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Pages in category "Cutting machines"
The following 19 pages are in this category, out of 19 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cutting machines.|
The following 19 pages are in this category, out of 19 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Abrasive saw – An abrasive saw, also known as a cut-off saw or chop saw, is a power tool which is typically used to cut hard materials, such as metals, tile, and concrete. The cutting action is performed by a disc, similar to a thin grinding wheel. Technically speaking this is not a saw, as it not use regularly shaped edges for cutting. These saws are available in a number of configurations, including top, free hand. In the table top models, which are used to cut tile and metal. Table top saws are often electrically powered and generally have a built-in vise or other clamping arrangement, the free hand designs are typically used to cut concrete, asphalt, and pipe on construction sites. They are designed with the handles and motor near the operator, free hand saws do not feature a vise, because the materials being cut are larger and heavier. Walk-behind models, sometimes called flat saws are larger saws which use a stand or cart to cut into concrete floors as well as asphalt, abrasive saws typically use composite friction disk blades to abrasively cut through the steel. The disks are consumable items as they wear throughout the cut, the abrasive disks for these saws are typically 14 in in diameter and 7⁄64 in thick. Larger saws use 410 mm diameter blades, disks are available for steel and stainless steel. Abrasive saws can also use superabrasive blades, which last longer than conventional abrasive materials, superabrasive materials are more commonly used when cutting concrete, asphalt, and tile, however, they are also suitable for cutting ferrous metals. Since their introduction, portable cut-off saws have made many building site jobs easier, with these saws, lightweight steel fabrication previously performed in workshops using stationary power bandsaws or cold saws can be done on-site. Abrasive saws have replaced expensive and hazardous acetylene torches in many applications. In addition, these saws allow construction workers to cut concrete, asphalt. Angle grinder Cold saw Miter box Ring saw Madsen, David A, print Reading for Engineering and Manufacturing Technology
2. Bandsaw – A bandsaw is a saw with a long sharp blade consisting of a continuous band of toothed metal stretched between two or more wheels to cut material. They are used principally in woodworking, metalworking, and lumbering, advantages include uniform cutting action as a result of an evenly distributed tooth load, and the ability to cut irregular or curved shapes like a jigsaw. The minimum radius of a curve is determined by the width of the band, most bandsaws have two wheels rotating in the same plane, one of which is powered, although some may have three or four to distribute the load. The blade itself can come in a variety of size and tooth pitch which enables the machine to be versatile and able to cut a wide variety of materials including wood, metal. Almost all bandsaws today are powered by an electric motor, line shaft versions were once common but are now antiques. Constant flexing of the blade over the wheels caused either the material or the joint welding it into a loop to fail, nearly 40 years passed before Frenchwoman Anne Paulin Crepin devised a welding technique overcoming this hurdle. She applied for a patent in 1846, and soon sold the right to employ it to manufacturer A. Perin & Company of Paris. Combining this method with new alloys and advanced tempering techniques allowed Perin to create the first modern band saw blade. The first American band saw patent was granted to Benjamin Barker of Ellsworth, Maine, the first factory produced and commercially available band saw in the U. S. was by a design of Paul Prybil. Power hacksaws were once common in the industries, but bandsaws. Many workshops in residential garages or basements and in light industry contain small or medium-sized bandsaws that can cut wood, metal, often a general-purpose blade is left in place, although blades optimized for wood or metal can be switched out when volume of use warrants. Most residential and commercial bandsaws are of the vertical type mounted on a bench or a cabinet stand, Portable power tool versions, including cordless models, are also common in recent decades, allowing building contractors to bring them along on the truck to the jobsite. Saws for cutting meat are typically of all steel construction with easy to clean features. The blades either have fine teeth with heat treated tips, or have plain or scalloped knife edges, bandsaws dedicated to industrial metal-cutting use, such as for structural steel in fabrication shops and for bar stock in machine shops, are available in vertical and horizontal designs. Typical band speeds range from 40 feet per minute to 5,000 feet per minute, although specialized bandsaws are built for friction cutting of hard metals, metal-cutting bandsaws are usually equipped with brushes or brushwheels to prevent chips from becoming stuck in between the blades teeth. Systems which cool the blade with cutting fluid are also common equipment on metal-cutting bandsaws, the coolant washes away swarf and keeps the blade cool and lubricated. Horizontal bandsaws hold the workpiece stationary while the blade swings down through the cut and this configuration is used to cut long materials such as pipe or bar stock to length. Thus it is an important part of the facilities in most machine shops, the horizontal design is not useful for cutting curves or complicated shapes
