Category:Discoverers of chemical elements
Pages in category "Discoverers of chemical elements"
The following 102 pages are in this category, out of 102 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 102 pages are in this category, out of 102 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Chemist – A chemist is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry. Chemists study the composition of matter and its properties, chemists carefully describe the properties they study in terms of quantities, with detail on the level of molecules and their component atoms. Chemists carefully measure substance proportions, reaction rates, and other chemical properties, the word chemist is also used to address Pharmacists in Commonwealth English. Chemists may specialize in any number of subdisciplines of chemistry, materials scientists and metallurgists share much of the same education and skills with chemists. The roots of chemistry can be traced to the phenomenon of burning, fire was a mystical force that transformed one substance into another and thus was of primary interest to mankind. It was fire that led to the discovery of iron and glasses, after gold was discovered and became a precious metal, many people were interested to find a method that could convert other substances into gold. This led to the protoscience called alchemy, the word chemist is derived from the New Latin noun chimista, an abbreviation of alchimista. Alchemists discovered many chemical processes that led to the development of modern chemistry, Chemistry as we know it today, was invented by Antoine Lavoisier with his law of conservation of mass in 1783. The discoveries of the elements has a long history culminating in the creation of the periodic table by Dmitri Mendeleev. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry created in 1901 gives an excellent overview of chemical discovery since the start of the 20th century. Jobs for chemists usually require at least a degree, but many positions, especially those in research. At the Masters level and higher, students tend to specialize in a particular field, postdoctoral experience may be required for certain positions. Workers whose work involves chemistry, but not at a complexity requiring an education with a degree, are commonly referred to as chemical technicians. Such technicians commonly do such work as simpler, routine analyses for quality control or in clinical laboratories, there are also degrees specific to become a Chemical Technologist, which are somewhat distinct from those required when a student is interested in becoming a professional Chemist. A Chemical technologist is more involved in the management and operation of the equipment and they are part of the team of a chemical laboratory in which the quality of the raw material, intermediate products and finished products is analyzed. They also perform functions in the areas of quality control. The higher the level achieved in the field of Chemistry, the higher the responsibility given to that chemist. Chemistry, as a field, have so many applications that different tasks/objectives can be given to workers/scientists with these different levels of education and/or experience
2. Chemical element – A chemical element or element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei. There are 118 elements that have identified, of which the first 94 occur naturally on Earth with the remaining 24 being synthetic elements. There are 80 elements that have at least one stable isotope and 38 that have exclusively radioactive isotopes, iron is the most abundant element making up Earth, while oxygen is the most common element in the Earths crust. Chemical elements constitute all of the matter of the universe. The two lightest elements, hydrogen and helium, were formed in the Big Bang and are the most common elements in the universe. The next three elements were formed mostly by cosmic ray spallation, and are rarer than those that follow. Formation of elements with from 6 to 26 protons occurred and continues to occur in main sequence stars via stellar nucleosynthesis, the high abundance of oxygen, silicon, and iron on Earth reflects their common production in such stars. The term element is used for atoms with a number of protons as well as for a pure chemical substance consisting of a single element. A single element can form multiple substances differing in their structure, when different elements are chemically combined, with the atoms held together by chemical bonds, they form chemical compounds. Only a minority of elements are found uncombined as relatively pure minerals, among the more common of such native elements are copper, silver, gold, carbon, and sulfur. All but a few of the most inert elements, such as gases and noble metals, are usually found on Earth in chemically combined form. While about 32 of the elements occur on Earth in native uncombined forms. For example, atmospheric air is primarily a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon, the history of the discovery and use of the elements began with primitive human societies that