Category:Duchesses of Jülich
Pages in category "Duchesses of Jülich"
The following 13 pages are in this category, out of 13 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 13 pages are in this category, out of 13 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Jeanne d'Albret – Jeanne dAlbret, also known as Jeanne III, was the queen regnant of Navarre from 1555 to 1572. She married Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme, and was the mother of Henry of Bourbon, who became King Henry III of Navarre and IV of France and she became the Duchess of Vendôme by marriage. Jeanne was the spiritual and political leader of the French Huguenot movement. After her public conversion to Calvinism in 1560, she joined the Huguenot forces, during the first and second war she remained relatively neutral, but in the third war she fled to La Rochelle, becoming the de facto leader. After negotiating a treaty with Catherine de Medici and arranging the marriage of her son, Henry, to Catherines daughter, Marguerite. Jeanne was the last active ruler of Navarre, in 1620, Jeannes grandson Louis XIII annexed Navarre to the French crown. Her mother, the daughter of Louise of Savoy and Charles and she received an excellent education under the tutelage of humanist Nicolas Bourbon. Described as a frivolous and high-spirited princess, she also, at an early age, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, offered to have her married to his son and heir, Philip, to settle the status of the Kingdom of Navarre. Despite having been whipped into obedience, she, nevertheless, continued to protest and had to be carried bodily to the altar by the Constable of France, before her wedding, Jeanne signed two documents which she had officers of her household sign. She remained at the royal court, after the death of Francis in 1547 and the accession of Henry II to the French throne, Jeanne married Antoine de Bourbon, first prince of the blood, at Moulins in the Bourbonnais on 20 October 1548. The marriage was intended to consolidate territorial possessions in the north and south of France, Jeannes marriage to Antoine was described by author Mark Strage as having been a romantic match. A contemporary of Jeanne said of her that she had no pleasure or occupation except in talking about or writing to and she does it in company and in private. The waters cannot quench the flame of her love, in 1554, he fathered an illegitimate son, Charles, by Louise de La Béraudière de lIsle Rouhet, a court beauty known as La belle Rouet. Antoines frequent absences left Jeanne in Béarn to rule alone, and in charge of a household which she managed with a firm. The couple had five children, of only two, Henry, king of France and king of Navarre, and Catherine, duchess of Lorraine. On 25 May 1555, Henry II of Navarre died, at which time Jeanne, on 18 August 1555 at Pau, Jeanne and Antoine were crowned in a joint ceremony according to the rites of the Roman Catholic Church. The previous month, a coin commemorating the new reign had been minted. It was inscribed in Latin with the words, Antonius et Johanna Dei gratia reges Navarrae Domini Bearni
2. Landgravine Elisabeth Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt – Landgravine Elisabeth Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt was a princess of Hesse-Darmstadt and wife of the Prince-elector of the Palatinate. Born at the New Palace in Gießen, Elisabeth Amalie was the daughter of George II, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt and her siblings included Louis of Hesse-Darmstadt, future Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt and Anna Sophia, Abbess of Quedlinburg. Elisabeth Amalie was brought up strictly by her mother who was a devout Lutheran, on 3 September 1653 she was married at Langenschwalbach to Count palatine Philip William of Neuburg, who later became Prince-elector of the Palatinate. Her husband was some twenty years older than she and was the heir to the Electoral Palatinate which was one of the most important states within the Holy Roman Empire. She converted to Catholicism on 1 November 1653 in the presence of the elector and archbishop of Cologne, the writer William Nakatenus dedicated his work The Heavenly Palm little garden to her. From Madness to impotence Joan of Charles II the Bewitched, kulturgeschichte der Stadt Schwalbach, p.39, at Google Books Annalen des Historischen Vereins für den Niederrhein, insbesondere die alte Erzdiözese Köln, p.237, at Google Books
3. Countess Palatine Elisabeth Auguste of Sulzbach – Elisabeth Augustes parents were Joseph Charles of Sulzbach and Elisabeth Auguste of Neuburg, the latter the daughter of Elector Charles III Philip. On 17 January 1742, she married her cousin Charles Theodore of Sulzbach, the marriage was arranged to avoid a potential inheritance dispute within the different family branches. While Charles Theodore was described as learned and interested in the enlightenment, Elisabeth Augusta was described as vivacious, pleasure loving, uneducated and shallow. During the first half of their marriage, she is said to have dominated her spouse, in 1760, however, it was reported that Charles Theodor was beginning to free himself from her dominance. Elisabeth Auguste bore only one child, a son on June 28,1762, twenty years after their marriage, the couple thereafter largely lived apart, each one taking lovers of their own. In 1764, Charles Theodor had a mistress, the dancer Françoise Despres-Verneuil, who was succeeded by Josefa Seiffert in 1766. She did not like the Bavarian court, which she regarded to be too spartan for her taste and she was quite popular in the Palatinate, especially since Charles Theodor moved to Bavaria in 1777. At the end of 1793, in the face of advancing French troops, Elisabeth Auguste fled to Weinheim and her husband subsequently married Maria Leopoldine of Austria-Este. Electorate of Bavaria, First Sovereign of the Order of Saint Elizabeth Count Palatine Franz Ludwig Joseph of Sulzbach died in infancy
