutting, shaping. These early applications were at a low pressure and restricted to soft materials like paper, Waterjet technology evolved in the post-war era as researchers around the world searched for new methods of efficient cutting systems. In 1958, Billie Schwacha of North American Aviation developed a system using ultra-high-pressure liquid to cut hard materials and this system used a 100,000 psi pump to deliver a hypersonic liquid jet that could cut high strength alloys such as PH15-7-MO stainless steel. Used as a honeycomb laminate on the Mach 3 North American XB-70 Valkyrie, while not effective for the XB-70 project, the concept was valid and further research continued to evolve waterjet cutting. In 1962, Philip Rice of Union Carbide explored using a pulsing waterjet at up to 50,000 psi to cut metals, stone, research by S. J. Leach and G. L.002 inches that operated at pressures up to 70,000 psi. High-pressure vessels and pumps became affordable and reliable with the advent of steam power, by the mid-1800s, steam locomotives were common and the first efficient steam-driven fire engine was operational. By the turn of the century, high-pressure reliability improved, with research leading to a sixfold increase in boiler pressure. Most high-pressure pumps at this time, though, operated around 500–800 psi, high-pressure systems were further shaped by the aviation, automotive, and oil industries. Aircraft manufacturers such as Boeing developed seals for hydraulically boosted control systems in the 1940s, higher pressures in hydraulic systems in the oil industry also led to the development of advanced seals and packing to prevent leaks. These advances in technology, plus the rise of plastics in the post-war years. The invention of Marlex by Robert Banks and John Paul Hogan of the Phillips Petroleum company required a catalyst to be injected into the polyethylene, mcCartney Manufacturing Company in Baxter Springs, Kansas, began manufacturing these high-pressure pumps in 1960 for the polyethylene industry. Flow Industries then combined the high-pressure pump research with their waterjet nozzle research, while cutting with water is possible for soft materials, the addition of an abrasive turned the waterjet into a modern machining tool for all materials. This began in 1935 when the idea of adding an abrasive to the stream was developed by Elmo Smith for the liquid abrasive blasting. The March 1984 issue of the Mechanical Engineering magazine showed more details and materials cut with AWJ such as titanium, aluminum, glass, dr. Mohamed Hashish, was awarded a patent on forming AWJ in 1987. Current work on AWJ nozzles is on micro abrasive waterjet so cutting with jets smaller than 0.015 inches in diameter can be commercialized. By January,1985, that system was being run 24 hours a day producing titanium parts for the B-1B largely at Rockwells North American Aviation facility in Newark, as waterjet cutting moved into traditional manufacturing shops, controlling the cutter reliably and accurately was essential
8. Abrasive saw – An abrasive saw, also known as a cut-off saw or chop saw, is a power tool which is typically used to cut hard materials, such as metals, tile, and concrete. The cutting action is performed by a disc, similar to a thin grinding wheel. Technically speaking this is not a saw, as it not use regularly shaped edges for cutting. These saws are available in a number of configurations, including top, free hand. In the table top models, which are used to cut tile and metal. Table top saws are often electrically powered and generally have a built-in vise or other clamping arrangement, the free hand designs are typically used to cut concrete, asphalt, and pipe on construction sites. They are designed with the handles and motor near the operator, free hand saws do not feature a vise, because the materials being cut are larger and heavier. Walk-behind models, sometimes called flat saws are larger saws which use a stand or cart to cut into concrete floors as well as asphalt, abrasive saws typically use composite friction disk blades to abrasively cut through the steel. The disks are consumable items as they wear throughout the cut, the abrasive disks for these saws are typically 14 in in diameter and 7⁄64 in thick. Larger saws use 410 mm diameter blades, disks are available for steel and stainless steel. Abrasive saws can also use superabrasive blades, which last longer than conventional abrasive materials, superabrasive materials are more commonly used when cutting concrete, asphalt, and tile, however, they are also suitable for cutting ferrous metals. Since their introduction, portable cut-off saws have made many building site jobs easier, with these saws, lightweight steel fabrication previously performed in workshops using stationary power bandsaws or cold saws can be done on-site. Abrasive saws have replaced expensive and hazardous acetylene torches in many applications. In addition, these saws allow construction workers to cut concrete, asphalt. Angle grinder Cold saw Miter box Ring saw Madsen, David A, print Reading for Engineering and Manufacturing Technology