3. Circular saw – A circular saw is a power-saw using a toothed or abrasive disc or blade to cut different materials using a rotary motion spinning around an arbor. A hole saw and ring saw also use a motion but are different from a circular saw. Circular saws may also be used for the blade itself. Circular saws were invented in the late 18th century and were in use in sawmills in the United States by the middle of the 19th century. A circular saw is a tool for cutting many materials such as wood, masonry, plastic, or metal, in woodworking the term circular saw refers specifically to the hand-held type and the table saw and chop saw are other common forms of circular saws. Skil saw has become a trademark for conventional hand-held circular saws. The circular saw was invented around the end of the 18th century as a rip-saw to convert logs into lumber in sawmills and various claims have been made as to who invented the circular saw. Before the design was invented logs were sawn by hand using a pit saw or using powered saws in a sawmill using a saw with a reciprocating motion. The rotary nature of the circular saw requires more power to operate, the sound of the circular saw is different from the sound of an up-and-down saw and earned it the nickname buzz-saw. Sawmills first used smaller diameter circular saws to resaw dimension lumber such as lath and wall studs, as the technology advanced large diameter saw blades began to be used for the head saws and to cut clapboards. Claims to the invention of the circular saw include, A common claim is for a little-known sailmaker named Samuel Miller of Southampton, however the specification for this only mentions the form of the saw incidentally, probably indicating that it was not his invention. Gervinus of Germany is often credited with inventing the saw in 1780. Walter Taylor of Southampton had the contract for Portsmouth Dockyard. In about 1762 he built a saw mill where he roughed out the blocks and this was replaced by another mill in 1781. Descriptions of his there in the 1790s show that he had circular saws. Taylor patented two other improvements to blockmaking but not the circular saw and this suggests either that he did not invent it or that he published his invention without patenting it. Another claim is that it originated in Holland in the sixteenth or seventeenth century and this may be correct, but nothing more precise is known. This claim is now mostly discredited, the Barringer, Manners and Wallis factory in Rock Valley Mansfield, Nottinghamshire also claims to be the site of the invention
4. Cold saw – This is contrast to an abrasive saw, which abrades the metal and generates a great deal of heat absorbed by the material being cut and saw blade. As metals expand when heated, abrasive cutting causes both the material being cut and blade to expand, resulting in increased effort to produce a cut and this produces more heat through friction, resulting in increased blade wear and greater energy consumption. Cold saws use either a high speed steel or tungsten carbide-tipped. They are equipped with a motor and a gear reduction unit to reduce the saw blades rotational speed while maintaining constant torque. This allows the HSS saw blade to feed at a constant rate with a high chip load per tooth. Cold saws are capable of machining most ferrous and non-ferrous alloys, additional advantages include minimal burr production, fewer sparks, less discoloration and no dust. Saws designed to employ a flood coolant system to keep saw blade teeth cooled and lubricated may reduce sparks, cold saw blades are circular metal cutting saw blades categorized into two types, solid HSS or tungsten carbide-tipped. Both types of blades are resharpenable and may be used many times before being discarded. Cold saw blades are used to cut metal using a relatively slow speed, usually less than 5000 surface feet per minute. These blades are driven by a high motor and high-torque gear reduction unit or an AC vector drive. During the cutting process, the metal is released in an action by the teeth as the blade turns. They are called cold saw blades because they transfer all the energy and this enables the blade and the work material to remain cold. The first type of cold saw blade, solid HSS, may be made from either M2 tool steel or M35 tool steel, solid HSS saw blades are heat treated and hardened to 64/65 HRC for ferrous cutting applications and 58/60 HRC for non-ferrous cutting applications. This high hardness gives the cutting edges of the teeth a high resistance to heat, however, this increased hardness also makes the blades brittle and not very resistant to shock. In order to produce a high quality HSS cold saw blade, you must start with very flat, the blades must be press quenched after hardening to prevent them from being warped. HSS saw blades are typically hollow ground for clearance during the cutting process, the term HSS doesnt necessarily mean what it implies. These blades are usually never run at speeds higher than 350 SFM. Solid HSS cold saw blades may be used for cutting many different shapes and types of metal including, tubes, extrusions, structural sections, billets, bars, ingots, castings, forgings etc
