Category:Diplomatic conferences in Austria
Pages in category "Diplomatic conferences in Austria"
The following 10 pages are in this category, out of 10 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 10 pages are in this category, out of 10 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. 2015 Western Balkans Summit, Vienna – The 2015 Western Balkans Summit was the second annual summit of heads of states and governments of Western Balkans. It took place in the Vienna, Austria, following the 2014 Conference of Western Balkan States that took place in Berlin, official date of summit is 27 of August 2015. After 2014 conference Günther Oettinger confirmed that the event will be organised annually with Vienna as a host city in 2015, civil society initiative The Balkans in Europe Policy Advisory Group organized three preparatory meetings in Tirana, Belgrade and Sarajevo. The first preparatory meeting held in Tirana focused on job creation, third preparatory meeting took place in Sarajevo in June 2015 with focus on freedom of expression. On the day of the Summit, civil society representatives will have the possibility to present their proposals to the present politicians. Notes, References, Berlin Process Southeast Europe Stabilisation and Association Process Central European Free Trade Agreement Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe Western Balkans Summit
2. Concert of Europe – Historians date its operation from the end of the Napoleonic Wars to the early 1820s, although some see it playing a role until the Crimean War. In time, France was established as a member of the Concert. At first, the personalities of the system were British foreign secretary Lord Castlereagh, Austrian Chancellor Klemens von Metternich. Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord of France was largely responsible for quickly returning that country to its place alongside the major powers in international diplomacy. It is known in German as the Pentarchie and in Russian as the Vienna System, the Concert of Europe had no written rules or permanent institutions, but at times of crisis any of the member countries could propose a conference. Meetings of the Great Powers during this period included, Aix-la-Chapelle, Carlsbad, Troppau, Laibach, Verona, London, the Concerts effectiveness came to an end because of many factors such as the British distrust of Russia. The idea of a European federation had been raised by figures such as Gottfried Leibniz. From the outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars in 1792 to the exile of Napoleon to Saint Helena in 1815, during this time, the military conquests of France had resulted in the spread of liberalism throughout much of the continent, resulting in many states adopting the Napoleonic code. The Kingdom of Prussia and the Austrian and Russian Empires formed the Holy Alliance with the intent of preserving Christian social values. Every member of the coalition promptly joined the Alliance, except for the United Kingdom. Britain did however ratify the Quadruple Alliance, signed on the day as the Second Peace Treaty of Paris. It was also signed by the three powers that had signed the Holy Alliance on 26 September 1815. The Holy Alliance was the brainchild of Tsar Alexander I, in the opinion of Lord Castlereagh, the British foreign secretary at the time of its inception, the Holy Alliance was a piece of sublime mysticism and nonsense. The Quadruple Alliance, by contrast, was a treaty. The primary objective was to bind the signatories to support the terms of the Second Treaty of Paris for 20 years, the Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle resolved the issues of Allied occupation of France and restored that country to equal status with Britain, Prussia, Austria and Russia. In 1822, the Congress of Verona met to decide whether France could intervene on the side of the Spanish royalists in the Trienio Liberal, after receiving permission, Louis XVIII dispatched five army corps to restore Ferdinand VII of Spain. The territorial boundaries laid down at the Congress of Vienna were maintained, even more important, otherwise, the Congress system, says historian Roy Bridge, failed by 1823. In 1818, the British decided not to become involved in issues that did not directly affect them
3. Congress of Vienna – The objective of the Congress was to provide a long-term peace plan for Europe by settling critical issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. The goal was not simply to restore old boundaries but to resize the main powers so they could balance each other off, the leaders were conservatives with little use for republicanism or revolution, both of which threatened to upset the status quo in Europe. France lost all its recent conquests, while Prussia, Austria and Russia made major territorial gains, Prussia added smaller German states in the west, Swedish Pomerania and 60% of the Kingdom of Saxony, Austria gained Venice and much of northern Italy. The new Kingdom of the Netherlands had been created just months before, the immediate background was Napoleonic Frances defeat and surrender in May 1814, which brought an end to twenty-five years of nearly continuous war. Negotiations continued despite the outbreak of fighting triggered by Napoleons dramatic return from exile, the Congresss Final Act was signed nine days before his final defeat at Waterloo on 18 June 1815. However, others praise it for having created relatively long-term stable, the Congress of Vienna settlement, despite later changes, formed the framework for European international politics until the outbreak of the First World War in 1914. The Treaty of