|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Downtown Cairo.|
Pages in category "Downtown Cairo"
The following 20 pages are in this category, out of 20 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Downtown Cairo.|
The following 20 pages are in this category, out of 20 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Downtown Cairo – Downtown Cairo, has been the urban center of Cairo, Egypt since the late 19th century, when the district was designed and built. The area, designed by prestigious French architects was commissioned by Khedive Ismail and it was he who stressed the importance of urban planning for the first time in Cairo, to include broad, linear gridded streets, geometric harmony and modern European architectural style. It was once home to the elite of late 19th. It is a relic of a bygone era — Egypts Belle epoque —, Groppi is one of the first and most famous ice cream stores in Cairo, located in Talaat Harb Square. It was founded in 1909 by the Swiss Groppi family, survived the nationalization movement in the 1950s and 1960s, one of the most renowned downtown landmarks, on the 29th of Talaat Harb Street, is the Café Riche which opened in 1908. At various times a place for intellectuals and revolutionaries, the cafe witnessed many historically significant events over the 20th century. Patrons included the political novelist Naguib Mahfouz and the then-future president Gamal Abdel Nasser, heritage groups have long called for a national campaign to preserve and restore the areas architectural legacy and beauty. Only since the 1992 earthquake, which caused damage across the city and country, did national campaigns to preserve heritage form. Tahrir Square Qasr El Eyni Street Talaat Harb Street
2. 6th October Bridge – The 6th October Bridge is an elevated highway in central Cairo, Egypt. Its name commemorates the date of The Crossing, which commenced the day of the Yom Kippur War in 1973. The bridge and causeway were completed in 1996, with construction taking nearly 30 years and it began in 1969 with the modest,130 metres -long Phase 1, which only spanned the smaller west branch of the Nile from Gezira to Agouza. Phase 9 completed the 20.5 kilometres -long final length in 1996, the 6th October Bridge and Flyover runs from the Agricultural Museum in Dokki east to the Autostrade in Nasr City. The building of the 6th October Bridge and causeway has been declared a national infrastructure project, the 6 October Bridge has been called the spinal cord of Cairo, with approximately half a million Cairene people using it on a daily basis. Due to its role as Cairos central east—west automobile and truck route, al-Ahram Weekly | The final bridge - history Structurae, 6th of October Bridge ACE Consulting Engineers Moharram. Bakhoum - bridge designers
3. Abdeen Palace – Abdeen Palace is a historic Cairo palace, and one of the official residences and the principal workplace of the President of Egypt, located above Qasr el-Nil Street in eastern Downtown Cairo, Egypt. Built by Khedive Ismail, to become the government headquarters instead of the Citadel of Cairo. Construction started in 1863 and continued for 10 years and the palace was inaugurated in 1874. Erected on an area of 24 feddans, the palace was designed by the French architect Rousseau along with a number of Egyptian, Italian, French. However, the garden was added in 1921 by Sultan Fuad I on an area of 20 feddans. The cost of building the palace reached 700,000 Egyptian pounds in addition to 2 million pounds for its furnishing, between four palaces, King Fuad spent more than 18 million French francs with just one Parisian furniture manufacturer Linke & Cie. More money was spent on the palace’s alteration, preservation. The palace today is a museum, located in the Old Cairo district of Abdeen, the upper floors are reserved for visiting foreign dignitaries. The lower floors contain the Silver Museum, the Arms Museum, the Royal Family Museum, a new museum, the Historical Documents Museum, was opened in January 2005. Abdeen Palace Incident of 1942 Egypts Royal Archives, 1922-52 historical Abdeen Palace, Archives housed in the palace Kingdom of Araucania and Patagonia - Mapuche Portal
