Leo I the Thracian
Leo I was an Eastern Roman Emperor from 457 to 474. A native of Dacia Aureliana near historic Thrace, he was known as Leo the Thracian, ruling the Eastern Empire for nearly 20 years, Leo proved to be a capable ruler. He oversaw many ambitious political and military plans, aimed mostly for the aid of the faltering Western Roman Empire and he is notable for being the first Eastern Emperor to legislate in Greek rather than Latin. He is commemorated as a Saint in the Orthodox Church, with his feast day on January 20 and he was born Leo Marcellus in Thracia or in Dacia Aureliana province in the year 401 to a Thraco-Roman family. His Dacian origin is mentioned by Candidus Isaurus, while John Malalas believes that he was of Bessian stock and he served in the Roman army, rising to the rank of comes. Leo was the last of a series of emperors placed on the throne by Aspar, the Alan serving as commander-in-chief of the army, Leo became more and more independent from Aspar, causing tension that would culminate in the assassination of the latter.
Leos coronation as emperor on 7 February 457, was the first known to involve the Patriarch of Constantinople, Leo I made an alliance with the Isaurians and was thus able to eliminate Aspar. The price of the alliance was the marriage of Leos daughter to Tarasicodissa, leader of the Isaurians who, as Zeno, in 469, Aspar attempted to assassinate Zeno and very nearly succeeded. Finally, in 471, Aspars son Ardabur was implicated in a plot against Leo, Leo overestimated his capacities and he made some errors that menaced the internal order of the Empire. There were some raids by the Huns, Leos reign was noteworthy for his influence in the Western Roman Empire, marked by his appointment of Anthemius as Western Roman Emperor in 467. He attempted to build on this achievement with an expedition against the Vandals in 468. This disaster drained the Empire of men and money, the expedition, which cost 130,000 pounds of gold and 700 pounds of silver, consisted of 1,113 ships carrying 100,000 men, but in the end lost 600 ships.
After this defeat, Vandals raided Greek coasts until a peace agreement was signed between Leo and Genseric. Leo became very unpopular in his last days as Emperor for abolishing any non-religious celebration or event on Sundays, Leo died of dysentery at the age of 73 on 18 January 474. Leo and Verina had three children and their eldest daughter Ariadne was born prior to the death of Marcian. Ariadne had a sister, Leontia. Leontia was first betrothed to Patricius, a son of Aspar, Leontia married Marcian, a son of Emperor Anthemius and Marcia Euphemia. The couple led a revolt against Zeno in 478–479
Alfonso XII of Spain
Alfonso XII was King of Spain, reigning from 1874 to 1885, after a coup détat restored the monarchy and ended the ephemeral First Spanish Republic. Having been forced into exile after the Glorious Revolution deposed his mother Isabella II from the throne in 1868, Alfonso studied in Austria and his mother abdicated in his favour in 1870, and he returned to Spain as king in 1874 following a military coup. Alfonso died aged 27 in 1885, and was succeeded by his unborn son, Alfonso was born in Madrid as the eldest son of Queen Isabella II. Officially, his father was her husband, King Francis, alfonsos biological paternity is uncertain, there is speculation that his biological father may have been Enrique Puigmoltó y Mayans. These rumours were used as propaganda against Alfonso by the Carlists. His mothers accession created the second cause of instability, which was the Carlist Wars, the supporters of the Count of Molina as king of Spain rose to have him enthroned. This led to the cause of instability of note, the Independence of the American Kingdoms.
When Queen Isabella and her husband were forced to leave Spain by the Revolution of 1868, from there, he was sent to the Theresianum at Vienna to continue his studies. On 25 June 1870, he was recalled to Paris, where his mother abdicated in his favour, after Amadeos abandonment in 1873, Parliament declared the Federal Republic, the first act of President Estanislao Figueras was to extend the Abolition Act to Puerto Rico. Cuban slaves would have to wait until 1889, but the republicans were not in agreement either, and they had to contend with the War in Cuba, and Muslim uprisings in Spanish Morocco. By 1872, the Third Carlist War erupted and this unrest led to the creation of a group in favor of the Bourbon restoration, made by some sectors of the conservatives led by Canovas del Castillo. The Prince of Asturias, was the chosen to develop the new road map proposed by Canovas. The new road map, which indeed ended the eternal crisis begun in 1810 was called Alfonsismo, as having Alfonso in Spain would be a problem, Cánovas became responsible for his education.