found native elements like carbon, sulfur, copper and gold. Later civilizations extracted elemental copper, tin, lead and iron from their ores by smelting, using charcoal, alchemists and chemists subsequently identified many more, almost all of the naturally occurring elements were known by 1900. Save for unstable radioactive elements with short half-lives, all of the elements are available industrially, almost all other elements found in nature were made by various natural methods of nucleosynthesis. On Earth, small amounts of new atoms are produced in nucleogenic reactions, or in cosmogenic processes. Of the 94 naturally occurring elements, those with atomic numbers 1 through 82 each have at least one stable isotope, Isotopes considered stable are those for which no radioactive decay has yet been observed. Elements with atomic numbers 83 through 94 are unstable to the point that radioactive decay of all isotopes can be detected, the very heaviest elements undergo radioactive decay with half-lives so short that they are not found in nature and must be synthesized
3. Albertus Magnus – Albertus Magnus, O. P. also known as Saint Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, was a German Dominican friar and Catholic bishop. Later canonised as a Catholic saint, he was known during his lifetime as doctor universalis and doctor expertus and, late in his life, the term magnus was appended to his name. Scholars such as James A. Weisheipl and Joachim R. Söder have referred to him as the greatest German philosopher, the Catholic Church distinguishes him as one of the 36 Doctors of the Church. It seems likely that Albert was born sometime before 1200, given well-attested evidence that he was aged over 80 on his death in 1280. More than one source says that Albert was 87 on his death, Albert was probably born in Lauingen, since he called himself Albert of Lauingen, but this might simply be a family name. Most probably his family was of class, his familiar connection with Bollstädt noble family was a 15th-century misinterpretation that is now completely disproved. Albert was probably educated principally at the University of Padua, where he received instruction in Aristotles writings, a late account by Rudolph de Novamagia refers to Albertus encounter with the Blessed Virgin Mary, who convinced him to enter Holy Orders. In 1223 he became a member of the Dominican Order, and studied theology at Bologna and elsewhere. Selected to fill the position of lecturer at Cologne, Germany, where the Dominicans had a house, he taught for years there, as well as in Regensburg, Freiburg, Strasbourg. During his first tenure as lecturer at Cologne, Albert wrote his Summa de bono after discussion with Philip the Chancellor concerning the properties of being. In 1245, Albert became master of theology under Gueric of Saint-Quentin, following this turn of events, Albert was able to teach theology at the University of Paris as a full-time professor, holding the seat of the Chair of Theology at the College of St. James. During this time Thomas Aquinas began to study under Albertus, Albert was the first to comment on virtually all of the writings of Aristotle, thus making them accessible to wider academic debate. The study of Aristotle brought him to study and comment on the teachings of Muslim academics, notably Avicenna and Averroes, in 1254 Albert was made provincial of the Dominican Order, and fulfilled the duties of the office with great care and efficiency. During the exercise of his duties he enhanced his reputation for humility by refusing to ride a horse, in accord with the dictates of the Order and this earned him the affectionate sobriquet boots the bishop from his parishioners. In 1263 Pope Urban IV relieved him of the duties of bishop, after this, he was especially known for acting as a mediator between conflicting parties. Among the last of his labors was the defense of the orthodoxy of his pupil, Thomas Aquinas. After suffering a collapse of health in 1278, he died on November 15,1280, in the Dominican convent in Cologne, since November 15,1954, his relics are in a Roman sarcophagus in the crypt of the Dominican St. Andreas Church in Cologne. Although his body was discovered to be incorrupt at the first exhumation three years after his death, at the exhumation in 1483 only a skeleton remained
4. Robert Boyle – Robert William Boyle FRS was an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist and inventor born in Lismore, County Waterford, Ireland. Boyle is largely regarded today as the first modern chemist, and therefore one of the founders of modern chemistry, and one of the pioneers of modern experimental scientific method. He is best known for Boyles law, which describes the proportional relationship between the absolute pressure and volume of a gas, if the temperature is kept constant within a closed system. Among his works, The Sceptical Chymist is seen as a book in the field of chemistry. He was a devout and pious Anglican and is noted for his writings in theology, Boyle was born in Lismore Castle, in County Waterford, Ireland, the seventh son and