5. Firewood processor – A firewood processor is a machine designed to cut and split firewood with minimal manual handling of the logs. There are typically four main parts of the machine, each dedicated to a separate function, Processing begins with a log pile – a pile of logs that have been de-limbed and cut to an appropriate length, generally 10–12 feet. Popular brands include Wood Beaver, DYNA, Multitek and Blockbuster, many individuals use processors commercially and also privately as a hobby. Others choose to rent them as an alternative to purchasing, logs are stacked onto the log deck using a machine such as a skid steer or small excavator with a grapple. Each log is pulled mechanically into a trough that feeds it into position to be sawn into firewood-length pieces. The log is sawn by either a hydraulically operated chainsaw harvester bar, or on larger machines, when the cut is completed, the round drops into position to be split in the next process. In some guillotine splitters the wood is split as the wood is cut, here, the log is simply forced into a wedge that splits the round into anywhere between two and ten pieces, depending on the size of the logs and the intended market. Typically a conveyor that pulls the split away from the processor. Some setups will use multiple conveyors and introduce a system to clean the firewood. See notes on output capacity ratings below, the choice of machine depends on a large number of variables other than straight production output. For example, people who heat with large outside wood boilers prefer large, slow-burning pieces of hardwood, restaurants with wood-fired ovens prefer small pieces as well, but of hardwood or specialty species. The physics of the demand that it requires a larger machine to make smaller pieces of firewood. Every manufacturer lists a rating of cords per hour. Even the lightest-duty machines will split two cords of green, frozen 8 in Aspen into halves 16 in long quickly, changing any one of these optimal variables will reduce the rate of output, making meaningful comparison between manufacturers claims difficult. The most effective way to determine how fast a machine really is would be either in person or by watching detailed videos of it processing wood. While the definition is understood to be the time it takes the splitter ram to fully extend and retract, a properly designed advanced hydraulic systems can use Regenerative systems to both accelerate cycle times and maintain full pressure. A properly designed advanced hydraulic systems can use Regenerative systems to both accelerate cycle times and maintain full pressure, while most processors use a hydraulic chainsaw bar to cut the logs to length, some use a very large circular saw blade called a slasher blade. They are fast and efficient, requiring little maintenance once set up properly, while the safety of slasher blades has been proven over decades, there are a number of people who will not walk within 50 feet of one
6. Hacksaw – A hacksaw is a fine-toothed saw, originally and principally made for cutting metal. They can also cut various materials, such as plastic and wood, for example, plumbers and electricians often cut plastic pipe. There are hand saw versions and powered versions, most hacksaws are hand saws with a C-shaped frame that holds a blade under tension. Such hacksaws have a handle, usually a pistol grip, with pins for attaching a narrow disposable blade, the frames may also be adjustable to accommodate blades of different sizes. A screw or other mechanism is used to put the blade under tension. Panel hacksaws forgo the frame and instead have a metal body. These saws are no commonly available, but hacksaw blade holders enable standard hacksaw blades to be used similarly to a keyhole saw or pad saw. Power tools including nibblers, jigsaws, and angle grinders fitted with metal-cutting blades, on hacksaws, as with most frame saws, the blade can be mounted with the teeth facing toward or away from the handle, resulting in cutting action on either the push or pull stroke. In normal use, cutting vertically downwards with work held in a bench vice, some frame saws, including Fret Saws and Piercing Saws, have their blades set to be facing the handle because they are used to cut by being pulled down against a horizontal surface. While saws for cutting metal had been in use for years, significant improvements in longevity and efficiency were made in the 1880s by George N. Clemson. Inc of Middletown, New York, United States, Clemson conducted tests which involved changing the dimensions, shapes of teeth, styles of set, and variable heat treatments of blades. Clemson claimed enormous improvements to the ability of blades and built a major industrial operation manufacturing hacksaw blades sold under the trade name Star Hack Saw. In 1898, Clemson was granted US Patent 601947, which details various improvements in the hacksaw, blades are available in standardized lengths,10 or 12 inches for a standard hand hacksaw. Junior hacksaws are 6 inches long, powered hacksaws may use large blades in a range of sizes, or small machines may use the same hand blades. The pitch of the teeth can be anywhere from fourteen to thirty-two teeth per inch for a hand blade, the blade chosen is based on the thickness of the material being cut, with a minimum of three teeth in the material. As hacksaw teeth are so small, they are set in a wave set, hacksaw blades are normally quite brittle, so care needs to be taken to prevent brittle fracture of the blade. Early blades were of steel, now termed low alloy blades. They avoided breakage, but also wore out rapidly, except where cost is a particular concern, this type is now obsolete
