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Pages in category "Disappearing guns"
The following 19 pages are in this category, out of 19 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Disappearing guns.|
The following 19 pages are in this category, out of 19 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Disappearing gun – A disappearing gun, a gun mounted on a disappearing carriage, is an obsolete type of artillery which enabled a gun to hide from direct fire and observation. Either way, retraction lowered the gun from view and direct fire by the enemy while it was being reloaded. It also made reloading easier, since it lowered the breech to a level just above the loading platform, some disappearing carriages were complicated mechanisms, protection from aircraft observation and attack was difficult, and almost all restricted the elevation of the gun. With a few exceptions, construction of new disappearing gun installations ceased by 1918, the last new disappearing gun installation was a solo 16-inch gun M1919 at Fort Michie on Great Gull Island, New York, completed in 1923. In the U. S. due to lack of funding for sufficient replacements, although some early designs were intended as field siege guns, over time the design became associated with fixed fortifications, most of which were coastal artillery. A late exception was the use in fortifications in Switzerland. The disappearing gun was moved down behind the parapet or into its protective housing by the force of its own recoil. Before firing, the crew tripped a catch on the counterweight, causing it to fall, some disappearing guns also used compressed air, while a few were built to be raised by steam. Captain Alexander Moncrieff, improved on existing designs for a gun capable of rising over a parapet before being reloaded from behind cover. His design, based on his observations in the Crimean War was the first widely adopted, the first experimental carriages of this type were wheeled. His key innovation was a counterweight system that raised the gun as well as controlled the recoil. Moncrieff promoted his system as an inexpensive and quickly constructed alternative to a traditional gun emplacement. The usefulness of such a system had been noted earlier, and experimental designs with raisable platforms or eccentric wheels, some used paired guns, in which one cannon acted as the others counterweight. An unsuccessful attempt at a carriage was Kings Depression Carriage, designed by Rufus King. This used a counterweight to allow a 15-inch Rodman gun to be moved up and down a ramp, so the weapon could be reloaded, elevated. Part of a test installation at Fort Foote, Maryland remains, Kings design was better suited for breech-loaders, had the US not had a plethora of new muzzle-loaders just after the Civil War it may have seen wider use. Buffington and Crozier further refined the concept in the late 1880s by allowing the counterweight fulcrum to slide, the Buffington–Crozier Disappearing Carriage represented the zenith of disappearing gun carriages, and guns of up to 16-inch size were eventually mounted on such carriages. Disappearing guns were popular for a while in the British Empire
2. 6-inch gun M1897 – The 6-inch gun M1897 and its variants the M1900, M1903, M1905, M1908, and M1 were coastal artillery pieces installed to defend major American seaports between 1897 and 1945. For most of their history they were operated by the United States Army Coast Artillery Corps and they were installed on disappearing carriages or pedestal mountings, and during World War II many were remounted on shielded barbette carriages. Most of the not in the Philippines were scrapped within a few years after World War II. Endicott, President Grover Clevelands Secretary of War, was tasked with creating the Board of Fortifications to review seacoast defenses, most of the Boards recommendations were implemented. Coast Artillery fortifications built between 1885 and 1905 are often referred to as Endicott Period fortifications, the 6-inch caliber was chosen, as in many applications, for combining a relatively heavy shell with rapid hand loading. In the overall system, it was an intermediate caliber between the heavy 8-inch, 10-inch, and 12-inch weapons and the small 3-inch guns intended to defend minefields against minesweepers, the Watervliet Arsenal designed the guns and built the barrels. Initially, most of the guns were mounted on disappearing carriages, within a few years, it was realized that operating the disappearing carriage negatively impacted the rate of fire, and the M1900 low-profile pedestal mount was designed. On