4. Cairo fire – The direct trigger of the riots was the killing by British occupation troops of 50 Egyptian auxiliary policemen in the city of Ismaïlia in a one-sided battle a day earlier. The fire is thought by some to have signalled the end of the Kingdom of Egypt, the perpetrators of the Cairo Fire remain unknown to this day, and the truth about this important event in modern Egyptian history has yet to be established. In 1952, the British occupation of Egypt was entering its 70th year, by doing so, the British aimed to get rid of the only manifestation of Egyptian governmental authority in the canal zone. They also wanted to end the aid the police force was providing to anti-British fedayeen groups, the Ismailia Governorate refused the British request, a refusal that was reiterated by interior minister Fouad Serageddin. As a result,7,000 British soldiers equipped with guns, tanks and armour surrounded the governorate building and its barracks. Armed only with rifles, the Egyptians refused to surrender their weapons, the British commander thus ordered his troops to bombard the buildings. Vastly outnumbered, the Egyptians continued to fight until they ran out of ammunition, the confrontation, which lasted two hours, left 50 Egyptians dead and 80 others injured. The following day, news of the attack in Ismaïlia reached Cairo, the unrest began at Almaza Airport, when workers there refused to provide services to four British airplanes. It was followed by the rebellion of policemen in the Abbaseya barracks, protesters then headed towards the university building, where they were joined by students. Together they marched towards the ministers office to demand that Egypt break its diplomatic relations with the United Kingdom. Abdul Fattah Hassan, the Minister of Social Affairs, told them that the Wafdist government wished to do so, as a result, protesters went to Abdeen Palace where they were joined by students from Al-Azhar. The crowd expressed its discontent towards the king, his partisans, the first act of arson took place in Opera Square, with the burning of Casino Opera. The fire spread to Shepheards Hotel, the Automobile Club, Barclays Bank, as well as shops, corporate offices, movie theaters, hotels. Nightclubs and other establishments frequented by King Farouk I were equally targeted, the fires also reached the neighbourhoods of Faggala, Daher, Citadel, as well as Tahrir Square and Cairo Train Station Square. Due to the chaos, theft and looting occurred, until the Egyptian Army arrived shortly before sunset. The Army was alerted belatedly, after most of the damage had already occurred, most of the destruction, the extent of which was unforeseen by everyone, occurred between 12,30 pm and 11 pm. A total of £3.4 million damage was done to British, nearly 300 shops were destroyed, including some of Egypts most famous department stores, such as Cicurel, Omar Effendi and the Salon Vert. The damage tally also included 30 corporate offices,13 hotels,40 movie theaters, eight auto shows,10 arm shops,73 coffeehouses, as for the human casualties,26 people died and 552 suffered injuries such as burns and bone fractures
5. Cairo Metro – The Cairo Metro is the rapid transit system in Greater Cairo, Egypt. It was the first of only two full-fledged metro systems in Africa and only four in the Arab world and it was opened in 1987 as Line 1 from Helwan to Ramsis square with a length of 29 kilometres. As of 2014, the Cairo Metro has 61 stations, of which 3 are transfer stations, the system consists of three operational lines numbered from 1 to 3. As of 2013, the metro carried nearly 4 million passengers per day, the Cairo Metro is run by the National Authority for Tunnels. Since 1989, the two cars of each train are reserved for women. There are blue signs at every station that signify the position of these cars and these cars are used as an option for women who do not wish to ride with men in the same car, however, women can still ride other cars freely. This policy was introduced for protection of women from harassment by men. Cairo Metro operates from 05,00 till 01,00, the ticket price was EGP1.00 for each journey, regardless of distance. Line 1 is the oldest line of the Cairo Metro, with its first 29-kilometre segment having opened in 1987, the line is 44. 3-kilometre long, and serves 35 stations. This line carries trains with 3 units, which have a headway of 3,30 to 4 minutes, the line can carry 60,000 passengers per hour in each direction. Line 1 had a driving simulator supplied by Transurb Technirail that won the international tender issued by Cairo Metro in December 2011. Line 2 is the line of the Cairo Metro. The line is 21. 6-kilometre long, of which 13 kilometres is in tunnels and it serves 20 stations, of which 12 are underground. It is mostly in bored tunnel, with two exceptions, a section at the northern end approaching Shubra El Kheima which is elevated. Line 2 uses the rail electrification system instead of the overhead line used in the first line. The communication extension for line 2 was provided by Alcatel in 2005, the minimum headway for the line is 2 minutes 40 seconds to 3 minutes. Line 2 has a simulator installed in Shubra since 2002 which was delivered by French company CORYS, the first tunnel to be built under the Nile River carries line 2 across the river. Line 3 presently operates from Attaba to Ahram, with construction under way for the line to the northwest of Greater Cairo