Chaumont in 1814 had reaffirmed decisions that had made already. The Treaty of Chaumont became the cornerstone of the European Alliance which formed the balance of power for decades, other partial settlements had already occurred at the Treaty of Paris between France and the Sixth Coalition, and the Treaty of Kiel which covered issues raised regarding Scandinavia. The Treaty of Paris had determined that a general congress should be held in Vienna, the opening was scheduled for July 1814. The Four Great Powers had previously formed the core of the Sixth Coalition, as the Congresss sessions were in Vienna, Emperor Francis was kept closely informed. Great Britain was represented first by its Foreign Secretary, Viscount Castlereagh, then by the Duke of Wellington, in the last weeks it was headed by the Earl of Clancarty, after Wellington left to face Napoleon during the Hundred Days. Tsar Alexander I controlled the Russian delegation which was led by the foreign minister. The tsar had two goals, to gain control of Poland and to promote the peaceful coexistence of European nations. He succeeded in forming the Holy Alliance, based on monarchism and anti-secularism, Prussia was represented by Prince Karl August von Hardenberg, the Chancellor, and the diplomat and scholar Wilhelm von Humboldt. King Frederick William III of Prussia was also in Vienna, playing his role behind the scenes, France, the fifth power, was represented by its foreign minister, Talleyrand as well as the Minister Plenipotentiary the Duke of Dalberg. Talleyrand had already negotiated the Treaty of Paris for Louis XVIII of France, Sweden – Count Carl Löwenhielm Denmark – Count Niels Rosenkrantz, foreign minister. King Frederick VI was also present in Vienna, the Netherlands – Earl of Clancarty, the British Ambassador at the Dutch court, and Baron Hans von Gagern Switzerland – Every canton had its own delegation. Charles Pictet de Rochemont from Geneva played a prominent role, mecklenburg-Schwerin – Leopold von Plessen Virtually every state in Europe had a delegation in Vienna – more than 200 states and princely houses were represented at the Congress
4. Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action – For the next 15 years, Iran will only enrich uranium up to 3. 67%. Iran also agreed not to any new heavy-water facilities for the same period of time. Uranium-enrichment activities will be limited to a facility using first-generation centrifuges for 10 years. Other facilities will be converted to avoid proliferation risks, to monitor and verify Irans compliance with the agreement, the International Atomic Energy Agency will have regular access to all Iranian nuclear facilities. The agreement provides that in return for verifiably abiding by its commitments, European Union, and United Nations Security Council nuclear-related economic sanctions. A nuclear weapon uses a material to cause a nuclear chain reaction. The most commonly used materials have been uranium 235 and plutonium 239, both uranium 233 and reactor-grade plutonium have also been used. Plutonium is almost nonexistent in nature, and natural uranium is about 99. 3% uranium 238 and 0. 7% U-235, therefore, to make a weapon, either uranium must be enriched, or plutonium must be produced. Uranium enrichment is also necessary for nuclear power. For this reason, uranium enrichment is a technology, a technology which can be used both for civilian and for military purposes. Key strategies to prevent proliferation of arms include limiting the number of operating uranium enrichment plants and controlling the export of nuclear technology. Iranian development of technology began in the 1970s, when the U. S. Atoms for Peace program began providing assistance to Iran, which was led by the Shah. Iran signed the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons in 1968 as a non-nuclear weapons state, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini was initially opposed to nuclear technology, and Iran engaged in a costly war with Iraq from 1980 to 1988. Starting in the later 1980s, Iran restarted its program, with assistance from Pakistan, China, and Russia. Iran began pursuing a nuclear fuel cycle capability by developing a uranium mining infrastructure and experimenting with uranium conversion. According to the nonpartisan Nuclear Threat Initiative, U. S. intelligence agencies have long suspected Iran of using its nuclear program as a cover for clandestine weapons development. Iran, in contrast, has insisted that its nuclear work is peaceful
5. Strategic Arms Limitation Talks – The two rounds of talks and agreements were SALT I and SALT II. Negotiations commenced in Helsinki, Finland, in November 1969, SALT I led to the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and an interim agreement between the two countries. Although SALT II resulted in an agreement in 1979, the United States Senate chose not to ratify the treaty in response to the Soviet war in Afghanistan, the Soviet legislature also did not ratify it. The agreement expired on December 31,1985 and was not renewed, a successor to START I, New START, was proposed and was eventually ratified in February 2011. SALT I is the name for the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Agreement signed on May 26,1972. SALT I also limited land-based ICBMs that were in range from the border of the continental United States to the northwestern border of the continental USSR. In addition to that, SALT I limited the number of SLBM capable submarines that NATO, if the United States or NATO were to increase that number, the USSR could respond with increasing their arsenal by the same amount. The strategic