|Wikimedia Commons has media related to De Beers.|
Pages in category "De Beers"
The following 26 pages are in this category, out of 26 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to De Beers.|
The following 26 pages are in this category, out of 26 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. De Beers – The De Beers Group of Companies has a leading role in the diamond exploration, diamond mining, diamond retail, diamond trading and industrial diamond manufacturing sectors. The company is active in open-pit, large-scale alluvial, coastal. The company operates in 28 countries and mining takes place in Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, until the start of the 21st century, De Beers effectively had total control over the diamond market as both a monopoly and monopsony of diamonds. The company was founded in 1888 by British businessman Cecil Rhodes, who was financed by the South African diamond magnate Alfred Beit and the London-based N M Rothschild & Sons bank. In 1926, Ernest Oppenheimer, a German immigrant to Britain who had earlier founded mining giant Anglo American plc with American financier J. P. Morgan, was elected to the board of De Beers. He built and consolidated the companys global monopoly over the industry until his death in 1957. After they discovered diamonds on their land, the demands of the British government forced them to sell their farm on July 31,1871. Vooruitzicht would become the site of the Big Hole and the De Beer Mine and their name, which was given to one of the mines, subsequently became associated with the company. He invested the profits of this operation into buying up claims of small mining operators and he soon secured funding from the Rothschild family, who would finance his business expansion. The agreement soon proved to be very successful — for example during the slump of 1891–1892. The Second Boer War proved to be a time for the company. Kimberley was besieged as soon as war broke out, thereby threatening the companys valuable mines, in 1898, diamonds were discovered on farms near Pretoria, Transvaal. One led to the discovery of the Premier Mine, the Premier Mine was registered in 1902 and the Cullinan Diamond, the largest rough diamond ever discovered, was found there in 1905. However, its owner refused to join the De Beers cartel, instead, the mine started selling to a pair of independent dealers named Bernhard and Ernest Oppenheimer, thereby weakening the De Beers cartel. Francis Oats, who became chairman of De Beers in 1908, was dismissive of the threats from the Premier Mine, however, production soon equalled all of the De Beers mines combined. Ernest Oppenheimer was appointed the agent for the powerful London Syndicate. During World War I, the Premier Mine was finally absorbed into De Beers, when Rhodes died in 1902, De Beers controlled 90% of the worlds diamond production. Ernest Oppenheimer took over the chairmanship of the company in 1929, after buying shares, Oppenheimer was very concerned about the discovery of diamonds in 1908 in German South West Africa, fearing that the increased supply would swamp the market and force prices down
2. Long Cecil – In 1902, during Cecil Rhodes funeral procession in Cape Town, his coffin was carried on top of the Long Cecil carriage. Today the gun is located on the stylobate of the Honoured Dead Memorial in Kimberley, at some time before 1915 Pratt & Whitney built a model of this gun as a gift to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The defenders at Kimberley had only the relatively small RML2.5 inch Mountain Gun at their disposal, labram and Edward Goffe, Chief Draughtsman at the mine, reviewed the limited number of textbooks and publications on gunmaking that were available in Kimberley. From this and calculations on what it would require to build a gun capable of firing a shell over 7,600 metres, they decided that it was feasible to build the gun with the materials at hand. Construction of the gun began on 26 December 1899 with rough-turning of the barrel, the barrel was constructed from a 10-foot-long,10. 5-inch-diameter billet of mild steel. The steel billet was originally ordered as a shaft for one of the De Beers workshop machines, as with all the components, custom ammunition for the gun had to be manufactured in the De Beers workshops. The first proving shot was fired a little over three weeks later on 19 January 1900 at a Boer encampment near Kamfers Dam, north of the city. Contemporary accounts state that the Boers were initially surprised by range of the new gun, the gun fired a total of 255 shells onto Boer positions from the time of its manufacture until the end of the siege about a month later. The gun did not change the balance of power for long, the shelling of the besieged residents thereby escalated and soon became more lethal than before. The shelling ended only with arrival of Major-General Frenchs 8, 000-strong cavalry on 15 February 1900, notes on the construction of Long Cecil, a 4.1 inch rifled breachloading gun, in Kimberley, during the siege 1899-1900. Media related to Long Cecil at Wikimedia Commons