the outbreak of the Spanish–American War in 1898 most of the Endicott fortifications were still under construction. To quickly arm some works a few weapons were purchased from the United Kingdom including nine 6-inch Armstrong guns and these appear to have been withdrawn from service by 1925. After the American entry into World War I, the Army recognized the need for guns for use on the Western Front. The Coast Artillery operated all US Army heavy artillery in that war, due to their experience, however, due to the Armistice, none of these regiments completed training in time to see action. By this time, pedestal mounts for 6-inch guns were known to be superior to disappearing mounts, thus, most disappearing guns were dismounted for use as field guns, while most of the few pedestal guns dismounted were returned to the forts soon after the war. The removed 6-inch disappearing guns were stored and many were returned to service in World War II, the Army weapons removed included up to 18 M1900 guns and 74 M1903 and M1905 guns based on carriages ordered. One source states that four M1900 guns and 68 M1903/M1905 guns arrived in France, an additional 46 6-inch guns of other types were provided by the Navy and 30 ex-Navy guns from arms dealer Francis Bannerman, a few of these were possibly delivered to France before the Armistice. These included Navy guns Marks 2 through 6, of 30,40,45, all of the Bannerman guns were 30 calibers long, the number of guns of other lengths is unclear. Sources state that all Navy guns were cut down to 30 calibers barrel length in an attempt to standardize ballistics, as that was the length of the shortest Navy guns. Thirty-seven M1917B carriages were ordered for the Navy guns, with a view to having a spare tube for each carriage, it is unclear how many were produced, or if any were delivered to France. Some of the Army weapons were returned to coast defenses after the war, one survives on a field carriage in the collection of the U. S. Army Ordnance Training and Heritage Center, Fort Lee, Virginia
3. 8-inch M1888 – The 8-inch Gun M1888 was a U. S. Army Coast Artillery Corps gun, initially deployed 1898-1908 in about 75 fixed emplacements, usually on a disappearing carriage. The M18888 in gun was an artillery gun initially deployed as part of the Endicott system of fortifications. An emergency converted Rodman carriage was used during the Spanish–American War in 1898 to quickly arm 21 emplacements with the modern 8-inch M1888 gun. These weapons were redeployed soon after the war ended, air and high-angle artillery attack would eventually severely impact US fortifications in the Philippines in World War II. After the American entry into World War I, the United States needed a heavy artillery piece that could be transported easily. The quick solution was to take the existing 8-inch coast artillery guns from the fixed mountings or from storage and this was also done with a number of other weapons, including 10 in guns,12 in guns, and 12-inch mortars. The 7 in guns, 8-inch guns, and 12-inch mortars used a carriage, with a depressed center. The bogies were interchangeable for standard gauge or 60 cm gauge track, outriggers and a rotating mount allowed all-around fire. This allowed the weapons to be used in coast defense against moving targets, a detailed description of the railway mounting is given in Railway Artillery, Vol. I by Lt. Col. H. W. Miller, a total of 96 8-inch guns were considered available for railway mounting, and 47 were ordered to be mounted on railcars. Twenty-four were produced before the Armistice, and three of these had been shipped to France by that time and these three were the only US Army railway guns shipped to France in World War I, although five US Navy 14/50 caliber railway guns saw action. All of the 47 ordered were completed by the end of 1919, unlike almost all other US railway weapons, the 8-inch guns were widely deployed in the inter-war years, and by 1942 were augmented by 32 ex-Navy Mark VI guns. Approximately twelve M1888 guns were deployed for the defense of Oahu, others were stationed for the coastal defense of Manila, eventually one each on Corregidor and Bataan, Bermuda, Puget Sound, Chesapeake Bay, Delaware Bay, and Fort Hancock, New Jersey. An anecdotal account of the 8-inch M1888 railway guns in the Philippines in 1941-42 states that eight guns were shipped to Manila in late 1940, initially, difficulties were encountered because the railway carriages were 36-inch gauge and the Philippines used a 42-inch gauge. In late December 1941 all eight guns were sent north in one train to oppose the Japanese landings at Lingayen Gulf, the remaining two guns were eventually shipped to Corregidor by early March 1942, where they were mounted on improvised pedestal mounts. The account states that the one gun that information is available on fired only five proof rounds, One reference states that the other gun was mounted near Bagac, Bataan. The following sighting equipment was used with the gun, plant Museum, Tampa, FL One 8-inch gun M1888MII, Bethlehem #8, Bottomside, Fort Mills, Corregidor Island, Philippines 8-inch Mk. American Seacoast Defenses, A Reference Guide, Second Edition, Seacoast Fortifications of the United States