6. Egyptian Museum – The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum or Museum of Cairo, in Cairo, Egypt, is home to an extensive collection of ancient Egyptian antiquities. It has 120,000 items, with an amount on display. The edifice is one of the largest museums in the region, as of February 2017, the museum is open to the public. The Egyptian Museum of Antiquities contains many important pieces of ancient Egyptian history and it houses the world’s largest collection of Pharaonic antiquities. The Egyptian government established the museum, built in 1835 near the Ezbekeyah Garden, in 1855 Archduke Maximilian of Austria was given all of the artifacts by the Egyptian government, these are now in the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. A new museum was established at Boulaq in 1858 in a former warehouse, the building lay on the bank of the Nile River, and in 1878 it suffered significant damage in a flood of the Nile River. In 1891, the collections were moved to a royal palace. They remained there until 1902 when they were moved, for the last time, during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, the museum was broken into, and two mummies were destroyed. Several artifacts were shown to have been damaged. Since then 25 objects have been found and those that were restored were put on display in September 2013 in an exhibition entitled Damaged and Restored. There are two floors in the museum, the ground floor and the first floor. On the ground there is an extensive collection of papyrus. The numerous pieces of papyrus are generally small fragments, due to their decay over the past two millennia, several languages are found on these pieces, including Greek, Latin, Arabic, and ancient Egyptian. The coins found on floor are made of many different metals, including gold, silver. The coins are not only Egyptian, but also Greek, Roman and this has helped historians research the history of Ancient Egyptian trade. Also on the floor are artifacts from the New Kingdom. These artifacts are generally larger than items created in earlier centuries, two special rooms contain a number of mummies of kings and other royal family members of the New Kingdom. In the garden adjacent to the building of the museum a memorial to famous egyptologists of the world is located, the Murder of Tutankhamen, A True Story
7. Headquarters of the Arab League – The Headquarters of the Arab League is located in Tahrir Square and near the downtown business district of Cairo, Egypt. The headquarters building has a magnificent view of the Nile River, the headquarters witnessed the foundation of the Arab League, and the first summit held at these headquarters occurred in 1964 with Gamal Abdel Nasser. The grounds include a hall with a round table for summits. It was also used for Arab Minister summits during the Israeli-Lebanese crisis of 2006
8. Khairy Pasha Palace – Khairy Pasha Palace is a neo-Mameluk building and former palace of Khairy Pasha, located on 113 Qasr El Eyni Street, in Tahrir Square, Cairo. It served as the American University in Cairos Tahrir Square campus since 1920 until 2008 when the new campus was inaugurated in New Cairo, the building in the photograph on the right was originally the Girls School of the Greek Community of Cairo. In 1964 it was sold to the AUC and served as the Greek Campus, the Khairy Pasha Palace was built in the 1860s by Khairy Pasha, Minister of Education in the Khedivate of Egypt. It was designed the style, and the completed tall. The building briefly became the headquarters of the Egyptian University in the early 1900s, the Khairy building was acquired by the American Mission in Egypt in 1919, and opened as the original 1920 American University at Cairo campus structure in downtown Cairo. It was dedicated to being a center for the cultural enrichment, in 2008 the AUC relocated its undergraduate and graduate programs to the new AUC New Cairo Campus in New Cairo, a new 2001 satellite city around 20 kilometres east of the AUC Downtown campus. The universitys continuing education programs remained at the 7.8 acres AUC Downtown with the building still the converted Khairy Pasha palace. Qasr El Eyni Street Talaat Harb Street American University in Cairo, Campus History —
9. Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Egypt) – The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Arab Republic of Egypt is the Egyptian government ministry which oversees the foreign relations of Egypt. On 17 July 2014 Sameh Shoukry was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs, in the 19th century, the Ministry was one of the divans established by Muhammad Ali Pasha, known as the founder of modern Egypt. The aim of the Ministry was to organize Egypts internal, and external affairs, and was concerned with trade, later, it became the Divan of Foreign Affairs, and was concerned with trade, and citizens affairs. It continued to function after the Muhammad Ali’s reign, and it was one of the divans of the state. It was concerned with abolishing slavery, and following up international treaties, during the era of Said Pasha, and Ismail Pasha, there were some modifications in the Ministry, due to the increasing presence of the Europeans in Egypt. Due to the change of rule in Egypt in 1878, the absolute jurisdictions given to rulers were diminished, during this period, the foreign portfolio was headed by prominent figures such as Boutros Ghali, who spent the longest period in office from 1894–1910. The foreign portfolio was put to an end after the declaration of the British Protectorate over Egypt in 1914, after Egyptian independence was officially recognised by the United Kingdom on 22 February 1922, the Ministry of Foreign affairs was re-established on 15 March 1922. In 1925, the first special decree regarding the system was issued. Although the reestablishment of the Ministry was approved, the continuing British occupation of the imposed restrictions on the level of the Egyptian diplomatic representation abroad. After the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936, diplomatic representation of Egypt was raised to be at the level as the diplomatic representation in London. This enabled Egyptian diplomacy to have a role in the arena once more. The Egyptian diplomatic representation spread to parts of the world. After the end of the war, the Egyptian Ministers made changes to cope with the effect of the war, the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 led to transformation of the organisational structure of the Ministry. In 1966, the Ministry set up the Institute for Diplomatic Studies, hosni Mubarak became the President of Egypt on 14 October 1981, after which the Ministry went through a comprehensive reform process. For the first time in 30 years, the law related to the Diplomatic, in the 1990s, a restructuring process for the Egyptian diplomatic practice took place. The Ministry is responsible for conducting the Egypts foreign relations within the framework of the Egyptian Cabinet and it plays an essential role in collecting and evaluating political, economic, cultural, and scientific information that may affect foreign relations. It is also responsible for planning and implementing Egyptian foreign policy, after the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, the decision-making patterns in the Ministry underwent alteration. Such alteration depended mainly on the nature of the relationship between the Presidential institution and the Ministry, and on the sort of issues with which the decision-maker is dealing
10. Qasr El Eyni Street – Qasr El Eyni Street is one of the oldest streets in Downtown Cairo, Egypt. Qasr El Eyni owes its name to the landmark of the same name, El Einy Pashas palace. The street is known as Tahrir Qasr El Einy Street because of its outlet into Tahrir Square. Qasr El Einy Street is located in Downtown Cairo, running parallel to the Cairo Metro Line 1, spanning El Sayeda Zeinab, Saad Zaghloul, the street runs NNE from the National Cancer Institute to Tahrir Square, a distance of 2.4 kilometres. Tahrir Square was built in the late 1860s, around the Khairy Pasha Palace, Qasr El Einy used to be a two-way street in the 1990s. Tahrir Square The Metros Sadat Station serves Tahrir Square, providing links to Giza, Helwan, Maadi, and other districts and suburbs of Greater Cairo. Tahrir Square has been the site for major protests and demonstrations, including in March 2003 when people came