4. Jakobea of Baden – Princess Jakobea of Baden was daughter of the Margrave Philibert of Baden-Baden and Mechthild of Bavaria. Jakobea of Baden-Baden became an orphan at an age and was raised at the court of her maternal uncle Duke Albert V of Bavaria. William the Rich could never overcome the death of his eldest son Charles Frederick. He despised his son and successor, John William, and gave him little chance to learn to govern. When William died in 1592, John William inherited the duchies and Jakobea tried to rule on behalf of her husband and she had been born a Protestant, but was raised as a Roman Catholic and did not choose for either side. She never became pregnant, possibly because her husband was impotent and she had a relationship with the much younger Dietrich von Hall zu Ophoven, who was Amtmann at Monheim am Rhein and was eventually arrested and locked up in the tower of Düsseldorf Castle. She tried to plead her case in the Roman Rota and at the court in Prague. The Catholic side, represented primarily by her sister-in-law Sibylle of Jülich-Cleves-Berg and she was found dead in her room on the morning of 3 September 1597, after she had received guests and toasted on her husbands health the night before. Eyewitness accounts suggest that she was strangled or suffocated, the motive for the move appears to have been to make room for a more fertile wife, who could save the endangered dynasty. She was buried on 10 September 1597 in a ceremony in the Kreuzherren Church in Düsseldorf. On 23 March 1820, her body was transferred to the St. Lambert Church in Düsseldorf, the City Museum in Düsseldorf has a lock of her hair. Comparing Jakobea to Mary Stuart is not entirely far-fetched, even so, Jakobea of Baden was overwhelmed by the confusing conditions at the religiously divided court in Düsseldorf and fled in a love affair for some amusement. When she was held in humiliating captivity and lost all hope of help from her relatives in Baden and Bavaria, she showed her true caliber. The popular misinformation that Jakobea of Baden was beheaded, would make her similar to Mary Stuart. Johann Baptist von Zahlhas, Jakobe von Baden, nov.1876, Essen,1876, Online Marlies Döring, Jacobe von Baden. Das Lebensbild der Herzogin Jakobe von Jülich-Kleve-Berg geborene Markgräfin von Baden,1987, ISBN 3-921531-48-9 Else Rümmler, Jacobe von Badens Schicksal, in, rita Labonté-Philippe on Jakobea of Baden Jakobea of Baden The white woman in the castle tower Rhenish legend, The white woman in Düsseldorf Castle
5. Archduchess Maria Anna Josepha of Austria – Maria Anna Josepha of Austria, was a Duchess consort of Jülich-Berg and Electoral Princess of the Palatinate. Born in Regensburg, she was the youngest surviving daughter of Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, in Wiener Neustadt on 25 October 1678 Maria Anna married John William, Electoral Prince of the Palatinate and brother of Empress Eleonor Magdalene, third wife of Emperor Leopold I. After the marriage, the Electoral Prince and Princess settled in Düsseldorf, as a gift to the newlyweds, Philip William, Elector Palatine ceded to them the Duchies of Jülich and Berg in 1679. During her marriage, the Electoral Princess gave birth two children, but neither survive infancy, A son, Maria Anna died of tuberculosis during a visit to the imperial court in Vienna. She was buried in the Imperial Crypt, harm Klueting, Wolfgang Schmale, The Empire and its territorial states in the 17th and 18th centuries, Volume 10, LIT Edit. Constantin von Wurzbach, Maria Anna Josepha, in, Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich, vol. Media related to Archduchess Maria Anna Josepha of Austria at Wikimedia Commons
6. Archduchess Maria Leopoldine of Austria-Este – Archduchess Maria Leopoldine of Austria-Este, was an Electress of Bavaria as the second spouse of Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria. Her father, the second youngest son of Empress Maria Theresa, Ferdinand Karl and Maria Beatrice were loving parents and concentrated on the education of their children. They tried to raise their sons to positions and marry their daughters favorably. Above all, Ferdinands thoughts were marked by his mothers way of thinking. Firstly, he arranged the marriage of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa Victor Emmanuel, Duke of Aosta, Maria Leopoldine was at this time thirteen and had evolved into a fun-loving and pretty girl with a strong Italian temperament. Even then, she expressed