4. 10-inch gun M1895 – The 10-inch Gun M1895 and its variants the M1888 and M1900 were large coastal artillery pieces installed to defend major American seaports between 1895 and 1945. For most of their history they were operated by the United States Army Coast Artillery Corps, most were installed on disappearing carriages, with early installations on barbette mountings. All of the not in the Philippines were scrapped during World War II. Two of the weapons were relocated from the Philippines to Fort Casey in Washington state in the 1960s. Endicott, President Grover Clevelands Secretary of War, was tasked with creating the Board of Fortifications to review seacoast defenses, most of the Boards recommendations were implemented. Coast Artillery fortifications built between 1885 and 1905 are often referred to as Endicott Period fortifications, the Watervliet Arsenal designed the gun and built the barrels. A few of the first guns were mounted on low-angle M1893 barbette carriages, after the Spanish–American War, the government wanted to protect American seaports in the event of war, and also protect newly gained territory, such as the Philippines and Cuba, from enemy attack. A new Board of Fortifications, under President Theodore Roosevelts Secretary of War William Taft, was convened in 1905, Taft recommended technical changes, such as more searchlights, electrification, and in some cases less guns in particular fortifications. The seacoast forts were funded under the Spooner Act of 1902 and construction began within a few years, the defenses of the Philippines on islands in Manila Bay and Subic Bay were built under this program. After the American entry into World War I, the Army recognized the need for railway guns for use on the Western Front. Among the weapons available for this were 129 10-inch guns, to be removed from fixed defenses or taken from spares, a detailed description of the railway mounting is given in Railway Artillery, Vol. I by Lt. Col. H. W. Miller, probably all guns were returned to coastal defenses and all mountings scrapped after the war. In 1941 eight M1888 guns were sent to Canada under Lend-Lease for use in coast defenses there, two of the Fort Mott disappearing guns were deployed at Fort Cape Spear, St. Johns, Newfoundland and remain there. The remaining disappearing gun from Fort Mott and one gun from Fort Flagler were deployed at Fort Prevel on the Gaspé Peninsula in Quebec. Two of the guns from Fort Worden were deployed to Fort McNutt on McNutts Island, Nova Scotia and remain there. The remaining two guns from Forts Flagler and Worden were deployed at Wisemans Cove, Botwood, Newfoundland. Along with other coast artillery weapons, some of the 10-inch guns in the Philippines saw action in the Japanese invasion in World War II. Since they were positioned against an attack, they were poorly sited to engage the Japanese
5. 12-inch gun M1895 – The 12-inch coastal defense gun M1895 and its variants the M1888 and M1900 were large coastal artillery pieces installed to defend major American seaports between 1895 and 1945. For most of their history they were operated by the United States Army Coast Artillery Corps, most were installed on disappearing carriages, with early installations on low-angle barbette mountings. From 1919,19 long-range two-gun batteries were using the M1895 on an M1917 long-range barbette carriage. Almost all of the not in the Philippines were scrapped during. Endicott, President Grover Clevelands secretary of war, was tasked with creating the Board of Fortifications to review seacoast defenses, most of the boards recommendations were implemented. Coast artillery fortifications built between 1885 and 1905 are often referred to as Endicott Period fortifications, watervliet Arsenal designed the gun and built the barrels. For several years, difficulties were encountered in building a disappearing carriage for the 12-inch gun, one alternative was the M1891 gun lift carriage, with the gun mounted on a large steam-powered