7. Laser cutting – Laser cutting works by directing the output of a high-power laser most commonly through optics. The laser optics and CNC are used to direct the material or the laser beam generated, a typical commercial laser for cutting materials would involve a motion control system to follow a CNC or G-code of the pattern to be cut onto the material. The focused laser beam is directed at the material, which then melts, burns, vaporizes away, or is blown away by a jet of gas. Industrial laser cutters are used to cut flat-sheet material as well as structural, in 1965, the first production laser cutting machine was used to drill holes in diamond dies. This machine was made by the Western Electric Engineering Research Center, in 1967, the British pioneered laser-assisted oxygen jet cutting for metals. In the early 1970s, this technology was put into production to cut titanium for aerospace applications. At the same time CO2 lasers were adapted to cut non-metals, such as textiles, because, at the time, generation of the laser beam involves stimulating a lasing material by electrical discharges or lamps within a closed container. As the lasing material is stimulated, the beam is reflected internally by means of a partial mirror, mirrors or fiber optics are typically used to direct the coherent light to a lens, which focuses the light at the work zone. The narrowest part of the beam is generally less than 0.0125 inches. Depending upon material thickness, kerf widths as small as 0.004 inches are possible, in order to be able to start cutting from somewhere other than the edge, a pierce is done before every cut. Piercing usually involves a high-power pulsed laser beam which slowly makes a hole in the material, taking around 5–15 seconds for 0. 5-inch-thick stainless steel, for example. The parallel rays of coherent light from the laser source often fall in the range between 0. 06–0.08 inches in diameter. This beam is focused and intensified by a lens or a mirror to a very small spot of about 0.001 inches to create a very intense laser beam. In order to achieve the smoothest possible finish during contour cutting, for sheet metal cutting, the focal length is usually 1. 5–3 inches. Advantages of laser cutting over mechanical cutting include easier workholding and reduced contamination of workpiece, precision may be better, since the laser beam does not wear during the process. There is also a chance of warping the material that is being cut. Some materials are very difficult or impossible to cut by more traditional means. There are three types of lasers used in laser cutting
8. Log splitter – A log splitter is a piece of machinery or equipment used for splitting firewood from softwood or hardwood logs that have been pre-cut into sections, usually by chainsaw or on a saw bench. Many log splitters consist of a hydraulic or electrical rod and piston assembly, the higher the pressure rating, the greater the thickness or length of the rounds that can be split. The log splitter consists of all four major hydraulic components, most log splitter models for home use have a rating around 10 tons, but professional hydraulic models may exert 25 tons of force or more. A simple log splitter may be powered by a motor driving a hydraulic pump or by gasoline or diesel engine with or without a tractor. The non-electric versions can be used remotely where the splitter can be moved to the location of the cut wood source, split logs can then be loaded into trucks, trailers or bulk bags. No matter what the source, a log splitter either uses a hydraulic piston to drive the log through a stationary blade or a rotating cone shaped screw mandrel that pulls the log up over a wedge. Some models have attachments that prevent the split logs from falling to the ground allowing the operator to reposition the logs quickly for a pass on the log splitter. Some cone or screw splitters are mounted on platforms mounted on a 3-point linkage that allow the log to be repeatedly split into smaller pieces without putting the wood down. Although smaller firewood splitters are intended for home, there are now many commercial units available, specialty producers such as those producing maple syrup use units that split 4 foot lengths. Machines that split and point wood for fence post also exist though they are few in number as it is generally safer, the rising cost of domestic heating gas oil has reawakened a desire for alternative fuel sources and burning wood is carbon neutral. Modern wood burning stoves are efficient and safe, many consumers that would not have considered splitting their own logs a few years ago are now burning wood fuel for both ecological and economical reasons. Although a good log splitter can save the operator hours of labor, only trained adults should operate a log splitter, since anything caught between the log and the splitting blade will receive at least 10 tons of pressure. Most hydraulic machines now have two handed operation for safety which means both of the operators hands are needed to actuate the splitter thus keeping them out of the way of the moving blade. The behavior of each log can not be predicted, so a safety zone should be established around the splitter to prevent injury from flying splinters of wood. Helpers can pick up the pieces of firewood, but should not stand near the log splitter while it is in operation
9. Pendulum saw – A pendulum saw or swing saw is a mechanically powered circular saw with the blade mounted so it can swing into the material. A swing saw is used for cutting wood in a sawmill. The saw is hung on an arm, sometimes with a counterbalance weight. A swing saw is also called a cut-off trim saw in a mill for cutting right angle to the direction of the wood grain. A swing saw is a dangerous tool, even with a blade guard. Early models were driven by a belt, usually made of leather, that was powered by a water mill or later a steam engine