Abigail Adams was the closest advisor and wife of John Adams, as well as the mother of John Quincy Adams. John frequently sought the advice of Abigail on many matters, and their letters are filled with discussions on government. Her letters also serve as eyewitness accounts of the American Revolutionary War home front, Abigail Adams was born at the North Parish Congregational Church in Weymouth, Massachusetts, to William Smith and Elizabeth Smith. On her mothers side she was descended from the Quincy family, through her mother she was a cousin of Dorothy Quincy, wife of John Hancock. Adams was also the great-granddaughter of John Norton, founding pastor of Old Ship Church in Hingham, Massachusetts, the only remaining 17th-century Puritan meetinghouse in Massachusetts. Smith married Elizabeth Quincy in 1742, and together they had four children and their only son, born in 1746, died of alcoholism in 1787. As with several of her ancestors, Adamss father was a liberal Congregationalist minister, Smith did not focus his preaching on predestination or original sin, instead he emphasized the importance of reason and morality. In July 1775 his wife Elizabeth, with whom he had married for 33 years. In 1784, at age 77, Smith died, Abigail did not receive formal schooling, she was frequently sick as child, which may have been a factor which prevented her from receiving an education. Later in life, Adams would also consider that she was deprived an education because females were given such an opportunity. Her grandmother, Elizabeth Quincy, also contributed to Adams education, as she grew up, Adams read with friends in an effort to further her learning. As an intellectually open-minded woman for her day, Adams ideas on womens rights and government would play a major role, albeit indirectly. She became one of the most erudite women ever to serve as First Lady, as third cousins, Abigail and John had known each other since they were children. In 1762, John accompanied his friend Richard Cranch to the Smith household, Cranch was engaged to Adams older sister, Mary, and they would be the parents of federal judge William Cranch. John was quickly attracted to the petite, shy, 17-year-old brunette who was bent over some book. He was surprised to learn she knew so much poetry, philosophy. Smith, Abigails father, presided over the marriage of John Adams, after the reception, the couple mounted a single horse and rode off to their new home, the small cottage and farm John had inherited from his father in Braintree, Massachusetts. Later they moved to Boston, where his law practice expanded, the couple welcomed their first child nine months into their marriage
Enoch Arnold Bennett was an English writer. He is best known as a novelist, but he worked in other fields such as the theatre, journalism, propaganda. Bennett was born in a modest house in Hanley in the Potteries district of Staffordshire, Hanley was one of the Six Towns that were joined together at the beginning of the 20th century as Stoke-on-Trent and are depicted as the Five Towns in some of Bennetts novels. Enoch Bennett, his father, qualified as a solicitor in 1876, Bennett was employed by his father, but the working relationship failed. He found himself doing jobs such as rent-collecting which were uncongenial, Bennett also resented the low pay, it is no accident that the theme of parental miserliness is important in several of his novels. In his spare time he was able to do a little journalism, at the age of 21 he left his fathers practice and went to London as a solicitors clerk. In 1889 Bennett won a competition run by the magazine Tit-Bits and was encouraged to take up journalism full-time. In 1894 he became assistant editor of the magazine Woman and he noticed that the material offered by a syndicate to the magazine was not very good, so he wrote a serial that was bought by the syndicate for 75 pounds. This became The Grand Babylon Hotel, just over four years later his novel A Man from the North was published to critical acclaim and he became editor of the magazine. In 1900 Bennett gave up the editorship of Woman and dedicated himself to writing full time, however, he continued to write for newspapers and magazines while finding success in his career as a novelist. In 1926, at the suggestion of Lord Beaverbrook, he writing a influential weekly article on books for the London newspaper the Evening Standard. One of Bennetts most popular works was the self-help book How to Live on 24 Hours a Day. His diaries have yet to be published in full, but extracts from them have often quoted in the British press. In 1903 Bennett moved to Paris, where artists from around the world had converged on Montmartre. Bennett spent the eight years writing novels and plays. He believed that people had the potential to be the subjects of interesting books. Maupassant is also one of the writers on whose work Richard Larch, Bennetts novel The Old Wives Tale had an immediate success throughout the English-speaking world when it was published in 1908. In 1911 he visited the United States, then returned to England, during the First World War Bennett became Director of Propaganda for France at the Ministry of Information
Stephen A. Douglas
Stephen Arnold Douglas was an American politician from Illinois and the designer of the Kansas–Nebraska Act. He was a U. S. representative, a U. S. senator, Douglas had previously defeated Lincoln in a Senate contest, noted for the famous Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858. He was nicknamed the Little Giant because he was short in physical stature, Douglas was well known as a resourceful party leader, and an adroit, ready, skillful tactician in debate and passage of legislation. He was a champion of the Young America movement which sought to modernize politics and replace the agrarian, as chairman of the Committee on Territories, Douglas dominated the Senate in the 1850s. Opposition to this led to the formation of the Republican Party, Douglas initially endorsed the Dred Scott decision of 1857. But during the 1858 Senate campaign, he argued its effect could be negated by popular sovereignty and he also opposed the efforts of President James Buchanan and his Southern allies to enact a Federal slave code and impose the Lecompton Constitution on Kansas. In 1860, the conflict over slavery led to the split in the Democratic Party in the 1860 Convention, hardline pro-slavery Southerners rejected Douglas, and nominated their own candidate, Vice President John C. Breckinridge, while the Northern Democrats nominated Douglas, Douglas deeply believed in democracy, arguing the will of the people should always be decisive. When civil war came in April 1861, he rallied his supporters to the Union cause with all his energies and he was born Stephen Arnold Douglass in Brandon, Vermont, to Stephen Arnold Douglass and Sarah Fisk. Douglas dropped the s from his name some years later. His father, a physician and Middlebury College graduate, died suddenly when Stephen was just a few months old and he grew up with his mother and was educated in the local schools. As a teenager, he was apprenticed to a cabinetmaker in Middlebury and his mother remarried in 1830 and moved to western New York. Although he wished to attend Middlebury College like his father, his family couldnt support his continued formal education, instead, he began to teach school while studying law with Walter and Levi Hubbell. While studying law he became friendly with Henry B, payne, a law student in another attorneys office. Payne later became a prominent businessman and politician in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1833 Douglas migrated first to Cleveland, and then to Winchester, Illinois, where he served as an itinerant teacher and opened a school for three months at three dollars a pupil. He then settled in Jacksonville, Illinois, where he was admitted to the bar, Douglas became a member of the Masonic fraternity in Springfield Lodge No.4 in Springfield, Illinois in 1839. He was a member of several Masonic organizations in Springfield, in March 1847 he married Martha Martin, the 21-year-old daughter of wealthy Colonel Robert Martin of North Carolina. The year after their marriage, her father died and bequeathed Martha a 2, 500-acre cotton plantation with 100 slaves on the Pearl River in Lawrence County, Mississippi
George Washington Gale Ferris Jr.