out to protest the War in Iraq. Tahrir Square was originally called Ismailia Square, named after 19th-century ruler Khedive Ismail, parliament Building The parliament building that houses Egypts legislative body, the House of Representatives, is located on the Qasr El Einy Street. In 2008, the building was damaged by a fire. The Egyptian Geographic Society The Egyptian Geographic Society was established by a decree of Khedive Ismail Pasha on 19 May 1875 and its first president was the German botanist, traveller and ethnologist Georg August Schweinfurth. Founded as the Khedivial Society of Geography, its name was modified several times in order to reflect Egypts changing political status and it acquired its current name following the Egyptian Revolution of 1952. Egyptian Ethnological Museum This museum houses exhibits covering the activities and traditions in Cairo including village crafts, costumes, equipment, the museum is located at the Geographical Society Building on Qasr El-Einy Street. Cairo University Hospital—Qasr El Einy Hospital The Qasr El Einy Medical School is part of the Cairo University School of Medicine, Qasr El Eyni Medical School is one of the largest, oldest, and most prestigious medical schools in Africa and the Middle East. Along with the Cairo University Hospitals, it is considered the largest medical institution in the Middle East, established in 1827, it was named after El Einy Pasha, whose palace was originally the schools main building. It accepts about 1600 students annually out of the thousands of applicants who apply, the students are chosen by a computer program based on the score they have achieved in high school. It provides a six-year combined premedical-medical programme leading to a MBBCh which is followed by a one-year internship at the university hospital. Qasr El Einy is considered a symbol of the profession in Egypt. Hence, the date of Qasr El Einy, March 11,1827, was chosen as the day of the annual festival for the Egyptian medical profession
11. Qasr El Nil Bridge – The Qasr El Nil Bridge, also commonly spelled Kasr El Nil Bridge, is a historic structure dating to 1931 and replaced the first bridge to span the Nile River in central Cairo, Egypt. It connects Tahrir Square in downtown Cairo to the modern Cairo Opera complex toward the end of Gezira Island. At the bridges east and west approaches are four large stone lion statues, they are late 19th-century works by Henri Alfred Jacquemart, French sculptor. The newer and wider 6th October Bridge parallels its route 0.8 kilometres just to the north, the previous bridge on the site, El Gezira Bridge, was built between 1869 and 1871 by Linant de Bellefonds with the participation of Frances Five-Lilles Company. The foundation stone for the present Qasr El Nil Bridge was laid by King Fuad I on February 4,1931, after over two years of construction, undertaken by Dorman Long & Co. Ltd, King Fuad inaugurated the opening on June 6,1933. The bridge was originally named Khedive Ismail Bridge after King Fuads father, after the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, the name of the bridge, as well as other Egyptian buildings and bridges, were changed. This bridge was renamed Qasr El Nil in Arabic, which translates to Palace of the Nile, the Qasr El Nil Bridge, with sidewalks, is popular for strolling in the evenings. The bridge offers views of the river, as well as buildings, hotels. The bridge is popular as location for young Egyptian friends and couples to have an inexpensive outdoor date
12. Qasr El Nil Street – Qasr El Nil Street is a street in Downtown Cairo, Egypt. Qasr El Nil Street is one of the biggest streets in the downtown Cairo area with businesses, restaurants. The vintage urban planning and architecture here are reminiscent of the period of late 19th and early 20th century European Beaux-Arts. Ismail Pasha, the ruler of Egypt, decided to reclaim the East Bank of the Nile opposite Gezira Island. The lower area was part of the Niles natural pond, marsh, wetland, the existing 1880s Khairy Pasha palace was higher in the eastern Tahrir Square area, and later was absorbed into the American University in Cairo downtown campus. This urban project’s starting point was building the Egyptian Army Barracks and this area was eventually part of the urban district called Ismailiya and 617 acres were allocated for this new neighborhood in which Qasr el Nil Street was centered. After adequate civic infrastructure was completed in 1874, Ismail Pasha decided that buildings had to cost a minimum 