elevator. Only one battery of this type was built, Battery Potter at Fort Hancock, when this proved to be too complex, guns were mounted on low-angle M1892 or M1897 barbette carriages. The M1897 carriage was actually an altered gun lift carriage, functionally equivalent to the barbette carriage, bethlehem later built barrels as well. After the Spanish–American War, the government wanted to protect American seaports in the event of war, a new Board of Fortifications, under President Theodore Roosevelts secretary of war, William Taft, was convened in 1905. Taft recommended technical changes, such as more searchlights, electrification, the seacoast forts were funded under the Spooner Act of 1902 and construction began within a few years and lasted into the 1920s. The defenses of the Philippines on islands in Manila Bay were built under this program, after the American entry into World War I, the army recognized the need for large-caliber railway guns for use on the Western Front. Among the weapons available were 45 12-inch guns, to be removed from fixed defenses or taken from spares, at least 12 were mounted on railway carriages by mid-1919, it is unclear how many more were eventually mounted. A detailed description of the mounting is given in Railway Artillery. I by Lt. Col. H. W. Miller, like almost all US-made railway guns of World War I, these never left the US. Also during World War I, it was recognized that naval guns were rapidly improving and this increased the range from 18,400 yards to 30,100 yards. These batteries were mostly in the continental United States, with the two batteries on Corregidor in the Philippines. The guns were originally in open mounts, but most were later casemated against air attack, the batteries in the Philippines, however, were not casemated, as the 1923 Washington Naval Treaty prohibited further fortification of US and Japanese Pacific-area possessions
6. 14-inch gun M1907 – The 14-inch Gun M1907 and its variants the M1907MI, M1909, and M1910 were large coastal artillery pieces installed to defend major American seaports between 1895 and 1945. They were operated by the United States Army Coast Artillery Corps, most were installed on disappearing carriages, with four guns in twin turrets at the unique Fort Drum in Manila Bay, Philippines. All of the not in the Philippines were scrapped during World War II. Endicott, President Grover Clevelands Secretary of War, was tasked with creating the Board of Fortifications to review seacoast defenses, most of the Boards recommendations were implemented. Coast Artillery fortifications built between 1885 and 1905 are often referred to as Endicott period fortifications. After the Spanish–American War, the government wanted to protect American seaports in the event of war, a new Board of Fortifications, under President Theodore Roosevelts Secretary of War William Taft, was convened in 1905. Taft recommended technical changes, such as more searchlights, electrification, the seacoast forts were funded under the Spooner Act of 1902 and construction began within a few years and lasted into the 1920s. The defenses of the Philippines on islands in Manila Bay were built under this program, 14-inch guns were emplaced in the harbor defenses of Los Angeles, the Panama Canal, Honolulu, Hawaii, and Manila Bay, Philippines, all constructed under the Taft program. Except for Fort Drum, the guns were on disappearing carriages, the M1907 was a wire-wound gun 34 calibers long. The M1907MI was a gun of the same length. Twelve were deployed, all on M1907 disappearing carriages, four were in Hawaii and eight were in the Panama Canal Zone. The M1909 was a wire-wound gun 40 calibers long designed specifically for the turrets of Fort Drum on El Fraile Island in Manila Bay, an unusual design feature was that it was made without trunnions. The turrets were made by Newport News Shipbuilding, Fort Drum was built by razing the small island down to the water and building a massive concrete fort on it. The fort had four 14-inch M1909 guns in two twin M1909 turrets, with four 6-inch M1908 guns in casemates on the sides, despite holding out against Japanese bombardment, the fort was surrendered after destroying the guns along with Corregidor on 6 May 1942. It was recaptured by US Army Rangers on a modified Navy landing ship in April 1945, the M1910 was a wire-wound gun 40 calibers long. Eight were deployed, all on M1907 disappearing carriages, locations included Fort Frank and Fort Hughes in Manila Bay as well as Fort MacArthur, San Pedro, Los Angeles, CA. Along with other coast artillery weapons, the 14-inch guns in the Philippines saw action in the Japanese invasion in World War II, destruction procedures were executed on all the guns prior to the surrender of US forces on 6 May 1942. In 1940–44, 16-inch gun batteries were constructed at most harbor defenses, six 14-inch guns of this type remain in the Philippines