He sent Alfonso to the Sandhurst Military Academy in England, where the training Alfonso received was severe but more cosmopolitan than in Spain, on 1 December 1874, Alfonso issued the Sandhurst Manifesto, where he set the ideological basis of the Bourbon Restoration. It was drafted in reply to a greeting from his followers. Thereupon the President resigned, and his power was transferred to the kings plenipotentiary and adviser, the 29 December 1874 military coup of Gen. Martinez Campos in Sagunto ended the failed republic and meant the rise of the young Prince Alfonso. In 1876, a campaign against the Carlists, in which the young king took part, resulted in the defeat of Don Carlos. Cánovas was the architect of the new regime of the Restoration
Thomas Hodgkin was a British physician, considered one of the most prominent pathologists of his time and a pioneer in preventive medicine. He is now best known for the first account of Hodgkins disease, Hodgkins work marked the beginning of times when a pathologist was actively involved in the clinical process. He was a contemporary of Thomas Addison and Richard Bright at Guys Hospital, Thomas Hodgkin was born to a Quaker family in Pentonville, St. James Parish, the son of John Hodgkin. He received private education with his brother John Hodgkin, and in 1816 took a position as secretary to William Allen. His aim was to learn the trade of apothecary, one of the routes into medicine and they parted, and Hodgkin went to an apothecary cousin, John Glaisyer, in Brighton instead. He inherited property from his great-uncle of the name, meaning that from age 21 he had a degree of financial independence. In September 1819 Hodgkin was admitted to St. Thomass and Guys Medical School and he walked the wards for a year on the rounds of physicians and surgeons, and attended lectures, in particular those by Astley Cooper.
He studied at the University of Edinburgh, where the lecturers who impressed him included Andrew Duncan, the younger and his first published paper, on the spleen, came from Duncans course, and drew on the veterinary writings of his friend Bracy Clark. During his time as a student, he became a member of the Royal Medical Society, in 1821, Hodgkin went to France, where he learned to work with the stethoscope, a recent invention of René Laennec. He took account of the statistical and clinical approach of Pierre Charles Alexandre Louis. He associated there with British expatriates including Robert Knox and Helen Maria Williams, in 1823, he qualified for his M. D. at the University of Edinburgh Medical School with a thesis on the physiological mechanisms of absorption in animals. In Paris Hodgkin met Benjamin Thorpe, a banker for Rothschilds at the time, Hodgkin became his physician for a while, and Thorpe was cured. This contact led to appointment as physician to Abraham Montefiore, married to Henriette.
Once graduated at Edinburgh, Hodgkin joined the couple for travel in Italy, Abraham was seriously ill with tuberculosis and the position proved unsatisfactory for both sides, with Hodgkin dismissed. But the relationship he built up with Moses Montefiore, Abrahams brother, staying in Paris for an extended period from September 1824 to June 1825, Hodgkin made significant medical contacts. The Edwards brothers, William-Frédéric Edwards and Henri Milne Edwards, were both physiologists with distinctive theories, and Hodgkin looked over their work in the few years. Achille-Louis Foville was a neurologist, around whom Hodgkin tried unsuccessfully, from 1838, Hodgkin found a position at Guys, first as a volunteer clerk in 1825, and in 1826 as the curator of the museum there, carrying out autopsies. He built up his reputation on the work his posts brought him in morbid anatomy, Hodgkins hospital career came to an end, however, in 1837, when he clashed with the autocratic Benjamin Harrison
Louis VIII of France
Louis VIII the Lion was King of France from 1223 to 1226. He claimed the title King of England from 1216 to 1217, Louis VIII was born in Paris, the son of King Philip II of France and Isabelle of Hainaut, from whom he inherited the County of Artois. While Louis VIII only briefly reigned as king of France, he was a leader in his years as crown prince. During the First Barons War of 1215-17 against King John of England, after his victory at the Battle of Roche-au-Moine in 1214, he invaded southern England and was proclaimed King of England by rebellious barons in London on the 2 June 1216. He was never crowned and renounced his claim after being excommunicated and repelled, in 1217, Louis started the conquest of Guyenne, leaving only a small region around Bordeaux to Henry III of England. Louiss short reign was marked by an intervention using royal forces into the Albigensian Crusade in southern France that decisively moved the conflict towards a conclusion and he died in 1226 and was succeeded by his son Louis IX.