2000 L. E. amount of money to build and furnish. When the British arrived to oversee Egypt in 1882, their first decision was to occupy the Egyptian Army Barracks on the Nile, khedive Tawfiq disbanded the Egyptian Army five days later to humiliate the Egyptian officers who demonstrated against their own army. After many years of British occupation, King Farouk reclaimed the Barracks structures in 1948, the site of the Egyptian Army Barracks was first then converted into a municipality building of Cairo, changing central Qasr El Nil Street from a military to civilian character thereafter. The adjacent Midan Ismailiyya square, later renamed as Tahrir Square—Liberation Square, was expanded some of the British barracks demolition liberated space for Cairenes. Construction started in 1863 and continued for 10 years and the palace was inaugurated in 1874. The name means “Palace of the Nile” and refers to the name of the built by Said Pasha in 1858. The extensive gardens were completed in 1921 by Sultan Fuad I, currently the upper floors are reserved for visiting foreign dignitaries. The palace structure is a national centre, with the Silver Museum, the Arms Museum, the Royal Family Museum, the Presidential Gifts Museum. Sednaoui Department Store The Sednaoui Department Store is a department store built in the 1920s by an Italian architect. This building is an example on the street of the unique blend of an elaborate Beaux-Arts style with Art Deco detailed decoration on the buildings facade. The interior has a layout and style, and employed elevators in a store for the first time in Egypt. They provided the public access to many upper shopping floors
13. Sha'ar Hashamayim Synagogue (Cairo) – The Shaar Hashamayim Synagogue is located in Cairo, Egypt. The synagogue was also known as Temple Ismailia and the Adly Street Synagogue and its long-time leader was Chief Rabbi Chaim Nahum. In 2008, the synagogue marked its 100th anniversary, the synagogue was built in a style evoking ancient Egyptian temples, and was once the largest building on the boulevard. When the synagogue opened in 1899, there was a vibrant Jewish community in Cairo, the last time the synagogue was full was in the 1960s. Today the community numbers 30-40 members, most of them older women, although it is considered a Sephardic synagogue, many Ashkenazi Jews were members of the congregation and contributed to its construction and upkeep. In February 2010, a suitcase was hurled at the synagogue from a nearby hotel. The suitcase caught fire, but no one was hurt and no damage was reported, history of the Jews in Egypt Rivka Ulmer, “The Sha‘ar Ha-Shamayim Synagogue in Cairo, Egypt, ” in Maven in Blue Jeans, A Festschrift in Honor of Zev Garber, 431-40
14. Shepheard's Hotel – Shepheards Hotel was the leading hotel in Cairo and one of the most celebrated hotels in the world from the middle of the 19th century until it was burned down in 1952 in the Cairo Fire. Five years after the hotel was destroyed, a new one was built nearby and was named the Shepheard Hotel. The hotel was established in 1841 by Samuel Shepheard under the name Hotel des Anglais. Shepheard, an Englishman who was described as an undistinguished apprentice pastry chef, came from Preston Capes. He co-owned the hotel with Mr. Hill, Mohammed Ali Pashas head coachman, on one occasion, when soldiers staying at the hotel were suddenly moved to Crimea, leaving unpaid bills, Shepheard travelled personally to Sevastopol in order to collect payment. In 1845, Hill relinquished his interest in the hotel, Shepheard sold the hotel in 1861 for £10,000 and retired to Eathorpe Hall, Eathorpe, Warwickshire, England. Shepheards Hotel was famed for its grandeur, for its guests and it was renowned for its opulence, with stained glass, Persian carpets, gardens, terraces, and great granite pillars resembling those of the Ancient Egyptian temples. Its American Bar was frequented not only by Americans but also by French, there were nightly dances at which men appeared in military uniform and women in evening gowns. Tourist shops faced the hotel from across the street, and there was a storeroom where officers could check their excess luggage, reviews of the hotels cuisine varied over time. On 26 January 1952 the hotel was destroyed in The Cairo Fire anti-British riots. The current Shepheard Hotel was erected in 1957 by Egyptian Hotels Ltd. in Garden City, Cairo, the new hotel, and the land on which it sits, is owned by E. G. O. T. H. The hotel was managed by Helnan International Hotels and known as the Helnan Shepheard Hotel until September 29,2009, in 2014 they closed it for renovations. The hotel has had notable guests, both real and fictional. Among them were Aga Khan, the Maharajah of Jodhpur and Winston Churchill and it was portrayed in the 1934 British film The Camels are Coming. The hotel is the setting for a number of scenes in the 1996 film The English Patient but actual filming of the scenes happened at The Grand Hotel des Bains in Venice Lido and it also features regularly in Elizabeth Peters Amelia Peabody novels