7. 16"/50 caliber M1919 gun – The 16 inch Gun M1919 was a large coastal artillery piece installed to defend the United States major seaports between 1920 and 1946. It was operated by the United States Army Coast Artillery Corps, the first US 16-inch gun started construction in 1895 at Watervliet Arsenal. It was known as the M1895 and completed in 1902, only one was built and it was mounted on a disappearing carriage in Fort Grant on the Pacific side of the Panama Canal Zone in 1914, where it served until scrapped in 1943. The weapons muzzle section was displayed at the Watervliet Arsenal museum, the second 16-inch gun was the United States Army 50 caliber Model 1919. The first of these was deployed to Fort Michie, Great Gull Island, an additional six of the Army-designed M1919 guns were built and deployed by 1927 in two-gun batteries on barbette carriages in the harbor defenses of Boston, New York City, and Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The 16-inch gun M1919 was built using the method, common in Europe. Initially,20 guns were transferred to the Army, which built a new version of the M1919 mount for the naval guns. With funding lacking until 1940, five batteries of two each were built 1924-40 in the harbor defenses of Pearl Harbor, Panama. A second battery of 16-inch guns at Fort Greene, Battery 109, had suspended in 1943. These batteries were placed such that not only protected Narraganset Bay, but interdicted the main channels into Buzzards Bay. By late 1943, the threat of an attack on the United States had diminished. As 16-inch guns and a companion improved 6-inch gun were emplaced, about 21 16-inch gun batteries were completed 1941-44, but not all of these were armed. With the war over in 1945, most of the remaining coast defense guns, the gun fired a 2,340 lb. projectile to a range of 26 miles. The estimated cost of the gun and barbette was $520,000 in 1938, the new M1 Gun Data Computer was used in directing these guns. 16/50 caliber Mark 2 gun, similar US Navy gun also deployed for coast defense List of the largest cannon by caliber Seacoast defense in the United States Berhow, american Seacoast Defenses, A Reference Guide, Third Edition. U. S. Battleships, An Illustrated Design History, annapolis, Maryland, United States Naval Institute. Seacoast Fortifications of the United States
8. 16-inch gun M1895 – The 16-inch coastal defense gun M1895 was a large artillery piece installed to defend major American seaports. Only one was built and it was installed in Fort Grant on the Pacific side of the Panama Canal Zone and it was operated by the United States Army Coast Artillery Corps. Under President Grover Clevelands administration in 1885, the Board of Fortifications under William C, Endicott was ordered to investigate the value and state of the United States coastal defenses. Endicott found that America had fallen behind and that new technology made many forts. The 1886 report recommended a $127-million construction program of breech-loading cannons, mortars, floating batteries, New fortifications built in the following decades as a result of this report were called Endicott Period fortifications. Finding a need for long range weaponry, the United States Army Coast Artillery Corps ordered a 16-inch gun, the massive artillery piece was designated the M1895 and was completed in 1902, only one was built. At 284,000 pounds it weighed more than any gun that had ever been created up to that point, the 32-wheel train car alone weighed 192,420 pounds. The 56-foot long gun could launch a 2, 400-pound shell 21 miles, the weapon was shipped from the Watervliet Arsenal to Watertown Arsenal in Watertown, Massachusetts to be packed for shipment to the Panama Canal Zone. It was installed on an M1912 disappearing carriage in Fort Grant on the Pacific side of the canal in 1915, the muzzle section was later preserved and displayed at the Watervliet Arsenal museum, which closed in 2013. The new 16 inch Coastal cannon of the United States of America, American Seacoast Defenses, A Reference Guide, Third Edition. Plans dropped for revamped Watervliet Arsenal Museum, description of 8,10,12,14, and 16-inch Seacoast Guns. Largest Single Piece of Ordance ever made Being Shipped By Uncle Sam To Protect Panama Canal, archived from the original on 2015. Archived from the original on 2009-05-06, archived from the original on 2015. Description of Seacoast Guns 8,10,12,14, 16-inch FortWiki FortWiki gun type list Coast Defense Study Group