fourteenth child of Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Cork, and Catherine Fenton. Richard Boyle arrived in Dublin from England in 1588 during the Tudor plantations of Ireland and he had amassed enormous landholdings by the time Robert was born. As a child, Boyle was fostered to a local family, Boyle received private tutoring in Latin, Greek, and French and when he was eight years old, following the death of his mother, he was sent to Eton College in England. His fathers friend, Sir Henry Wotton, was then the provost of the college, during this time, his father hired a private tutor, Robert Carew, who had knowledge of Irish, to act as private tutor to his sons in Eton. After spending over three years at Eton, Robert travelled abroad with a French tutor and they visited Italy in 1641 and remained in Florence during the winter of that year studying the paradoxes of the great star-gazer Galileo Galilei, who was elderly but still living in 1641. Boyle returned to England from continental Europe in mid-1644 with a keen interest in scientific research and his father had died the previous year and had left him the manor of Stalbridge in Dorset, England and substantial estates in County Limerick in Ireland that he had acquired. They met frequently in London, often at Gresham College, having made several visits to his Irish estates beginning in 1647, Robert moved to Ireland in 1652 but became frustrated at his inability to make progress in his chemical work. In one letter, he described Ireland as a country where chemical spirits were so misunderstood. In 1654, Boyle left Ireland for Oxford to pursue his work more successfully, an inscription can be found on the wall of University College, Oxford the High Street at Oxford, marking the spot where Cross Hall stood until the early 19th century. It was here that Boyle rented rooms from the apothecary who owned the Hall. An account of Boyles work with the air pump was published in 1660 under the title New Experiments Physico-Mechanical, Touching the Spring of the Air, the person who originally formulated the hypothesis was Henry Power in 1661. Boyle in 1662 included a reference to a written by Power. In continental Europe the hypothesis is attributed to Edme Mariotte. In 1680 he was elected president of the society, but declined the honour from a scruple about oaths and they are extraordinary because all but a few of the 24 have come true
5. Marie Curie – Marie Skłodowska Curie, born Maria Salomea Skłodowska, was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity. She was also the first woman to become a professor at the University of Paris and she was born in Warsaw, in what was then the Kingdom of Poland, part of the Russian Empire. She studied at Warsaws clandestine Floating University and began her scientific training in Warsaw. In 1891, aged 24, she followed her older sister Bronisława to study in Paris and she shared the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics with her husband Pierre Curie and with physicist Henri Becquerel. She won the 1911 Nobel Prize in Chemistry and her achievements included the development of the theory of radioactivity, techniques for isolating radioactive isotopes, and the discovery of two elements, polonium and radium. Under her direction, the worlds first studies were conducted into the treatment of neoplasms and she founded the Curie Institutes in Paris and in Warsaw, which remain major centres of medical research today. During World War I, she developed mobile radiography units to provide X-ray services to field hospitals, while a French citizen, Marie Skłodowska Curie never lost her sense of Polish identity. She taught her daughters the Polish language and took them on visits to Poland and she named the first chemical element that she discovered—polonium, which she isolated in 1898—after her native country. Maria Skłodowska was born in Warsaw, in the Russian partition of Poland, on 7 November 1867, the fifth and youngest child of well-known teachers Bronisława, née Boguska, the elder siblings of Maria were Zofia, Józef, Bronisława and Helena. On both the paternal and maternal sides, the family had lost their property and fortunes through patriotic involvements in Polish national uprisings aimed at restoring Polands independence. This condemned the subsequent generation, including Maria, her sisters and her brother. Marias paternal grandfather, Józef Skłodowski, had been a teacher in Lublin, where he taught the young Bolesław Prus. Her father, Władysław Skłodowski, taught mathematics and physics, subjects that Maria was to pursue, after Russian authorities eliminated laboratory instruction from the Polish schools, he brought much of the laboratory equipment home, and instructed his children in its use. Marias mother Bronisława operated a prestigious Warsaw boarding school for girls and she died of tuberculosis in May 1878, when Maria was ten years old. Less than three years earlier, Marias oldest sibling, Zofia, had died of typhus contracted from a boarder, Marias father was an atheist, her mother a devout Catholic. The deaths of Marias mother and sister caused her to give up Catholicism and become agnostic. When she was ten years old, Maria began attending the school of J. Sikorska, next she attended a gymnasium for girls. After a collapse, possibly due to depression, she spent the year in the countryside with relatives of her father, and the next year with her father in Warsaw