her opinion and protested loudly against unjust treatment. Charles Theodore was the father of illegitimate children from his relationships with Françoise Després-Verneuil and Josefa Seyffert. The Palatinate-Sulzbach branch of the House of Wittelsbach was threatened to die out after the death of the Elector, also a physical defect, a shorter left leg, is mentioned. Furthermore, their skills are praised and the potential ability to bear children was highlighted. The 18-year-old Maria Leopoldine had no idea of this marriage project, while Archduke Ferdinand consented to the marriage between his young daughter and the aged Elector, his wife Maria Beatrice had doubts. Nevertheless, the marriage was agreed and the young Archduchess had to sacrifice her own happiness to the reasons of state, in early January 1795 Count Maximilian von Waldburg-Zeil arrived to Milan to negotiate the marriage contract for his master the Bavarian Elector. In the course of this visit, he gave the bride a portrait of her husband and send a detailed picture of the young Archduchess. In a letter to Charles Theodore, he describes Maria Leopoldine as a girl who is more Italian than German and he praises her well-formed waist and the beautiful proportions of her round face. He also emphasized her piety and her knowledge of Italian, French, in early February 1795 the engagement was officially announced, and on 15 February, the Carnival Sunday, the wedding ceremony took place in the Throne Room of the Innsbruck Hofburg. Only the closest family members were invited to the wedding, when they arrived to Munich, magnificent balls and feasts were organized and performed plays. Maria Leopoldine seemed at first to join her fate and fulfilled the expectations that her family, the marriage, however, was doomed from the beginning, since the bride couldnt develop any feelings for her elderly groom. Soon after the wedding, she withdrew from her husbands attempts to approach her, the young Electress avoided the company of her husband and sought the proximity of young people. Maria Leopoldine even showed openly against the marriage with the aged Elector, the Electress terrorized her husband and the entire court in Munich, and publicly took lovers from all social status
7. Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici – Anna Maria Luisa de Medici was the last lineal descent of the House of Medici. The succession of His Serene Grand Duke, Anna Maria Luisa was the only daughter of Cosimo III de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Marguerite Louise dOrléans, a niece of Louis XIII of France. As Johann Wilhelm had syphilis the union produced no offspring, which, combined with her siblings barrenness, meant that the Medici were on the verge of extinction. In 1713 Cosimo III altered the Tuscan laws of succession to allow the accession of his daughter, however, in 1735, as part of a territorial arrangement, the European powers appointed Francis Stephen of Lorraine as heir, and he duly ascended the Tuscan throne in her stead. When Gian Gastone died in 1737, Francis Stephens envoy offered Anna Maria Luisa the position of regent of Tuscany. Her death, in 1743, brought the grand ducal House of Medici to an end and her remains were interred in the Medicean necropolis, the Basilica of San Lorenzo, Florence, which she helped complete. She was named after her maternal aunt Anne Marie Louise dOrléans and her parents relationship was quarrelsome, Marguerite Louise took every chance to humiliate Cosimo. On one documented occasion, she branded him a groom in the presence of the Papal nuncio. The enmity between them continued until 26 December 1674, after all attempts at conciliation failed, a stressed Cosimo consented to his wifes departure for the Convent of Montmartre, France. The contract created that day revoked her privileges as a fille de France. Cosimo granted her a pension of 80,000 livres in compensation and she abandoned Tuscany in June 1675, Anna Maria Luisa never saw her again. Although Cosimo doted on his daughter, she was raised by her paternal grandmother, in 1669, Anna Maria Luisa was considered as a potential bride to Louis, le Grand Dauphin, the heir-apparent of Louis XIV of France. Cosimo III did not like the idea of a French marriage, instead, Cosimo offered her to his first choice, Peter II of Portugal. Peters ministers, fearing that Princess Anna Maria Luisa would dominate Peter II and fearing she might have inherited Marguerite Louise’s manner, in fact, contemporaries thought her traits to be a combination of those of her father and paternal grandmother, Vittoria della Rovere. Following refusals from Spain, Portugal, France and Savoy, Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, suggested Johann Wilhelm, Elector Palatine. James II of England put forward his brother-in-law, Francesco II dEste, Duke of Modena, the Elector Palatine obtained the style Royal Highness from the Holy Roman Emperor for Cosimo III in February 1691. Consequently, Johann Wilhelm was ultimately chosen and he and Anna Maria Luisa were married by proxy on 29 April 1691. She departed for Düsseldorf, her husband’s capital, on 6 May 1691, accompanied by her younger brother, Johann Wilhelm surprised her at Innsbruck, where they officially married