15. Tahrir Square – Tahrir Square, also known as Martyr Square, is a major public town square in Downtown Cairo, Egypt. The square has been the location and focus for political demonstrations in Cairo, most notably those led to the 2011 Egyptian revolution. The square was originally called Ismailia Square, after the 19th-century ruler Khedive Ismail, the square was a focal point for the Egyptian Revolution of 2011 At the centre of Tahrir Square is a large and busy traffic circle. On the north-east side is a plaza with a statue of nationalist hero Omar Makram, celebrated for his resistance against Napoleon Is invasion of Egypt, the National Democratic Party-NDP headquarters building stood here until it was set on fire during the revolution and demolished in 2015. The Cairo Metro serves Tahrir Square with the Sadat Station, which is the junction of the systems two lines, linking to Giza, Maadi, Helwan, and other districts and suburbs of Greater Cairo. Its underground access viaducts provide the safest routes for crossing the broad roads of the heavily trafficked square. Tahrir Square has been the site for numerous major protests and demonstrations over the years, including the 1977 Egyptian Bread Riots. Tahrir Square was the point of the 2011 Egyptian Revolution against former president Hosni Mubarak. Over 50,000 protesters first occupied the square on 25 January, in the following days, Tahrir Square continued to be the primary destination for protests in Cairo. On 29 January, Egyptian fighter aircraft flew low over the people gathered in the square, on 1 February, Al Jazeera reported that more than one million protesters peacefully gathered in the square and adjacent streets. The square became established as a point and a symbol for the ongoing Egyptian democracy demonstrations. Within a week, due to media coverage, the image. The announcement that Mubarak had passed all authority to the Council of the Armed Forces was made by longtime intelligence chief, Tahrir Square, with democracy anniversary celebrations and visits from foreign dignitaries, continued to be a symbol of the 2011 Egyptian Revolution. One of the ships in the planned Freedom Flotilla II, intended to break the Israeli blockade of Gaza, was named Tahrir after the square, among its passengers was Haaretz reporter Amira Hass. Ultimately, the sailing did not take place, Tahrir Square has also been the site of numerous mass sexual assaults. These crimes have increased since Mubaraks removal in 2011, on 29 June 2013, millions of Egyptians converged on Tahrir Square to demonstrate against the Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi, demanding his resignation from office. The demonstrators used the slogan the people want the ouster of the regime, by the 30th, their number had increased and demonstrations were reported to be in progress in 18 locations across Cairo. The demonstration was noted as the largest revolution in modern-day history, bring together more than 33 million people to the Egyptian streets
16. Talaat Harb Street – Talaat Harb Street is a historic street in downtown Cairo, Egypt, connecting Tahrir Square—Liberation Square and Talaat Harb Square. It is the historic architecture lining Talaat Harb Street that reminds visitors of its stylistic, until its name change in 1954, this avenue was named Soliman Pasha Street and was a center for activity and social interaction among Cairos upper and European classes. Despite Nassers attempt to mask colonial Egypts history, done in the 1950s and 1960s, various types of architecture representing different eras of Egyptian history are displayed on the floors above the new roughly redesigned yet inviting store facades on street level. Most of these appear to be left over from the days of Khedive Ismail. Yet the once grand appearance of buildings has been lost to the clinging dust, battered shutters. Groppi J. Groppi, the world famous chocolatier, still holds its place in the midan on Talaat Harb Street. In the late 