3. Cecil Rhodes – Cecil John Rhodes PC was a British businessman, mining magnate and politician in South Africa, who served as Prime Minister of the Cape Colony from 1890 to 1896. An ardent believer in British imperialism, Rhodes and his British South Africa Company founded the southern African territory of Rhodesia, South Africas Rhodes University is also named after him. Rhodes set up the provisions of the Rhodes Scholarship, which is funded by his estate, the son of a vicar, Rhodes grew up in Bishops Stortford, Hertfordshire, and was a sickly child. He was sent to South Africa by his family when he was 17 years old in the hope that the climate might improve his health. He entered the trade at Kimberley in 1871, when he was 18. His De Beers diamond company, formed in 1888, retains its prominence into the 21st century, Rhodes entered the Cape Parliament in 1880, and a decade later became Prime Minister. After Rhodess death in 1902, at the age of 48, at the time of his death he was already a very controversial figure. One of Rhodess primary motivators in politics and business was his belief that the Anglo-Saxon race was, to quote his will. Most histories of South Africa covering the last decades of the century are contributions to the historiography of Cecil Rhodes. According to McFarlane, the aforementioned historiography may be divided into two categories, chauvinistic approval or utter vilification. Rhodes was born in 1853 in Bishops Stortford, Hertfordshire, England and he was the fifth son of the Reverend Francis William Rhodes and his wife Louisa Peacock Rhodes. His father was a Church of England clergyman who was proud of never having preached a sermon longer than 10 minutes and his siblings included Francis William Rhodes, who became an army officer. His father therefore determined to send him abroad to try the effect of a sea voyage, Herbert had already set up as a planter in Natal, South Africa, so Cecil was despatched on a sailing vessel to join Herbert in Natal. The voyage to Durban took him seventy days, and on 1 September 1870 he first set foot on African soil and his familys hope was that the climate would improve his health. They expected he would help his older brother Herbert who operated a cotton farm, when he first came to Africa, Rhodes lived on money lent by his aunt Sophia. After a brief stay with the Surveyor-General of Natal, Dr. P. C, sutherland, in Pietermaritzburg, Rhodes took an interest in agriculture. He joined his brother Herbert on his farm in the Umkomazi valley in Natal. The land was unsuitable for cotton, and the venture failed, in October 1871, 18-year-old Rhodes and his brother Herbert left the colony for the diamond fields of Kimberley
4. Mafuta (ship) – The Mafuta is a diamond-mining ship owned and operated by De Beers in the western coast of South Africa. Built in 1983 as Dock Express 20 for Dock Express Shipping, in 2005 she was purchased by De Beers, converted to a subsea diamond mining ship by A&P Tyne over the course of 11 months. The ships new name, Peace in Africa, implies that it is providing an alternative to blood diamonds, then named Dock Express 20, the ships keel was laid in 1982 in the Netherlands at Verolme Shipyard Heusden and it was launched the following year. Originally a heavy ship, it has an overall length of 169.52 metres. In terms of width, the ship has a beam of 24.20 metres, the height from the top of the keel to the main deck, called the moulded depth, is 15 metres. The ships gross tonnage, a measure of the volume of all its spaces, is 14,793. Its net tonnage, which measures the volume of the spaces, is 4,437. Its total carrying capacity in terms of weight, is 14,617 long tons deadweight, Dock Express 20 was powered by two Stork-Werkspoor 6TM410 four-stroke medium-speed marine diesel engines of 3,128 kW apiece. Each engine powered an independent controllable-pitch propeller and this main propulsion system was able to move the ship at 16 knots. For harbour-maneuvering, the vessel was fitted with a 625 kW bow thruster. In addition the ship has two 600-kilowatt auxiliary generators to provide electrical power. When the Dock Express 20 was converted to a dynamically positioned cable ship, Dock Express 20 was originally built to house 24 crewmembers, but that number was more than tripled in the 1993 conversion. In 2007 the ship was converted again to work as a dredger, increasing the tonnage to 15,854. Dock Express 20 was built for use in the oil industry. The Dock Express 20 was involved in the sinking of the tugboat Terminator some 20 miles off the coast of California on 27 January 1992. Following an engine failure the heavy seas pushed the tugboat against one of the protruding stern sponsons of the heavy lift vessel, the crew evacuated to a life raft and was picked up by another ship. The ship was converted to a layer by Tyco Submarine Systems. Dock Express 20 is pictured on the Russian postcard commemorating a submarine cable between Denmark and Russia, the ship laid a 1,200 kilometres cable from Copenhagen to Kingiseppe, which connects via microwave to Moscow and St. Petersburg