9. BL 6 inch gun Mk V – The BL6 inch gun Mk V was an early Elswick Ordnance Company breech-loading naval gun originally designed to use the old gunpowder propellants. They were used for coast defence around the British Empire, the gun was of a complex all-steel built-up construction, of a steel A-tube surrounded by multiple steel hoops, breech-piece and jacket. Several were acquired by the British government for coast defence in the UK and were given the designation 6-inch gun Mark V, the breech fittings and firing mechanism were modified in British service to standardize them with the British service guns, Mark IV and VI. The breech-screw was locked by turning to the left, unlike standard service guns made by the Royal Gun Factory, rifling consisted of 28 grooves of the polygroove Elswick section type, increasing from 0 to 1 turn in 30 calibres at the muzzle. They were also exported for use as coast-defence guns in Hong Kong, New Zealand, Australian colonies and Siam,2 of the resulting QFC guns are known to have been still in commission until 1945, in the Princess Royal Fortress defending the port of Albany, Western Australia. List of coastal artillery 7 disappearing guns at Chulachomklao Fort, Bangkok, see File, Armstrong cannon, Chulachomklao fort. jpg A Mk V gun on reproduction disappearing mount at Fort Lytton, near Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. See also Mk V disappearing gun restored in 1998 at Taiaroa Head, Dunedin, Armstrong Mk V gun, North Shore, Auckland New Zealand. Formerly at Fort Bastion An unrestored Mk V disappearing gun at Fort Jervois, Ripapa Island, LONDON, PRINTED FOR HIS MAJESTYS STATIONERY OFFICE, BY HARRISON AND SONS, ST. MARTINS LANE Treatise on the Construction and Manufacture of Ordnance in the British Service, War Office, LONDON, PRINTED FOR HIS MAJESTYS STATIONERY OFFICE, BY HARRISON AND SONS, ST. MARTINS LANE Handbook for the 6 inch B
10. Russian battleship Ekaterina II – Ekaterina II was the lead ship of the Ekaterina II-class pre-dreadnought battleships built for the Imperial Russian Navy in the 1880s. Her crew was considered unreliable when the crew of the battleship Potemkin mutinied in June 1905 and she was turned over to the Sevastopol port authorities before being stricken on 14 August 1907. She was re-designated as Stricken Vessel Nr.3 on 22 April 1912 before being sunk as a target for the Black Sea Fleet. Ekaterina II was 331 feet 8.5 inches long at the waterline and 339 feet 3 inches long overall and she had a beam of 68 feet 11 inches and a draft of 27 feet 11 inches,24 inches more than designed. Her displacement was 11,050 long tons at load, almost 900 long tons more than her designed displacement of 10,181 long tons, Ekaterina II had two 3-cylinder vertical compound steam engines built by the Baltic Works. Fourteen cylindrical boilers, also built by the Baltic Works, provided steam to the engines, the engines had a total designed output of 9,000 indicated horsepower, but they produced 9,101 ihp on trials and gave a top speed of 15.25 knots. At full load she carried 900 long tons of coal that provided her a range of 2,800 nautical miles at a speed of 10 knots and 1,367 nautical miles at 14.5 knots, Ekaterina II differed from her sisters mainly in her 12-inch gun mounts. Her guns used bulky, hydraulically powered Moncrieff disappearing gun mounts and they had a rate of fire of five minutes, ten seconds between aimed rounds. Each of the mounts could traverse 30° across the bow and 35° abaft the beam. Sixty rounds per gun were carried, the main guns were mounted very low, above the main deck, and caused extensive damage to the deck when fired over the bow or stern. The seven 6-inch Obukhov Model 1877 35-calibre guns were mounted on pivot mounts in hull embrasures. Four 37-millimeter five-barrelled revolving Hotchkiss guns were mounted in the fighting top, Ekaterina II was named after the Empress Catherine II of Russia. She was the one of her class to be built by the Nikolayev Admiralty Dockyard at Nikolaev. The ship was laid down on 26 June 1883, launched on 20 May 1886 and she ran her first trials in 1888, after she had been transferred to Sevastopol to be fitted out, and spent her career with the Black Sea Fleet. Her machinery was upgraded between mid-1898 and 1902 and her boilers were replaced with eighteen Belleville water-tube boilers and her engines were converted to triple expansion. On trials after the refit she made 9,978 ihp and her crew was considered sympathetic to the revolutionary movement when the crew of the battleship Potemkin mutinied in June 1905 and her engines were disabled to prevent her from joining Potemkin. She was turned over to the Sevastopol port authorities before being stricken on 14 August 1907 and she was re-designated as Stricken Vessel Nr.3 on 22 April 1912 before being sunk as a torpedo target. The remnants of the ship were salvaged in 1914 in Nikolaev, red Mutiny, Eleven Fateful Days on the Battleship Potemkin