In summer 1195, a marriage between Louis and Eleanor of Brittany, niece of Richard I of England, was suggested for an alliance between Philip II and Richard, but it failed and this led to a sudden deterioration in relations between Richard and Philip. On 23 May 1200, at the age of 12, Louis was married to Blanche of Castile, daughter of King Alfonso VIII of Castile and Eleanor of England, the marriage could only be concluded after prolonged negotiations between King Philip II of France and Blanches uncle John. In 1214, King John of England began his campaign to reclaim the Duchy of Normandy from Philip II. John was optimistic, as he had built up alliances with Holy Roman Emperor Otto IV, Count Renaud of Boulogne. Johns plan was to split Philips forces by pushing north-east from Poitou towards Paris, while Otto and Ferdinand, supported by the Earl of Salisbury, marched south-west from Flanders. Whereas Philip II took personal command of the front against the emperor and his allies. The first part of the campaign went well for the English, with John outmanoeuvring the forces under the command of Prince Louis, John besieged the castle of Roche-au-Moine, a key stronghold, forcing Louis to give battle against Johns larger army.
The local Angevin nobles refused to advance with the king, left at something of a disadvantage, shortly afterwards, Philip won the hard-fought Battle of Bouvines in the north against Otto and Johns other allies, bringing an end to Johns hopes of retaking Normandy. In 1215, the English barons rebelled against the unpopular King John in the First Barons War, the barons offered the throne to Prince Louis, who landed unopposed on the Isle of Thanet in eastern Kent, England, at the head of an army on 21 May 1216. There was little resistance when the prince entered London, and Louis was proclaimed king at Old St Pauls Cathedral with great pomp and celebration in the presence of all of London. Even though he was not crowned, many nobles, as well as King Alexander II of Scotland on behalf of his English possessions, on 14 June 1216, Louis captured Winchester and soon controlled over half of the English kingdom. But just when it seemed that England was his, King Johns death in October 1216 caused many of the barons to desert Louis in favour of Johns nine-year-old son
Abul-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad, popularly known as Akbar I and Akbar the Great, was a Mughal Emperor from 1556 until his death. He was the ruler of the Mughal Dynasty in India. Akbar succeeded his father, under a regent, Bairam Khan, a strong personality and a successful general, Akbar gradually enlarged the Mughal Empire to include nearly all of the Indian Subcontinent north of the Godavari river. His power and influence, extended over the country because of Mughal military, cultural. To unify the vast Mughal state, Akbar established a system of administration throughout his empire and adopted a policy of conciliating conquered rulers through marriage. To preserve peace and order in a religiously and culturally diverse empire, Mughal India developed a strong and stable economy, leading to commercial expansion and greater patronage of culture. Akbar himself was a patron of art and culture, holy men of many faiths, poets and artisans adorned his court from all over the world for study and discussion.
Akbars courts at Delhi and Fatehpur Sikri became centres of the arts, perso-Islamic culture began to merge and blend with indigenous Indian elements, and a distinct Indo-Persian culture emerged characterised by Mughal style arts and architecture. A simple, monotheistic cult, tolerant in outlook, it centred on Akbar as a prophet, for which he drew the ire of the ulema, many of his courtiers followed Din-i-Ilahi as their religion as well, as many believed that Akbar was a prophet. One famous courtier who followed this religion was Birbal. Akbars reign significantly influenced the course of Indian history, during his rule, the Mughal empire tripled in size and wealth. He created a military system and instituted effective political and social reforms. By abolishing the tax on non-Muslims and appointing them to high civil and military posts, he was the first Mughal ruler to win the trust. He had Sanskrit literature translated, participated in festivals, realising that a stable empire depended on the co-operation.
Thus, the foundations for an empire under Mughal rule was laid during his reign. Akbar was succeeded as emperor by his son, defeated in battles at Chausa and Kannauj in 1539–40 by the forces of Sher Shah Suri Mughal emperor Humayun fled westward to Sindh. There he met and married the 14-year-old Hamida Banu Begum, daughter of Shaikh Ali Akbar Jami, a teacher of Humauyuns younger brother Hindal Mirza. Jalal ud-din Muhammad Akbar was born the year on 15 October 1542 at the Rajput Fortress of Umerkot in Sindh
Louis IX of France
Louis IX, commonly known as Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 until his death. Louis was crowned in Reims at the age of 12, following the death of his father Louis VIII the Lion, although his mother, Blanche of Castile, ruled the kingdom until he reached maturity. During Louiss childhood, Blanche dealt with the opposition of rebellious vassals, as an adult, Louis IX faced recurring conflicts with some of the most powerful nobles, such as Hugh X of Lusignan and Peter of Dreux. Simultaneously, Henry III of England tried to restore his continental possessions and his reign saw the annexation of several provinces, notably Normandy and Provence. Louis IX was a reformer and developed French royal justice, in which the king is the judge to whom anyone is able to appeal to seek the amendment of a judgment. He banned trials by ordeal, tried to prevent the private wars that were plaguing the country, to enforce the correct application of this new legal system, Louis IX created provosts and bailiffs.