5. Sir Carl Meyer, 1st Baronet – Sir Carl Ferdinand Meyer, 1st Baronet was a British banker and mining magnate. Meyer was born in Hamburg, Germany, the son of Siegmund Meyer and Elise Rosa Hahn. He became a naturalised British subject in 1877, in 1883 he married Adèle Levis, daughter of Julius Levis of Hampstead by which he had a son Frank Cecil Meyer and a daughter. Adèle Levis was the subject of the portrait Mrs. Carl Meyer and her Children,1896, Meyer worked at first for the Rothschild family as their chief clerk and negotiator with the De Beers mining group. He then went on to work for De Beers and became deputy chairman of the company and he was also governor of the National Bank of Egypt, and member of the board of numerous other mining companies. He was also a member of the Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank. He was given the title of baronet in 1910, Meyer had a great interest in the arts, constantly showing support for opera, music and the theatre. In 1909 he donated 70,000 pounds to the Shakespeare National Memorial Theatre, portrait of Carl Meyer, Bridgeman Art Library
6. Snap Lake Diamond Mine – Snap Lake Mine is a remote fly-in/fly-out operation located about 220 km northeast of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, and, according to De Beers, was De Beers first mine outside of Africa. It was also Canadas first completely underground diamond mine, construction began with the opening of an access winter road in 2005. By the end of 2013, De Beers had spent US$1.8 billion on construction, of that total, De Beers spent US$1.3 billion with Northwest Territories-based contractors and suppliers, including US$723 million with Aboriginal businesses or joint ventures. The mine began production on January 16,2008 and was officially opened on July 25,2008. Approximately 400 people are working at the mine on any given day, lifetime of the mine is estimated to be about 15 years. Resource estimates suggest 16.1 million carats over life of mine, the Snap Lake mine was featured in Ice Road Truckers, a television series on The History Channel. The Snap Lake mine was featured on the Canadian Discovery channel show Daily Planet as part of the special feature Daily Planet Goes North – More Ice for the Arctic. The mine is served by the Snap Lake Airport, an airport that is strictly for cargo. Approximately 70 employees would remain on the site as a result, but 434 were laid off
7. Anglo American plc – Anglo American plc is a multinational mining company based in Johannesburg, South Africa and London, United Kingdom. It is the worlds largest producer of platinum, with around 40% of world output, as well as being a producer of diamonds, copper, nickel, iron ore. The company has operations in Africa, Asia, Australasia, Europe, North America, Anglo American has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE100 Index. The company has a listing on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange. In December 2015 the company announced that after a US$3 billion loss in the first half of 2015, it would be undergoing a restructure and this fact is reflected in the name of the company. The AAC became the majority stakeholder in the De Beers company in 1926, during 1945, the AAC moved into the coal industry by acquiring Coal Estates. Twelve years later, Sir Ernest died in Johannesburg and the company was succeeded by his son, Harry Oppenheimer, in the late 1940s and 1950s, the AAC focused on the development of the Free State goldfields and the Vaal Reefs mine. The success of the mines enabled the company to become the world’s largest gold-mining group, in 1961, the AAC expanded outside of southern Africa for the first time and became a major investor in the Hudson Bay Mining and Smelting Company in Canada. In 1967, the moved into the steel industry by acquiring Scaw Metals. From 1967 to 1975, it continued to grow and established a number of ventures, including the Mondi Group, Amgold, in 1982, Harry Oppenheimer retired as chairman of the AAC and was succeeded by Gavin Relly. Two years later, Oppenheimer retired from De Beers and passed the chairmanship to Julian Ogilvie Thompson and its gold mining operations were spun off into the separate AngloGold corporation, which in 2004 merged with the Ashanti Goldfields Corporation to form AngloGold Ashanti. Anglo American reduced its stake in AngloGold Ashanti to 16.6 percent in 2008, in 2000, Julian Ogilvie Thompson retired as chief executive of Anglo American and was succeeded by Tony Trahar. Ogilvie Thompson also retired as chairman in 2002 and was replaced by Sir Mark Moody-Stuart, from 2002 to July 2008 Anglo American carried out black community economic empowerment transactions totalling R26 billion. Also, in 2002, Anglo Base Metals acquired the Disputada copper operations in Chile from Exxon Mobil Corporation and opened a office in Beijing. In 2003, Anglo American acquired a stake in iron ore producer Kumba Resources. In 2007, Cynthia Carroll succeeded Tony Trahar, becoming the first non-South African, the Mondi Group, a paper and packaging business, was also spun out in 2007. Opponents are also pointing to the use of cyanide, heavy metals, opponents of the Pebble Mine created Ballot Measure 4 to impose additional water quality standards on new large-scale mines in the state. However, in August 2007, Alaskans voted against the initiative, the Pebble Limited Partnership has not yet put forward a project proposal and is working to prepare a Prefeasibility Study for the project in the second half of 2009