9. Cold saw – This is contrast to an abrasive saw, which abrades the metal and generates a great deal of heat absorbed by the material being cut and saw blade. As metals expand when heated, abrasive cutting causes both the material being cut and blade to expand, resulting in increased effort to produce a cut and this produces more heat through friction, resulting in increased blade wear and greater energy consumption. Cold saws use either a high speed steel or tungsten carbide-tipped. They are equipped with a motor and a gear reduction unit to reduce the saw blades rotational speed while maintaining constant torque. This allows the HSS saw blade to feed at a constant rate with a high chip load per tooth. Cold saws are capable of machining most ferrous and non-ferrous alloys, additional advantages include minimal burr production, fewer sparks, less discoloration and no dust. Saws designed to employ a flood coolant system to keep saw blade teeth cooled and lubricated may reduce sparks, cold saw blades are circular metal cutting saw blades categorized into two types, solid HSS or tungsten carbide-tipped. Both types of blades are resharpenable and may be used many times before being discarded. Cold saw blades are used to cut metal using a relatively slow speed, usually less than 5000 surface feet per minute. These blades are driven by a high motor and high-torque gear reduction unit or an AC vector drive. During the cutting process, the metal is released in an action by the teeth as the blade turns. They are called cold saw blades because they transfer all the energy and this enables the blade and the work material to remain cold. The first type of cold saw blade, solid HSS, may be made from either M2 tool steel or M35 tool steel, solid HSS saw blades are heat treated and hardened to 64/65 HRC for ferrous cutting applications and 58/60 HRC for non-ferrous cutting applications. This high hardness gives the cutting edges of the teeth a high resistance to heat, however, this increased hardness also makes the blades brittle and not very resistant to shock. In order to produce a high quality HSS cold saw blade, you must start with very flat, the blades must be press quenched after hardening to prevent them from being warped. HSS saw blades are typically hollow ground for clearance during the cutting process, the term HSS doesnt necessarily mean what it implies. These blades are usually never run at speeds higher than 350 SFM. Solid HSS cold saw blades may be used for cutting many different shapes and types of metal including, tubes, extrusions, structural sections, billets, bars, ingots, castings, forgings etc
10. Log splitter – A log splitter is a piece of machinery or equipment used for splitting firewood from softwood or hardwood logs that have been pre-cut into sections, usually by chainsaw or on a saw bench. Many log splitters consist of a hydraulic or electrical rod and piston assembly, the higher the pressure rating, the greater the thickness or length of the rounds that can be split. The log splitter consists of all four major hydraulic components, most log splitter models for home use have a rating around 10 tons, but professional hydraulic models may exert 25 tons of force or more. A simple log splitter may be powered by a motor driving a hydraulic pump or by gasoline or diesel engine with or without a tractor. The non-electric versions can be used remotely where the splitter can be moved to the location of the cut wood source, split logs can then be loaded into trucks, trailers or bulk bags. No matter what the source, a log splitter either uses a hydraulic piston to drive the log through a stationary blade or a rotating cone shaped screw mandrel that pulls the log up over a wedge. Some models have attachments that prevent the split logs from falling to the ground allowing the operator to reposition the logs quickly for a pass on the log splitter. Some cone or screw splitters are mounted on platforms mounted on a 3-point linkage that allow the log to be repeatedly split into smaller pieces without putting the wood down. Although smaller firewood splitters are intended for home, there are now many commercial units available, specialty producers such as those producing maple syrup use units that split 4 foot lengths. Machines that split and point wood for fence post also exist though they are few in number as it is generally safer, the rising cost of domestic heating gas oil has reawakened a desire for alternative fuel sources and burning wood is carbon neutral. Modern wood burning stoves are efficient and safe, many consumers that would not have considered splitting their own logs a few years ago are now burning wood fuel for both ecological and economical reasons. Although a good log splitter can save the operator hours of labor, only trained adults should operate a log splitter, since anything caught between the log and the splitting blade will receive at least 10 tons of pressure. Most hydraulic machines now have two handed operation for safety which means both of the operators hands are needed to actuate the splitter thus keeping them out of the way of the moving blade. The behavior of each log can not be predicted, so a safety zone should be established around the splitter to prevent injury from flying splinters of wood. Helpers can pick up the pieces of firewood, but should not stand near the log splitter while it is in operation