6. Pierre Curie – Pierre Curie was a French physicist, a pioneer in crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity. Born in Paris on 15 May 1859, Pierre was the son of Eugène Curie and he was educated by his father, a doctor, and in his early teens showed a strong aptitude for mathematics and geometry. When he was 16, he earned his math degree, by the age of 18 he had completed the equivalent of a higher degree, but did not proceed immediately to a doctorate due to lack of money. Instead he worked as a laboratory instructor, in 1880, Pierre and his older brother Jacques demonstrated that an electric potential was generated when crystals were compressed, i. e. piezoelectricity. To provide accurate measurements needed for their work, Pierre created a highly sensitive instrument called the Curie Scale and he used weights, microscopic meter readers, and pneumatic dampeners to create the scale. Also, to aid their work, they invented the Piezoelectric Quartz Electrometer, shortly afterwards, in 1881, they demonstrated the reverse effect, that crystals could be made to deform when subject to an electric field. Almost all digital electronic circuits now rely on this in the form of crystal oscillators, Pierre Curie was introduced to Maria Skłodowska by their friend, physicist Józef Wierusz-Kowalski. Pierre took Maria into his laboratory as his student and his admiration for her grew when he realized that she would not inhibit his research. He began to regard her as his muse and she refused his initial proposal, but finally agreed to marry him on 26 July 1895. It would be a thing, a thing I dare not hope, if we could spend our life near each other hypnotized by our dreams, your patriotic dream, our humanitarian dream. Pierre Curie to Marie Skłodowska Prior to his famous studies on magnetism. Variations on this equipment were used by future workers in that area. Pierre Curie studied ferromagnetism, paramagnetism, and diamagnetism for his doctoral thesis, the material constant in Curies law is known as the Curie constant. He also discovered that ferromagnetic substances exhibited a critical temperature transition and this is now known as the Curie temperature. The Curie temperature is used to plate tectonics, treat hypothermia, measure caffeine. Pierre formulated what is now known as the Curie Dissymmetry Principle, for example, a random mixture of sand in zero gravity has no dissymmetry. Introduce a gravitational field, and there is a dissymmetry because of the direction of the field, then the sand grains can self-sort with the density increasing with depth. But this new arrangement, with the arrangement of sand grains
7. Humphry Davy – He also studied the forces involved in these separations, inventing the new field of electrochemistry. Berzelius called Davys 1806 Bakerian Lecture On Some Chemical Agencies of Electricity one of the best memoirs which has ever enriched the theory of chemistry and he was a Baronet, President of the Royal Society, Member of the Royal Irish Academy, and Fellow of the Geological Society. He also invented the Davy Lamp and an early form of incandescent light bulb. Davy was born in Penzance in Cornwall in England on 17 December 1778 and his family moved to Varfell, near Ludgvan, when he was nine, and in term-time Davy boarded with John Tonkin, his mothers godfather. Davy said, I consider it fortunate I was left much to myself as a child, after Davys father died in 1794, Tonkin apprenticed him to John Bingham Borlase, a surgeon with a practice in Penzance. Davys indenture is dated 10 February 1795, in the apothecarys dispensary, Davy became a chemist, and a garret in Tonkins house was where he conducted his earliest chemical experiments. Davys friends said, This boy Humphry is incorrigible and he will blow us all into the air. His elder sister complained of the ravages made on her dresses by corrosive substances, John Ayrton Paris remarked that poetry written by the young Davy bear the stamp of lofty genius. Davys first preserved poem entitled The Sons of Genius is dated 1795, other poems written in the following years, especially On the Mounts Bay and St Michaels Mount, are descriptive verses, showing sensibility but no true poetic imagination. Three of Davys paintings from around 1796 have been donated to the Penlee House museum at Penzance, one is of the view from above Gulval showing the church, Mounts Bay and the Mount, while the other two depict Loch Lomond in Scotland. While writing verses at the age of 17 in honour of his first love, he was discussing the question of the materiality of heat with his Quaker friend. Dunkin remarked, I tell thee what, Humphry, thou art the most quibbling hand at a dispute I ever met with in my life and it was a crude form of analogous