11. RML 11 inch 25 ton gun – RML11 inch 25 ton guns were large rifled muzzle-loading guns used as primary armament on British battleships and for coastal defence. They were effectively the same gun as the RML12 inch 25 ton gun, Mark I was introduced in 1867. Mark II was introduced in 1871 using the simpler and cheaper Fraser gun construction method which had proved successful with the RML9 inch 12 ton Mk IV gun, guns were mounted on, HMS Alexandra, commissioned 1877. When the gun was first introduced projectiles had several rows of studs which engaged with the rifling to impart spin. Sometime after 1878, attached gas-checks were fitted to the bases of the shells, reducing wear on the guns and improving their range. Subsequently automatic gas-checks were developed which could rotate shells, allowing the deployment of a new range of studless ammunition, thus, any particular gun potentially operated with a mix of studded and studless ammunition. Shrapnel and Common shells weighed 532 -536 pounds and were fired with a Full charge of 60 pounds P or 50 pounds R. L. G. List of naval guns A Mark II gun at Fort Nelson, Portsmouth, UK Two at Fort George, Bermuda, war Office, UK,1877 Treatise on the Construction and Manufacture of Ordnance in the British service. War Office, UK,1877 Treatise on the Construction and Manufacture of Ordnance in the British Service, war Office, UK,1879 Text Book of Gunnery,1887. LONDON, PRINTED FOR HIS MAJESTYS STATIONERY OFFICE, BY HARRISON AND SONS, MARTINS LANE 11inch or 12inch R. M. L. of 25tons on C Pivot Mark I
12. HMS Temeraire (1876) – She was built at Chatham, on a slipway adjoining that on which HMS Alexandra, who would precede her into service by some seven months, was being built. Indeed, she was the first British ship with barbettes of any kind, the foremost barbette was located ahead of the foremast, and had a field of fire ahead, extending to well abaft the beam on both sides. To achieve the degree of freedom of fire from the after barbette the mizzen mast was deleted. Temeraire and Alexandra were the only British battleships ever to carry guns of 11-inch calibre, the design of the barbettes was itself unique, being one of the few ships to have been equipped with disappearing guns. On firing, the recoil of the gun caused it to drop below deck level, after loading, the gun was rotated by a hydraulic system back into the firing position. While this system was effective, it was slow and expensive and was never repeated, the suppression of the mizzen mast resulted in Temeraire being the largest ship ever to sail with brig rig, that is, with sail carried on only two masts. She was known during her life as the Great Brig and she was commissioned at Chatham in 1877 for service in the Mediterranean, where she spent the next fourteen years with the exception of the winter of 1887-1888, when she was with the Channel Fleet. She was with Admiral Geoffrey Hornby through the Dardanelles in 1878, after recommissioning at Malta in 1881 she was present at the bombardment of Alexandria, firing 136 11-inch shells and 84 10-inch. Captain Compton Domvile was in command 1884-87, when she served on the Mediterranean Station and she paid off at Portsmouth in 1887, and then returned to the Mediterranean for her final three years of active service. She was paid off at Devonport in 1891 and she was in the Reserve Fleet until 1893, when she was downgraded to Fleet Reserve. She was dockyard Reserve in 1901, and in January the following year it was announced that she would be removed from the effective list of navy ships. Captain Arthur William Edward Prothero was appointed in command on 16 July 1902, in 1904 she became part of the Indus stoker training establishment, and was renamed Indus II. In 1915, under the new name of Akbar, she was transferred to Liverpool as a reformatory ship, during the First World War she served as a depot ship, and was finally sold 26 May 1921. Oscar Parkes British Battleships ISBN 0-85052-604-3 Roger Chesneau and Eugene M. Kolesnik, ed. Conways All The Worlds Fighting Ships 1860-1905, ISBN 0-85177-133-5 Dittmar F. J. & Colledge J. J