1920s Groppi opened a shop in Soliman Pasha square, miraculously, Groppi narrowly escaped the destruction of Black Saturday and the burning of Cairo in January 1952, although much of this downtown area did not. During the following years Groppi lost its flavor of successful innovation as expert business practices gave way to the socialism of Nassers Egypt. This club claims to be the center of the community in Cairo as it holds meetings and events and publishes a monthly political magazine. This publication promotes the mission, to showcase Egypt’s civilized structure and economic strength. Café Riche became a venue for many rising performers, among them the celebrated legend Umm Kulthum. It was a frequented locale for some of Cairos more privileged men, in December 1919 it became the site for an assassination attempt on Egypts last Coptic Prime Minister, Youssef Wahba Pasha. The assassin had waited for his target inside Café Riche, and it is in a nearby location. This mile-long stretch has not only erected history in walls of concrete, at the center of the city, Talaat Harb has been host to countless demonstrations in the nation’s turbulent political past. The demonstration ended in the arrest of 40 persons by plain clothes security officers and this demonstration was led by the grassroots opposition group Kefaya. Today the street resembles a healthy vein, pumping full of life toward the heart of the city, within this dynamic market exist a few establishments which seem to have secured a permanent establishment and provide the street with a degree of stability. Though the active splendor that once characterized the street has passed and it has a blend of Western popular culture and Arab tradition, being enthusiastically consumed by people in an evolving Islamic society. CULTNAT Center, Egypt, Talaat Harb Street – architecture and buildings resource
17. The Mogamma – The Mogamma is a government building in Cairo, Egypt. The Mogamma was the result of a series of plans for the Qasr el Nil area. In 1945 when King Farouk ordered the demolition of the barracks upon the departure of British troops from the area, the idea for a centralised, all-in-one administrative building emerged from the 1945 plans. Construction began in 1946, and ended in 1949, the buildings style reflects typical 1940s modernism, and government buildings in the same style can be found in Buffalo, New York, and Paris. Contrary to popular belief, there is no Soviet association or inspiration, indeed, Nasser did not become the leader of Egypt until November 1954, several years after the building was completed. The Mogamma is located in downtown Cairo to the south of Tahrir Square, which was, at the time, the Mogamma is an administrative governmental building, where all paper work is done by government agencies. For example, one can go there to process documents, get a drivers license, the governmental agencies that are located in the building include the Tax Evasion Investigations Offices, the Fire Fighting Organization, and the Passport Offices. The 14-story building is the workplace of 18, 000–30,000 Egyptian public servants, the structure and architecture of the Mogamma building was influenced by 1940s modernist architecture designed by the Egyptian architect, Mostafa Momen. The external appearance was not of importance but rather, the structure focuses on central organization and maximization of space. The appearance of the building is plain yet intimidating in its colossal size, the film uses the Mogamma and unbearable bureaucracy as a metaphor for all that is wrong in Egyptian society. In 2005, the government indicated it had plans for the government administrative buildings and departments to be moved from their present locations in, however, the fate of the Mogamma building remains uncertain for many reasons. First, the inconvenience this move will pose for hundreds if not thousands of people who need to go to the Mogamma for government business is immense. Second, the move would require added benefits for government employees to reimburse them for the longer travel, lastly, the move of the Mogamma building raises questions about other problems, more specifically public transportation, which is in need of improvement. The move remains officially impending despite the political crisis, but when it is to occur. During the 2011 Egyptian revolution, the Mogamma was closed on account of the sit-in in Tahrir Square, a second sit-in in Tahrir Square, beginning on 8 July 2011, also included a blockade of the Mogamma