experiment exhibited by Davy in the lecture-room of the Royal Institution that elicited considerable attention. As professor at the Royal Institution, Davy repeated many of the experiments he learned from his friend and mentor. Davies Giddy met Davy in Penzance carelessly swinging on the half-gate of Dr Borlases house and this led to an introduction to Dr Edwards, who lived at Hayle Copper House. Edwards was a lecturer in chemistry in the school of St. Bartholomews Hospital, galvanic corrosion was not understood at that time, but the phenomenon prepared Davys mind for subsequent experiments on ships copper sheathing. Gregory Watt, son of James Watt, visited Penzance for his healths sake, Davy was acquainted with the Wedgwood family, who spent a winter at Penzance. Thomas Beddoes and John Hailstone were engaged in a controversy on the rival merits of the Plutonian. They travelled together to examine the Cornish coast accompanied by Davies Gilbert, Beddoes, who had established at Bristol a Pneumatic Institution, needed an assistant to superintend the laboratory
8. Otto Hahn – Otto Hahn, OBE, ForMemRS was a German chemist and pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry. He was exclusively awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1944 for the discovery and he is referred to as the father of nuclear chemistry. Hahn was an opponent of socialism and Jewish persecution by the Nazi Party. Albert Einstein wrote that Hahn was one of the few who stood upright. After World War II, Hahn became a campaigner against the use of nuclear energy as a weapon. He served as the last President of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society in 1946, considered by many to be a model for scholarly excellence and personal integrity, he became one of the most influential and respected citizens of the new Federal Republic of Germany. Hahn was the youngest son of Heinrich Hahn, a glazier and entrepreneur. Together with his brothers Karl, Heiner and Julius, Otto was raised in a sheltered environment, at the age of 15, he began to take a special interest in chemistry, and carried out simple experiments in the laundry room of the family home. His father wanted Otto to study architecture, as he had built or acquired several residential and business properties, in 1897, after taking his Abitur at the Klinger Oberrealschule in Frankfurt, Hahn began to study chemistry and mineralogy at the University of Marburg. His subsidiary subjects were physics and philosophy, Hahn joined the Students Association of Natural Sciences and Medicine, a student fraternity and a forerunner of todays Landsmannschaft Nibelungia. He spent his third and fourth semester studying under Adolf von Baeyer at the University of Munich, in 1901, Hahn received his doctorate in Marburg for a dissertation entitled On Bromine Derivates of Isoeugenol, a topic in classical organic chemistry. Hahns intention had been to work in industry, with this in mind, and also to improve his knowledge of English, he took up a post at University College London in 1904, working under Sir William Ramsay, known for having discovered the inert gases. Here Hahn worked on radiochemistry, at time a very new field. In early 1905, in the course of his work with salts of radium, Hahn discovered a new substance he called radiothorium, Ramsay was very enthused when yet another new element was found in his institute, and he intended to announce the discovery in a correspondingly suitable way. In accordance with tradition this should be done before the committee of the venerable Royal Society, at the session of the Royal Society on the 16 March 1905 Ramsay communicated Hahns discovery of radiothorium, and even the press was interested. The Daily Telegraph informed its readers, A NEW ELEMENT - Very soon the scientific papers will be agog with a new discovery which has added to the many brilliant triumphs of Gower Street. Its activity is at least 250,000 times as great as that of thorium and it gives off a gas, identical with the radioactive emanation from thorium. - The discoverer read a paper on the subject to the Royal Society last week, and this should rank and it was the first of more than 250 scientific publications of Otto Hahn in the field of radiochemistry
9. Thomas Charles Hope – Thomas Charles Hope FRSE FRS PRCPE FFPSG was a Scottish physician and chemist. He discovered the element strontium, and gave his name to Hopes Experiment and he founded the chemical prize at the University of Edinburgh. Charles Darwin was one of Hopes students, and Darwin viewed his chemistry lectures as highlights in his otherwise largely dull education at the University. Born in Edinburgh, the son of Juliana Stevenson and surgeon and botanist Dr John Hope. He was educated next door to his house at the High School, the University of Edinburgh, at the university he was a student of Prof Joseph Black. Hope was a nephew of the physician Alexander Stevenson FRSE and he was appointed lecturer in chemistry at the University of Glasgow in 1787, and professor of medicine in 1789. In January 1788, upon the proposal of John