nuclear forces of the Soviet Union and the United States were changing in character in 1968, MIRVs carried multiple nuclear warheads, often with dummies, to confuse ABM systems, making MIRV defense by ABM systems increasingly difficult and expensive. One clause of the treaty required both countries to limit the number of sites protected by a missile system to two each. The Soviet Union had deployed such a system around Moscow in 1966, a modified two-tier Moscow ABM system is still used. The United States built only one ABM site to protect a Minuteman base in North Dakota where the Safeguard Program was deployed, due to the systems expense and limited effectiveness, the Pentagon disbanded Safeguard in 1975. Negotiations lasted from November 17,1969, until May 1972 in a series of meetings beginning in Helsinki, Smith, director of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. Subsequent sessions alternated between Vienna and Helsinki, after a long deadlock, the first results of SALT I came in May 1971, when an agreement was reached over ABM systems. A number of agreed statements were also made and this helped improve relations between the United States and the USSR. SALT II was a series of talks between United States and Soviet negotiators from 1972 to 1979 which sought to curtail the manufacture of nuclear weapons. It was a continuation of the SALT I talks and was led by representatives from both countries, SALT II was the first nuclear arms treaty which assumed real reductions in strategic forces to 2,250 of all categories of delivery vehicles on both sides. SALT II helped the United States to discourage the Soviets from arming their third-generation ICBMs of SS-17, SS-19, in the late 1970s the USSRs missile design bureaus had developed experimental versions of these missiles equipped with anywhere from 10 to 38 warheads each. Additionally, the Soviets secretly agreed to reduce Tu-22M production to thirty aircraft per year and it was particularly important for the United States to limit Soviet efforts in the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces rearmament area
6. Vienna summit – The Vienna summit was a summit meeting held on June 4,1961, in Vienna, Austria, between President John F. Kennedy of the United States and Premier Nikita Khrushchev of the Soviet Union. The leaders of the two superpowers of the Cold War era discussed numerous issues in the relationship between their countries, President John F. Kennedy met the Soviet Premier, Nikita S. Khrushchev, at the Vienna Summit in June 1961. Prior to meeting face-to-face, their contact began when Khrushchev sent Kennedy a message on November 9,1960. ”In a reply message, Kennedy thanked Khrushchev and similar niceties continued until 1961. On February 22,1961, President Kennedy sent Premier Khrushchev a letter stating, “I hope it will be possible, before too long, Kennedy felt “that if he could just sit down with Khrushchev” the two leaders could work out their inter-state conflicts. Yet, Kennedy’s advisors told him not to meet with Khrushchev so soon after Kennedy’s election, the American Ambassador to Moscow, Llewellyn E. Thompson, feared that Kennedy misjudged Khrushchev’s personality and intentions. Likewise, Charles Bohlen, a U. S. diplomat, “worried that JFK underrated Khrushchev’s determination to expand world communism. ”Nevertheless, Khrushchev accepted Kennedy’s summit proposal, meanwhile, Cold War rivalries between the two powers escalated in Germany, Laos, and Cuba. The regional conflicts became major items on the Vienna Summit agenda, between 1945 and 1961,2. 7million East Germans emigrated from East Berlin, a part of the German Democratic Republic, to West Berlin. The leader of the GDR, Walter Ulbricht, argued that the number of emigrants leaving East Berlin threatened the existence of the GDR by diminishing its population. In the early months of 1961, Ulbricht pressured Khrushchev to close the border between East and West Berlin, Khrushchev understood Ulbricht’s concern but feared that a potential intervention from Western powers would destabilize East Berlin further. If the USSR rendered complete control of East Berlin to the East German government, then the U. S. could only communicate with and control West Berlin with permission from the East German government. The Berlin Question—whether or not the U. S. would allow the USSR to sign a peace treaty with Berlin—dominated Khrushchev. The signing of a peace treaty with Berlin did not appeal to American policy makers. America felt comfortable with the division of Germany and Berlin itself, a peace treaty threatened the established balance of power and could potentially lead to the United States losing all its influence in East Berlin. A lesser known conflict fuelled controversy at the Vienna Summit as well. “As in Berlin, inherited in Laos a situation aggravated by near-direct armed confrontation between the Soviet Union and the United States. ”During Eisenhower’s presidency, the U. S. backed a right-winged conservative government in Laos to counter that communist threat of the popular Pathet Lao. In Laos, “the Eisenhower government committed millions of dollars in aid” in order to continue the rule of a pro-American leader, both the Soviets and the Americans knew that a proxy war in Laos drove both countries further into an arms race. Under this context, Khrushchev and Kennedy discussed the Laos situation at length at the Vienna Summit, the American-facilitated Bay of Pigs Invasion of April 1961 also rocked Khrushchev and Kennedy’s relationship. On April 18,1961, Khrushchev sent Kennedy a telegram said, “Mr. President, I send you this message in an hour of alarm