George Washington Gale Ferris Jr. was an American engineer. He is mostly known for creating the original Ferris Wheel for the 1893 Chicago Worlds Columbian Exposition, Ferris was born on February 14,1859, in Galesburg, Illinois, the town founded by his namesake, George Washington Gale. His parents were George Washington Gale Ferris Sr. and Martha Edgerton Hyde and he had an older brother named Frederick Hyde, born in 1843. In 1864, five years after Ferris was born, his family sold their dairy farm, for two years, they lived in Carson Valley. From 1868 to 1890, his father, George Washington Gale Ferris Sr. owned the Sears–Ferris House, at 311 W. Third, Carson City, Nevada. Originally built in about 1863 by Gregory A. Sears, a pioneer Carson City businessman, Ferris left Nevada in 1875 to attend the California Military Academy in Oakland, where he graduated in 1876. He graduated from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, New York, at RPI he was a charter member of the local chapter of the Chi Phi Fraternity and a member of the Rensselaer Society of Engineers. He was made a member of the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Alumni Hall of Fame in 1998, Ferris began his career in the railroad industry and was interested in bridge building. Ferris & Co. in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to test and inspect metals for railroads, Ferris House, his home at 1318 Arch Street, Central Northside, was added to the list of City of Pittsburgh Designated Historic Structures on June 28,2001. News of the Worlds Columbian Exposition to be held in 1893, in Chicago, Illinois, the planners wanted something original, daring and unique. Ferris responded with a wheel from which visitors would be able to view the entire exhibition. The planners feared his design for a rotating wheel towering over the grounds could not possibly be safe and he returned in a few weeks with several respectable endorsements from established engineers, and the committee agreed to allow construction to begin. Most convincingly, he had recruited several investors to cover the $400,000 cost of construction. The planning commission of the Exposition hoped that admissions from the Ferris Wheel would pull the fair out of debt, the Ferris Wheel had 36 cars, each fitted with 40 revolving chairs and able to accommodate up to 60 people, giving a total capacity of 2,160. It carried 2.5 million passengers before it was demolished in 1906. After the fair closed, Ferris claimed that the management had robbed him. He spent the two years in litigation. Ferris Sr. died in 1895, followed soon after by Ferris Jr. himself, on November 22,1896 at Mercy Hospital in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and his ashes remained at a Pittsburgh crematorium for over a year, waiting for someone to take possession of them
Archduke Karl Ludwig of Austria
He was born at Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna, the son of Archduke Franz Karl of Austria and his wife Sophie of Bavaria. His siblings included Franz Joseph, Emperor of Austria and Maximilian and his mother ensured he was raised a devout Roman Catholic by the Vienna Prince-archbishop Joseph Othmar Rauscher, a conviction that evolved into religious mania in his later years. However, he found his authority to exert power restricted by the Austrian cabinet of his cousin Archduke Rainer Ferdinand and he finally laid down the office upon the issue of the 1861 February Patent for a life as patron of the arts and sciences. As the eldest surviving brother of the Emperor, Karl Ludwig, after the death of his nephew Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria in 1889, became heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian Empire. A newspaper article appeared shortly after the death of his claiming that the Archduke had renounced his succession rights in favor of his eldest son Franz Ferdinand. This rumor proved to be false and his first wife, whom he married on 4 November 1856 at Dresden, was his first cousin Margaretha of Saxony, the daughter of Johann of Saxony and Amalie Auguste of Bavaria. She died on 15 September 1858 and they had no children and they had four children, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria he married Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg on 1 July 1900. Archduke Otto Franz of Austria he married Princess Maria Josepha of Saxony (1867–1944 on 2 October 1886, Archduke Ferdinand Karl of Austria he married Bertha Czuber on 15 August 1909. Archduchess Margarete Sophie of Austria she married Albrecht, Duke of Württemberg on 24 January 1893, Maria Annunciata died on 4 May 1871. His third wife, whom he married on 23 July 1873 at Kleinheubach, was Infanta Maria Theresa of Portugal, daughter of Miguel I of Portugal and they had two daughters, Archduchess Maria Annunziata of Austria. Abbess of the Theresia Convent in the Hradschin, Prague, Archduchess Elisabeth Amalie of Austria she married Prince Aloys of Liechtenstein on 20 April 1903. Karl Ludwig died of typhoid at Schönbrunn in Vienna returning from a journey to Palestine and Egypt and his widow, Maria Teresa died on 12 February 1944. List of heirs to the Austrian throne