8. Patiala Necklace – The Patiala Necklace was a necklace created by the House of Cartier in 1928. It was made for and named after Bhupinder Singh of Patiala, the then ruling Maharaja of the state of Patiala. It contained 2,930 diamonds, including as its centrepiece, the seventh largest diamond, the De Beers, that had a 428 carat pre-cut weigh. The piece also contained seven other diamonds ranging from 18 to 73 carats, in 1982, at a Sothebys auction in Geneva, the De Beers diamond reappeared. There, it was sold for $3.16 million, in 1998, the missing part of the necklace was found at a second-hand jewellery shop in London by an unnamed buyer. The remaining large jewels were missing, in particular, the Burmese rubies as well as the 18 to 73 carat stones that were mounted on a pendant, Cartier purchased the incomplete necklace and, after four years, restored it to resemble the original. They replaced the lost diamonds with cubic zirconia and synthetic diamonds, and mounted a replica of the original De Beers diamond
9. Gardner F. Williams – Gardner F. Williams was an American mining engineer and author, and the first properly trained mining engineer to be appointed in South Africa. Gardner Frederick Williams was born in Saginaw, Michigan, the oldest son of Alpheus Fuller Williams, Alpheus became a civil and mining engineer and, even prior to having moved his family from Saginaw to California, became well known in the mining camps. Gardner grew up in the Californian mining camps of Sierra and Yuba counties and his higher education began at the College of California, where he obtained a BA degree in 1865, and was completed in Freiburg, Saxony, Germany at the Royal School of Mines. His mining degree was conferred three years later and, in 1868, he returned to California and rounded off his education by gaining an MA at the university in 1869. He then became an assistant assayer in the US branch mint in San Francisco, early in 1875 he opened up a silver mine at Cherry Creek, and was later appointed manager of the Leeds Mining Company at Silver Reef, Utah. He left America in 1884 to take up position, travelling from Cape Town by train to De Aar. After a year at Pilgrim’s Rest he resigned and spent some time visiting the new discoveries on the Witwatersrand. Full of ideas about the exploration of the goldfields, he returned to Kimberley and met, for the first time, young Cecil John Rhodes, the two men travelled to England on the same ship and spent many hours discussing the gold and diamond enterprises in South Africa. Rhodes was most impressed by his companion’s knowledge and enthusiasm, in the US, two Americans had formed a company, The Exploration Company, in conjunction with Rothschilds in London. Their objective was to explore for gold and they persuaded Williams to return to South Africa as their consulting engineer. When Rhodes heard about this, he lost no time in getting in touch with Williams and persuaded him to cancel his agreement with The Exploration Company and to join De Beers Diamond Company. Under pressure from Rhodes, he agreed to forget about gold and move into the field of diamonds, Williams immediately introduced wide changes in the mining methods at Kimberley. It had been the practice to dig haphazardly and to try to shore up the sides, Williams knew all about shaft-sinking and tunnelling and the use of explosives and, by the end of 1887, proper and relatively safe mining methods had been firmly established. His methods were soon repeated on other mines, and on the Witwatersrand as well, in part due to these improvements in mining techniques, by 1889 Cecil Rhodes controlled the South African diamond mining industry, and fully 90% of world production. Williams talents spread far beyond mining, Rhodes had great confidence in his undoubted administrative skills and his talent for financial management, and drew him into the grand scheme of consolidating all the diamond mines under De Beers. Williams laid the foundations for an excellent system of training apprentices at De Beers and he had the miners’ welfare at heart and, in 1892, reduced the underground shift from 12 to 8 hours. He was one of the promoters of the South African School of Mines and was chairperson of its governing body for the years between 1896 and 1903, during which it functioned in Kimberley. In 1902 he published the 2 volume The Diamond Mines of South Africa, some account of their rise and this work is still considered an important authoritative source today, with most of its 1000 copies being housed in various university libraries of the world