According to his vow made after an illness, and confirmed after a miraculous cure. He was succeeded by his son Philip III, Louiss actions were inspired by Christian values and Catholic devotion. He decided to punish blasphemy, interest-bearing loans and prostitution and he expanded the scope of the Inquisition and ordered the burning of Talmuds. He is the only canonized king of France, and there are many places named after him. Much of what is known of Louiss life comes from Jean de Joinvilles famous Life of Saint Louis, two other important biographies were written by the kings confessor, Geoffrey of Beaulieu, and his chaplain, William of Chartres. The fourth important source of information is William of Saint-Parthus biography, while several individuals wrote biographies in the decades following the kings death, only Jean of Joinville, Geoffrey of Beaulieu, and William of Chartres wrote from personal knowledge of the king. Louis was born on 25 April 1214 at Poissy, near Paris, the son of Prince Louis the Lion and Princess Blanche, and baptised in La Collégiale Notre-Dame church.
His grandfather on his fathers side was Philip II, king of France, while his grandfather on his mothers side was Alfonso VIII, tutors of Blanches choosing taught him most of what a king must know—Latin, public speaking, military arts, and government. He was 9 years old when his grandfather Philip II died, a member of the House of Capet, Louis was twelve years old when his father died on 8 November 1226. He was crowned king within the month at Reims cathedral, because of Louiss youth, his mother ruled France as regent during his minority. Louis mother trained him to be a leader and a good Christian. She used to say, I love you, my son, as much as a mother can love her child
Edward the Black Prince
Edward of Woodstock KG, called the Black Prince, was the eldest son of King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault, and the father of King Richard II of England. He was the first Duke of Cornwall, the Prince of Wales and he was called Edward of Woodstock in his early life, after his birthplace, and since the 16th century has been popularly known as the Black Prince. He was a military leader, and his victories over the French at the Battles of Crécy. In 1348 he was made a Founding Knight of the Garter, Edward died one year before his father, becoming the first English Prince of Wales not to become King of England. The throne passed instead to his son Richard II, a minor, Richard Barber comments that Edward has attracted relatively little attention from serious historians, but figures largely in popular history. Edward was born on 15 June 1330 at Woodstock Palace in Oxfordshire and he was created Earl of Chester on 18 May 1333, Duke of Cornwall on 17 March 1337 and finally invested as Prince of Wales on 12 May 1343 when he was almost thirteen years old.
In England, Edward served as a regent for periods in 1339,1340. He was expected to all council meetings, and he performed the negotiations with the papacy about the war in 1337. He served as High Sheriff of Cornwall from 1340–1341,1343,1358, Edward had been raised with his cousin Joan, The Fair Maid of Kent. Edward gained permission for the marriage from Pope Innocent VI and absolution for marriage to a blood-relative, the marriage caused some controversy, mainly because of Joans chequered marital history and the fact that marriage to an Englishwoman wasted an opportunity to form an alliance with a foreign power. When in England, Edwards chief residence was at Wallingford Castle in Berkshire and he served as the kings representative in Aquitaine, where he and Joan kept a court which was considered among the most fashionable of the time. It was the resort of exiled kings such as James IV of Majorca, Peter of Castile, thrust from his throne by his illegitimate brother Henry of Trastámara, offered Edward the lordship of Biscay in 1367, in return for the Black Princes aid in recovering his throne.
Edward was successful in the Battle of Nájera, in which he defeated the combined French. However Peter did not pay fully and refused to yield Biscay, Edward retreated to Guienne by July. The Black Prince returned to England in January 1371 and died on 8 June 1376, Edward lived in a century of decline for the knightly ideal of chivalry. However, some argue he may have been playing for time to preparation of his archers positions. On the other hand, his tendencies were overridden by expediency on many occasions. The Crécy Campaign on the front, which crippled the French army for ten years
Major General Sir Henry Havelock KCB was a British general who is particularly associated with India and his recapture of Cawnpore from rebels during the Indian Mutiny of 1857. Henry Havelock was born at Ford Hall, the son of William Havelock, a wealthy shipbuilder and he was the second of four brothers, all of whom entered the army. The family moved to Ingress Park, Kent, when Henry was still a child, headmaster of Charterhouse School until he was 17. Among his contemporaries at Charterhouse were Connop Thirlwall, George Grote, William Hale, Julius Hare, and William Norris, shortly after leaving Charterhouse his father lost his fortune by unsuccessful speculation, sold Ingress Hall, and removed to Clifton. In accordance with the desire of his mother he entered the Middle Temple in 1813, henrys legal studies having been interrupted by a misunderstanding with his father, Havelock was thrown upon his own resources, and obliged to abandon the law as a profession. He was promoted lieutenant on 24 October 1821, during the following eight years of service in Britain he read extensively all the standard works and acquired a good acquaintance with the theory of war.