Walker, Daniel Rutherford and Alexander Monro, in 1791-2 Hope discovered the chemical element strontium and named it after Strontian, the west highland village where he found strontianite. In the experiment that bears his name Hope determined the density of water. Hope was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1788, in 1795 Hope was selected by Joseph Black as his assistant and eventual successor to the professorship of medicine and chemistry at the University of Edinburgh. Hope’s goal was to fully combine the practice of medicine with his chemical instruction. In 1800 Hope won the annual Edinburgh Arrow archery competition, in 1804 he became a member of the Highland Society. In May 1810 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London, from 1815 to 1819 he served as President of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. Between 1824–40 Hope worked with scientists based in Poissy, France, with the towns major, Jean-François Senincourt, he tried to establish a university in the town. Within a few years their aims began to be realised as medical students crowded his lectures, in the 1830s he is listed as living at 31 Moray Place, a huge townhouse in the Moray Estate on the western edge of Edinburghs New Town. In 1843 he resigned the professorship and died in Edinburgh in 1844, an account of a mineral from Strontian, and of a peculiar species of earth which it contains. On the beads for ascertaining the specific gravity of liquid, transactions of The Highland & Agricultural Society. Hope, Thomas Charles, Rutherford, Daniel, Duncan, Andrew, Thomas Charles Hope lectures, on Chemistry. Reports on the means of improving the supply of water for the city of Edinburgh, Hope, Thomas Charles, University of Edinburgh
10. Gustav Kirchhoff – Gustav Robert Kirchhoff was a German physicist who contributed to the fundamental understanding of electrical circuits, spectroscopy, and the emission of black-body radiation by heated objects. He coined the term black body radiation in 1862, and two different sets of concepts are named Kirchhoffs laws after him, there is also a Kirchhoffs Law in thermochemistry, the Bunsen–Kirchhoff Award for spectroscopy is named after him and his colleague, Robert Bunsen. Gustav Kirchhoff was born in Königsberg, Prussia, the son of Friedrich Kirchhoff, a lawyer, in the same year, he moved to Berlin, where he stayed until he received a professorship at Breslau. Later, in 1857, He married Clara Richelot, the daughter of his mathematics professor Richelot and he married Luise Brömmel in 1872. Kirchhoff formulated his laws, which are now ubiquitous in electrical engineering, in 1845. He completed this study as an exercise, it later became his doctoral dissertation. In 1857 he calculated that a signal in a resistanceless wire travels along the wire at the speed of light. He proposed his law of radiation in 1859, and gave a proof in 1861. He was called to the University of Heidelberg in 1854, where he collaborated in work with Robert Bunsen. Together Kirchhoff and Bunsen discovered caesium and rubidium in 1861, at Heidelberg he ran a mathematico-physical seminar, modelled on Neumanns, with the mathematician Leo Koenigsberger. Among those who attended this seminar were Arthur Schuster and Sofia Kovalevskaya, in 1875 Kirchhoff accepted the first chair specifically dedicated to theoretical physics at Berlin. In 1862 he was awarded the Rumford Medal for his researches on the lines of the solar spectrum. He also contributed to optics, carefully solving Maxwells equations to provide a foundation for Huygens principle. In 1884 he became member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts. Kirchhoff died in 1887, and was buried in the St Matthäus Kirchhof Cemetery in Schöneberg, leopold Kronecker is buried in the same cemetery. Kirchhoffs first law is that the sum of currents in a network of conductors meeting at a point is zero. The second law is that in a circuit, the directed sums of the voltages in a closed system is zero. A solid, liquid, or dense gas excited to emit light will radiate at all wavelengths, a low-density gas excited to emit light will do so at specific wavelengths and this produces an emission spectrum
11. William Crookes – Sir William Crookes OM PRS was an English chemist and physicist who attended the Royal College of Chemistry in London, and worked on spectroscopy. He was a pioneer of vacuum tubes, inventing the Crookes tube which was made in 1875, Crookes was the inventor of the Crookes radiometer, which today is made and sold as a novelty item. Late in life, he interested in spiritualism, and became the president of the Society for Psychical Research. Crookes made a career of being a meteorologist and fierce lecture giver at multiple studies and courses, Crookes worked in chemistry and physics. His experiments were notable for the originality of their design and his interests, ranging over pure and applied science, economic and practical problems, and psychiatric research, made him a well-known personality. He received many public and academic honors, Crookess life was one of unbroken