Before embarkation he studied the Persian and Hindustani languages with success under John Borthwick Gilchrist, at about the same time he became a Baptist, being baptized by Mr. John Mack at Serampore. He introduced some of his new familys missionary ideas to the army and he introduced all-rank bible study classes and established the first non-church services for military personnel. By the time Havelock took part in the First Afghan War in 1839 and he was present as aide-de-camp to Willoughby Cotton at the capture of Ghazni, on 23 May 1839, and at the occupation of Kabul. In 1840, being attached to Sir Robert Henry Sales force, he took part in the passage of the defiles of the Ghilzais. Here, after many months siege, his column in an en masse defeated Akbar Khan on 7 April 1842. He used his time to produce analytical reports about the skirmishes and battles in which he was involved. These writings were returned to Britain and were reported on in the press of the day, for his military services he was made Deputy Adjutant-General at Bombay.
He returned to India in 1852 with further promotion, he was appointed Quartermaster-General, promoted to full colonel, throughout August Havelock led his soldiers northwards across Oudh, defeating all rebel forces in his path, despite being greatly outnumbered. His years of study of the theories of war and his experiences in earlier campaigns were put to good use, at this time Lady Canning wrote of him in her diary, General Havelock is not in fashion, but all the same we believe that he will do well. But in spite of this lukewarm commendation Havelock proved himself the man for the occasion and won a reputation as a military leader. Three times he advanced for the relief of the Lucknow, but twice held back rather than fighting with troops wasted by battle. Reinforcements arrived at last under Outram, and he was able to capture Lucknow on 25 September 1857, however, a second rebel force arrived and besieged the town again
Sir Francis Drake, vice admiral was an English sea captain, navigator and politician of the Elizabethan era. With his incursion into the Pacific he inaugurated an era of privateering, Elizabeth I of England awarded Drake a knighthood in 1581. He was second-in-command of the English fleet against the Spanish Armada in 1588 and he died of dysentery in January 1596 after unsuccessfully attacking San Juan, Puerto Rico. His exploits made him a hero to the English but a pirate to the Spaniards, King Philip II was said to have offered a reward of 20,000 ducats, about £4 million by modern standards, for his life. Francis Drake was born in Tavistock, England, although his birth is not formally recorded, it is known that he was born while the Six Articles were in force. Drake was two and twenty when he obtained the command of the Judith and this would date his birth to 1544. A date of c.1540 is suggested from two portraits, one a miniature painted by Nicholas Hilliard in 1581 when he was allegedly 42 and he was the eldest of the twelve sons of Edmund Drake, a Protestant farmer, and his wife Mary Mylwaye.
The first son was alleged to have named after his godfather Francis Russell. Because of religious persecution during the Prayer Book Rebellion in 1549, there the father obtained an appointment to minister the men in the Kings Navy. He was ordained deacon and was vicar of Upnor Church on the Medway. Drakes father apprenticed Francis to his neighbour, the master of a used for coastal trade transporting merchandise to France. The ship master was so satisfied with the young Drakes conduct that, being unmarried and childless at his death, Francis Drake married Mary Newman in 1569. She died 12 years later, in 1581, in 1585, Drake married Elizabeth Sydenham—born circa 1562, the only child of Sir George Sydenham, of Combe Sydenham, who was the High Sheriff of Somerset. After Drakes death, the widow Elizabeth eventually married Sir William Courtenay of Powderham. At age 23, Drake made his first voyage to the Americas, sailing with his cousin, Sir John Hawkins, on one of a fleet of ships owned by his relatives.
In 1568 Drake was again with the Hawkins fleet when it was trapped by the Spaniards in the Mexican port of San Juan de Ulúa, following the defeat at San Juan de Ulúa, Drake vowed revenge. He made two voyages to the West Indies, in 1570 and 1571, of which little is known, in 1572, he embarked on his first major independent enterprise. He planned an attack on the Isthmus of Panama, known to the Spanish as Tierra Firme and the English as the Spanish Main