scientific activity. William Crookes was born in London, the eldest of 16 siblings and his father, Joseph Crookes, was a tailor of north-country origin, at that time living with his second wife, Mary Scott Lewis Rutherford Johnson. From 1850 to 1854 he filled the position of assistant in the college and it wasnt in organic chemistry which the focus of his teacher, August Wilhelm von Hofmann, might have been expected to lead him towards, but into new compounds of selenium. These were the subject of his first published papers,1851, in 1855 he was appointed lecturer in chemistry at the Chester Diocesan Training College. In 1856 he married Ellen, daughter of William Humphrey of Darlington and they had three sons and a daughter. Married and living in London, he was devoted mainly to independent work, in 1859, he founded the Chemical News, a science magazine which he edited for many years and conducted on much less formal lines than was usual for the journals of scientific societies. In 1861, Crookes discovered an unknown element with a bright green emission line in its spectrum and named the element thallium, from the Greek thallos. Crookes wrote a treatise on Select Methods in Chemical Analysis in 1871. The method of analysis, introduced by Bunsen and Kirchhoff, was received by Crookes with great enthusiasm. His first important discovery was that of the element thallium, announced in 1861, by this work his reputation became firmly established, and he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1863. He developed the Crookes tubes, investigating cathode rays and he published numerous papers on spectroscopy and conducted research on a variety of minor subjects. In his investigations of the conduction of electricity in low pressure gases, he discovered that as the pressure was lowered, as these examples indicate, he was a pioneer in the construction and use of vacuum tubes for the study of physical phenomena. He was, as a consequence, one of the first scientists to investigate what is now called a plasma and he also devised one of the first instruments for studying nuclear radioactivity, the spinthariscope
12. Jabir ibn Hayyan – Born and educated in Tus, he later traveled to Kufa. He is sometimes referred to as the father of early chemistry, as early as the 10th century, the identity and exact corpus of works of Jabir was in dispute in Islamic circles. In 988 Ibn al-Nadim compiled the Kitab al-Fihrist which mentions Jabir as a follower and as a companion to Jafar as-Sadiq. In another reference al-Nadim reports that a group of philosophers claimed Jabir was one of their own members, another group, reported by al-Nadim, says only The Large Book of Mercy is genuine and that the rest are pseudographical. Their assertions are rejected by al-Nadim, joining al-Nadim in asserting a real Jabir, Ibn-Wahshiyya Rejecting a real Jabir, Abu Sulayman al-Mantiqi claims the real author is one al-Hasan ibn al-Nakad al-Mawili. The 14th century critic of Arabic literature, Jamal al-Din ibn Nubata al-Misri declares all the attributed to Jabir doubtful. Jabir was a philosopher who lived mostly in the 8th century, he was born in Tus, Khorasan, in Persia. Jabir in the sources has been entitled differently as al-Azdi al-Barigi or al-Kufi or al-Tusi or al-Sufi. There is a difference of opinion as to whether he was a Persian from Khorasan who later went to Kufa or whether he was, as some have suggested, of Syrian origin and later lived in Persia and Iraq. His ethnic background is not clear, but most sources reference him as a Persian, in some sources, he is reported to have been the son of Hayyan al-Azdi, a pharmacist of the Arabian Azd tribe who emigrated from Yemen to Kufa during the Umayyad Caliphate. While Henry Corbin believes Geber seems to have been a client of the Azd tribe, Hayyan had supported the Abbasid revolt against the Umayyads, and was sent by them to the province of Khorasan to gather support for their cause. He was eventually caught by the Umayyads and executed and his family fled to Yemen, where Jabir grew up and studied the Quran, mathematics and other subjects. Jabirs fathers profession may have contributed greatly to his interest in alchemy, after the Abbasids took power, Jabir went back to Kufa. He began his practicing medicine, under the patronage of a Vizir of Caliph Harun al-Rashid. His connections to the Barmakid cost him dearly in the end, when that family fell from grace in 803, Jabir was placed under house arrest in Kufa, where he remained until his death. It has been asserted that Jabir was a student of the sixth Imam Jafar al-Sadiq and Harbi al-Himyari, in total, nearly 3,000 treatises and articles are credited to Jabir ibn Hayyan. The 112 Books dedicated to the Barmakids, viziers of Caliph Harun al-Rashid and this group includes the Arabic version of the Emerald Tablet, an ancient work that proved a recurring foundation of and source for alchemical operations. In the Middle Ages it was translated into Latin and widely diffused among European alchemists, the Seventy Books, most of which were translated into Latin during the Middle Ages